Health Beliefs of StudentsHealth Beliefs of Students
Evaluating Online Health SitesEvaluating Online Health Sites
Check the CreatorCheck the Creator
Check WebsiteCheck Website
Creation &Creation &
Look forLook for
Possible BiasPossible Bias
Consider theConsider the
Check theCheck the
Evaluating Health NewsEvaluating Health News
Who are the scientists involved? Are theyWho are the scientists involved? Are they
recognized, legitimate health professionals?recognized, legitimate health professionals?
Where did the scientists report their findings?Where did the scientists report their findings?
Is the information based on personal observations?Is the information based on personal observations?
Does the article, report, or advertisement includeDoes the article, report, or advertisement include
sensationalized statements?sensationalized statements?
Is someone trying to sell you something?Is someone trying to sell you something?
Does the information defy all common sense?Does the information defy all common sense?
Making Sense of MedicalMaking Sense of Medical
Types of StudiesTypes of Studies
Epidemiological studiesEpidemiological studies
Animal studies orAnimal studies or
preclinical trailspreclinical trails
Clinical trialsClinical trials
Research TerminologyResearch Terminology
Controlled studiesControlled studies
Single-blind studiesSingle-blind studies
Double-blind studiesDouble-blind studies
Placebo effectPlacebo effect
Prospective studiesProspective studies
Retrospective studiesRetrospective studies
Peer-reviewed journalsPeer-reviewed journals
Vital SignVital Sign Normal ValuesNormal Values
TemperatureTemperature MorningMorning: 98.9ºF;: 98.9ºF; AfternoonAfternoon: 99.9ºF: 99.9ºF
Measure your temperature with a mercury orMeasure your temperature with a mercury or
digital thermometer.digital thermometer.
120/70 to 140/90 depending on your age and120/70 to 140/90 depending on your age and
PulsePulse 72 beats per minute.72 beats per minute.
Take your pulse rate at your wrist or at theTake your pulse rate at your wrist or at the
carotid artery in your neck.carotid artery in your neck.
RespirationRespiration 15-20 breaths per minute15-20 breaths per minute
Are You Getting Quality Care From YourAre You Getting Quality Care From Your
Primary Care Physician?Primary Care Physician?
Did your physician take a comprehensive history? Was theDid your physician take a comprehensive history? Was the
physical examination thorough?physical examination thorough?
Did your physician explain what he or she was doing duringDid your physician explain what he or she was doing during
the exam?the exam?
Did he or she spend enough time with you?Did he or she spend enough time with you?
Did you feel free to ask questions? Did your physician giveDid you feel free to ask questions? Did your physician give
you straight answers? Did he or she reassure you when youyou straight answers? Did he or she reassure you when you
were worried?were worried?
Does your physician seem willing to admit that he or sheDoes your physician seem willing to admit that he or she
doesn’t know the answers to some questions?doesn’t know the answers to some questions?
Does your physician hesitate to refer you to a specialist evenDoes your physician hesitate to refer you to a specialist even
when you have a complex problem that warrants such care?when you have a complex problem that warrants such care?
Standard Tests Performed During AStandard Tests Performed During A
Medical CheckupMedical Checkup
Common Medical TestsCommon Medical Tests
Chest X-rayChest X-ray
Blood TestsBlood Tests
Elective TreatmentsElective Treatments
Your Right to Privacy and AccessYour Right to Privacy and Access
to Medical Recordsto Medical Records
Access toAccess to
Medical RecordsMedical Records
Notice ofNotice of
Complementary andComplementary and
Alternative MedicineAlternative Medicine
All health-care approaches, practices, and treatments not widelyAll health-care approaches, practices, and treatments not widely
taught in medical schools and not generally used in hospitals.taught in medical schools and not generally used in hospitals.
5 Categories of CAM5 Categories of CAM
Alternative medical systems
acupuncture, ayurveda, homeopathy and naturopathy.
biofeedback and visualization.
Biologically based therapies
Manipulative and body-based methods
Chiropractic, massage therapy and reflexology.
What Should I Know Before I TryWhat Should I Know Before I Try
Is it safe?Is it safe?
Is it effective?Is it effective?
Will it interact with other medications orWill it interact with other medications or
conventional treatments?conventional treatments?
Is the practitioner qualified?Is the practitioner qualified?
What has been the experience of others?What has been the experience of others?
Can you talk openly and easily with theCan you talk openly and easily with the
Are you comfortable with the CAM careAre you comfortable with the CAM care
What are the costs?What are the costs?
Health-Care FacilitiesHealth-Care Facilities
College Health CentersCollege Health Centers
Hospitals andHospitals and
Medical CentersMedical Centers
Health Insurance PlansHealth Insurance Plans
Private Fee-for-Private Fee-for-
Service PlansService Plans
Managed Care PlansManaged Care Plans
Public orPublic or
Governmental PlansGovernmental Plans
Taking Charge of Your HealthTaking Charge of Your Health
Trust your instinctsTrust your instincts
Do your homeworkDo your homework
Find a good primary care physicianFind a good primary care physician
See your doctor regularlySee your doctor regularly
Get a second opinionGet a second opinion
Challenge medical judgmentsChallenge medical judgments
Seek supportSeek support
Speak upSpeak up
Bring your own advocateBring your own advocate