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    Cranial Nerve PowerPoint Cranial Nerve PowerPoint Presentation Transcript

    • Cranial Nerves I through XII
    • Olfactory Nerve I
      • Sense of smell
      • Damage causes impaired sense of smell
    • Optic Nerve II
      • Provides vision
      • Damage causes blindness in visual field
    • Oculomotor Nerve III
      • Somatic and Autonomic motor function
      • Eye movement (Superior, inferior, medial rectus muscles and inferior oblique muscle), opening of eyelid (levator palpebrae superioris), constriction of pupil (circular muscle), focusing (ciliary muscle and accomodation)
      • Damage causes drooping eyelid, dilated pupil, double vision, difficulty focusing and inability to move eye in certain directions
    • Trochlear Nerve IV
      • Eye movement (superior oblique muscle)
      • Damage causes double vision and inability to rotate eye inferolaterally
    • Trigeminal Nerve V
      • Ophthalmic branch – sensations from nasal cavity, skin of forehead, upper eyelid, eyebrow, nose
      • Maxillary branch – sensations from lower eyelid, upper lips and gums, teeth of the maxilla, cheek, nose, palate, pharynx
      • Mandibular branch – sensations from teeth of the mandible, lower gums and lips, palate, tongue. Motor function of temporalis and masseter muscles.
      • Damage produces loss of sensation and impaired chewing
    • Abducens Nerve VI
      • Provides eye movement (lateral rectus m.)
      • Damage results in inability to rotate eye laterally and at rest eye rotates medially
    • Facial Nerve VII
      • Somatic Motor - facial expressions
      • Autonomic Motor - salivary and lacrimal glands, mucous membranes of nasal and palatine mucosa
      • Special Sensory - taste on anterior 2/3’s of tongue
      • Damage produces sagging facial muscles and disturbed sense of taste (no sweet and salty)
    • Branches of Facial Nerve Clinical test: Test anterior 2/3’s of tongue with substances such as sugar, salt, vinegar, and quinine; test response of tear glands to ammonia fumes; test motor functions by asking subject to close eyes, smile, whistle, frown, raise eyebrows, etc.
    • Vestibulocochlear Nerve VIII
      • Special Sensory
      • Provides hearing (cochlear branch) and sense of balance (vestibular branch)
      • Damage produces deafness, dizziness, nausea, loss of balance and nystagmus
    • Glossopharyngeal Nerve IX
      • Somatic motor – Swallowing and voice production via pharyngeal muscles
      • Autonomic motor - salivation, gagging, control of BP and respiration
      • Sensations from posterior 1/3 of tongue including taste
      • Sensations from baroreceptors and chemoreceptors
      • Damage results in loss of bitter and sour taste and impaired swallowing, blood pressure anomalies (with CN X).
    • Vagus Nerve X
      • Sensations from skin at back of ear, external acoustic meatus, part of tympanic membrane, larynx, trachea, espophagus, thoracic and abdominal viscera
      • Sensations from bararoceptors and chemoreceptors
      • Special sensory – taste from epiglottis and pharynx
      • Somatic motor – Swallowing and voice production via pharyngeal muscles
      • Autonomic motor – smooth muscle of abdominal viscera, visceral glands secretions, relaxation of airways, and normal or decreased heart rate.
      • Damage causes hoarseness or loss of voice, impaired swallowing, GI dysfunction, blood pressure anomalies (with CN IX), fatal if both are cut
    • Accessory Nerve IX
      • Swallowing, head, neck and shoulder movement via trapezius and sternocleidomastoid and pharyngeal muscles
      • Damage causes impaired head, neck, shoulder movement
    • Hypoglossal Nerve XII
      • Tongue movements for speech, food manipulation and swallowing
      • If both are damaged – can’t protrude tongue
      • If one side is damaged – tongue deviates towards injured side
    • Cranial Nerve Disorders
      • Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)
        • recurring episodes of intense stabbing pain in trigeminal nerve area (near mouth or nose)
        • pain triggered by touch, drinking, washing face
        • treatment may require cutting nerve
      • Bell’s palsy
        • disorder of facial nerve causes paralysis of facial muscles on one side
        • may appear abruptly with full recovery within 3-5 weeks