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Cranial Nerve PowerPoint

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  • 1. Cranial Nerves I through XII
  • 2. Olfactory Nerve I  Sense of smell  Damage causes impaired sense of smell
  • 3. Optic Nerve II  Provides vision  Damage causes blindness in visual field
  • 4. Oculomotor Nerve III  Somatic and Autonomic motor function  Eye movement (Superior, inferior, medial rectus muscles and inferior oblique muscle), opening of eyelid (levator palpebrae superioris), constriction of pupil (circular muscle), focusing (ciliary muscle and accomodation)  Damage causes drooping eyelid, dilated pupil, double vision, difficulty focusing and inability to move eye in certain directions
  • 5. Trochlear Nerve IV  Eye movement (superior oblique muscle)  Damage causes double vision and inability to rotate eye inferolaterally
  • 6. Trigeminal Nerve V  Ophthalmic branch – sensations from nasal cavity, skin of forehead, upper eyelid, eyebrow, nose  Maxillary branch – sensations from lower eyelid, upper lips and gums, teeth of the maxilla, cheek, nose, palate, pharynx  Mandibular branch – sensations from teeth of the mandible, lower gums and lips, palate, tongue. Motor function of temporalis and masseter muscles.  Damage produces loss of sensation and impaired chewing
  • 7. Abducens Nerve VI  Provides eye movement (lateral rectus m.)  Damage results in inability to rotate eye laterally and at rest eye rotates medially
  • 8. Facial Nerve VII  Somatic Motor - facial expressions  Autonomic Motor - salivary and lacrimal glands, mucous membranes of nasal and palatine mucosa  Special Sensory - taste on anterior 2/3’s of tongue  Damage produces sagging facial muscles and disturbed sense of taste (no sweet and salty)
  • 9. Branches of Facial Nerve Clinical test: Test anterior 2/3’s of tongue with substances such as sugar, salt, vinegar, and quinine; test response of tear glands to ammonia fumes; test motor functions by asking subject to close eyes, smile, whistle, frown, raise eyebrows, etc.
  • 10. Vestibulocochlear Nerve VIII  Special Sensory  Provides hearing (cochlear branch) and sense of balance (vestibular branch)  Damage produces deafness, dizziness, nausea, loss of balance and nystagmus
  • 11. Glossopharyngeal Nerve IX  Somatic motor – Swallowing and voice production via pharyngeal muscles  Autonomic motor - salivation, gagging, control of BP and respiration  Sensations from posterior 1/3 of tongue including taste  Sensations from baroreceptors and chemoreceptors  Damage results in loss of bitter and sour taste and impaired swallowing, blood pressure anomalies (with CN X).
  • 12. Vagus Nerve X  Sensations from skin at back of ear, external acoustic meatus, part of tympanic membrane, larynx, trachea, espophagus, thoracic and abdominal viscera  Sensations from bararoceptors and chemoreceptors  Special sensory – taste from epiglottis and pharynx  Somatic motor – Swallowing and voice production via pharyngeal muscles  Autonomic motor – smooth muscle of abdominal viscera, visceral glands secretions, relaxation of airways, and normal or decreased heart rate.  Damage causes hoarseness or loss of voice, impaired swallowing, GI dysfunction, blood pressure anomalies (with CN IX), fatal if both are cut
  • 13. Accessory Nerve IX  Swallowing, head, neck and shoulder movement via trapezius and sternocleidomastoid and pharyngeal muscles  Damage causes impaired head, neck, shoulder movement
  • 14. Hypoglossal Nerve XII  Tongue movements for speech, food manipulation and swallowing  If both are damaged – can’t protrude tongue  If one side is damaged – tongue deviates towards injured side
  • 15. Cranial Nerve Disorders  Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)  recurring episodes of intense stabbing pain in trigeminal nerve area (near mouth or nose)  pain triggered by touch, drinking, washing face  treatment may require cutting nerve  Bell’s palsy  disorder of facial nerve causes paralysis of facial muscles on one side  may appear abruptly with full recovery within 3-5 weeks

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