Utilitarianism

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  • 1. END JUSTIFIES MENAS, DOESN’T IT?????????
  • 2.  Utilitarianism aims at achieving maximum happiness and benefit for maximum people.  It justifies an action morally only after the result and outcome of the action.  It particularly focuses on what utility can be best fetched by certain action.  It is also called CONSEQUENTIALISM as validity of the action depends on the consequences the act.
  • 3.  Morality for only to guide action of people so as to make the world better place to live.  It always emphasis on to do such action which brings maximum utility or benefit.  It makes us to set aside personal interest as maximum benefit can be attained only after setting aside personal interest.  For a utilitarian means are not relevant as such but end is justified when it brings more and more benefit to society at large.
  • 4.  ,
  • 5.  Jeremy Bentham : Pleasure. According to him maximum benefit is maximum pleasure. Pleasure is pursuing physical contentment and gratification. So, increasing pleasure and minimizing pain will lead to maximum good to people at large.  John Stuart Mill: Happiness. Happiness is mental condition. It is the satisfaction and fulfillment of mental desire. Maximizing happiness will direct to the way of maximizing utility.
  • 6.  Rule Utilitarian : Rule utilitarian is one who talks. But about maximum utility to maximum number of person by following the rule of law.  Rule of law or action in accordance is very much necessary to be the act moral.  Act Utilitarian : Act utilitarian also talks about action which benefit the most people. But involves a “BUT”.  But they are not concerned about rule or law associated with them. If the action brings maximum benefit to most people it is moral according to these utilitarians.
  • 7.  There exist a law which forbids a doctor to kill a patient so as to save other patients.  THEN WHAT HAPPENS…………………
  • 8.  ANY QUESTION……. But I am not always utilitarian….