Women Empowerment


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  • Holistic approach to women’s empowerment: Social (education, health, status in family etc) Economic (asset ownership, share in income, skills, appropriate technology etc) Political (participation in decision making)
  • Women Empowerment

    1. 1. Made By:Made By:YASH SHAHYASH SHAHyash6595@yahoo.comyash6595@yahoo.com120110116038120110116038
    2. 2. Outline of the presentation Background: Facts about India Women in Modern TimesEducationEmploymentEmpowerment Famous Faces Indian Women Action Conclusion
    3. 3. DEFINITIONDEFINITION “Any act of gender-based violence that results in,or is likely to result in, physical, sexual orpsychological harm or suffering to women andgirls, including threats of such acts, coercion orarbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurringin public or private life”.
    4. 4. Violence against women and girls isViolence against women and girls ison the increase.on the increase. More violent forms, such asMore violent forms, such as femicide, acid attacks, ritual rapes and murders,femicide, acid attacks, ritual rapes and murders, gang rapes, abductions, defilement and forced earlygang rapes, abductions, defilement and forced earlymarriages,marriages, Military sexual slavery, rape as a weapon of war,Military sexual slavery, rape as a weapon of war,trafficking in women and girls andtrafficking in women and girls and ill-treatment of widows have become more widespread.ill-treatment of widows have become more widespread.
    6. 6. EducationGender gaps in higher education○ About 1 percent of total women populationhas college education○ Women account for a third of the students atcollege/university level○ In engineering and business, the proportion offemale students is much smaller○ In education, nearly half of the students arewomen
    7. 7. Barriers to Female EducationPoverty: one-fourth of India’s populationlives below the poverty line (2002)Social values and parental preferencesInadequate school facilitiesShortage of female teachers: 29 percent atthe primary level and 22 percent at theuniversity level (1993)Gender bias in curriculum
    8. 8. EmploymentDifficult to get an overall picture of employmentamong women○ Most women work in the informal sectorWomen accounted for only 23 percent of thetotal workers in the formal sector in 1991The number of female workers has increasedfaster than the number of male workersFemale unemployment rates are similar to maleunemployment rates
    9. 9. Barriers to Female EmploymentCultural Restrictions○ Hierarchical society (caste system)○ Purdah system: the veiling and seclusion of womenDiscrimination at Workplace○ More prevalent in fields where male competition is high○ Less prevalent in fields where competition is lowLack of employment opportunities
    10. 10. Empowerment Social EmpowermentEducation○ There is no direct relationship between educationand work force participation; but may affect theirparticipation in household decision makingEconomic Independence:○ Economic independence does not imply significantimprovement in social standing○ Culture and tradition play an important role○ A small fraction has opened up towards Westernvalues
    11. 11.  Economic Empowerment Property Rights○ Patriarchal societyEconomic Decision Making○ In the household○ In businesses Political EmpowermentRepresentation in democratic institutionsGovernment reservations policy for women:the constitutional amendment of 1990s
    12. 12. Famous Faces Indira Gandhi Mother Teresa Mira Nair Kalpana Chawla Gurinder Chadha Arundhati Roy Jhumpa Lahiri Aishwarya Rai Sushmita Sen
    13. 13. Holistic approach toEmpowermentHealth& Nut.EducationWater & San.SkillsTechnology CreditPoliticalParticipationMarketingAsset base
    14. 14. Action Areas Women availing servicesavailing services of public utilitieslike road transport, power, water andsanitation, telecommunication etc. TrainingTraining of women as highly skilled workers-top end skills Research/TechnologyResearch/Technology for women Women in the work force Asset ownershipAsset ownership by women Women as EntrepreneursEntrepreneurs
    15. 15.  Implementation of Laws likeEqual remunerationMinimum WagesFactories Act Infrastructure for women likeWater and sanitation at workplaceCrechesWorking Women HostelsTransport servicesSecurity
    16. 16. To Conclude “It is more important to create a generalawareness’ and understanding of theproblems of women’s employment in allthe top policy and decision making andexecutive personnel. There is also thespecial problem facing women like thepreference for male children for socialand cultural reasons. This will requireawareness, understanding and action.The best way to do so is to educate thechildren, orient the teachers, examine thetext books and teaching-aids and ensurethat the next generation grows up withnew thinking.”
    17. 17. Thank YouThank You
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