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Utilitarianism aims at achieving maximum happiness
and benefit for maximum people.
It justifies an action morally only after the result and
outcome of the action.
It particularly focuses on what utility can be best
fetched by certain action.
It is also called CONSEQUENTIALISM as validity of
the action depends on the consequences the act.
Morality for only to guide action of people so as to
make the world better place to live.
It always emphasis on to do such action which brings
maximum utility or benefit.
It makes us to set aside personal interest as maximum
benefit can be attained only after setting aside
For a utilitarian means are not relevant as such but end
is justified when it brings more and more benefit to
society at large.
Jeremy Bentham : Pleasure. According to him
maximum benefit is maximum pleasure. Pleasure is
pursuing physical contentment and gratification. So,
increasing pleasure and minimizing pain will lead to
maximum good to people at large.
John Stuart Mill: Happiness. Happiness is mental
condition. It is the satisfaction and fulfillment of
mental desire. Maximizing happiness will direct to the
way of maximizing utility.
Rule Utilitarian : Rule utilitarian is one who talks. But
about maximum utility to maximum number of person by
following the rule of law.
Rule of law or action in accordance is very much necessary
to be the act moral.
Act Utilitarian : Act utilitarian also talks about action
which benefit the most people. But involves a “BUT”.
But they are not concerned about rule or law associated
with them. If the action brings maximum benefit to most
people it is moral according to these utilitarians.
There exist a law which forbids a doctor to kill a
patient so as to save other patients.
THEN WHAT HAPPENS…………………
ANY QUESTION……. But I am not always utilitarian….