Holistic approach to women’s empowerment: Social (education, health, status in family etc) Economic (asset ownership, share in income, skills, appropriate technology etc) Political (participation in decision making)
Made By:Made By:YASH SHAHYASH SHAHyash6595@firstname.lastname@example.org
Outline of the presentation Background: Facts about India Women in Modern TimesEducationEmploymentEmpowerment Famous Faces Indian Women Action Conclusion
DEFINITIONDEFINITION “Any act of gender-based violence that results in,or is likely to result in, physical, sexual orpsychological harm or suffering to women andgirls, including threats of such acts, coercion orarbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurringin public or private life”.
Violence against women and girls isViolence against women and girls ison the increase.on the increase. More violent forms, such asMore violent forms, such as femicide, acid attacks, ritual rapes and murders,femicide, acid attacks, ritual rapes and murders, gang rapes, abductions, defilement and forced earlygang rapes, abductions, defilement and forced earlymarriages,marriages, Military sexual slavery, rape as a weapon of war,Military sexual slavery, rape as a weapon of war,trafficking in women and girls andtrafficking in women and girls and ill-treatment of widows have become more widespread.ill-treatment of widows have become more widespread.
EducationGender gaps in higher education○ About 1 percent of total women populationhas college education○ Women account for a third of the students atcollege/university level○ In engineering and business, the proportion offemale students is much smaller○ In education, nearly half of the students arewomen
Barriers to Female EducationPoverty: one-fourth of India’s populationlives below the poverty line (2002)Social values and parental preferencesInadequate school facilitiesShortage of female teachers: 29 percent atthe primary level and 22 percent at theuniversity level (1993)Gender bias in curriculum
EmploymentDifficult to get an overall picture of employmentamong women○ Most women work in the informal sectorWomen accounted for only 23 percent of thetotal workers in the formal sector in 1991The number of female workers has increasedfaster than the number of male workersFemale unemployment rates are similar to maleunemployment rates
Barriers to Female EmploymentCultural Restrictions○ Hierarchical society (caste system)○ Purdah system: the veiling and seclusion of womenDiscrimination at Workplace○ More prevalent in fields where male competition is high○ Less prevalent in fields where competition is lowLack of employment opportunities
Empowerment Social EmpowermentEducation○ There is no direct relationship between educationand work force participation; but may affect theirparticipation in household decision makingEconomic Independence:○ Economic independence does not imply significantimprovement in social standing○ Culture and tradition play an important role○ A small fraction has opened up towards Westernvalues
Economic Empowerment Property Rights○ Patriarchal societyEconomic Decision Making○ In the household○ In businesses Political EmpowermentRepresentation in democratic institutionsGovernment reservations policy for women:the constitutional amendment of 1990s
Famous Faces Indira Gandhi Mother Teresa Mira Nair Kalpana Chawla Gurinder Chadha Arundhati Roy Jhumpa Lahiri Aishwarya Rai Sushmita Sen
Holistic approach toEmpowermentHealth& Nut.EducationWater & San.SkillsTechnology CreditPoliticalParticipationMarketingAsset base
Action Areas Women availing servicesavailing services of public utilitieslike road transport, power, water andsanitation, telecommunication etc. TrainingTraining of women as highly skilled workers-top end skills Research/TechnologyResearch/Technology for women Women in the work force Asset ownershipAsset ownership by women Women as EntrepreneursEntrepreneurs
Implementation of Laws likeEqual remunerationMinimum WagesFactories Act Infrastructure for women likeWater and sanitation at workplaceCrechesWorking Women HostelsTransport servicesSecurity
To Conclude “It is more important to create a generalawareness’ and understanding of theproblems of women’s employment in allthe top policy and decision making andexecutive personnel. There is also thespecial problem facing women like thepreference for male children for socialand cultural reasons. This will requireawareness, understanding and action.The best way to do so is to educate thechildren, orient the teachers, examine thetext books and teaching-aids and ensurethat the next generation grows up withnew thinking.”