Membranefiltrationn5/14/2013YASHVANT RAOCentre for NanoscienceCUG
Membrane filtration• In membrane separation systems, liquidcontaining two or more componentscomes into contact with a memb...
• The MFmembranes aremade from naturalor syntheticpolymers such ascellulose nitrate oracetate,polyamides.5/14/2013
5/14/2013
TYPES OF MEMBRANESEPERATION• Reverse Osmosis. (RO)• Ultrafiltration. (UF)• Nanofiltration. (NF)• Microfiltration. (MF)• El...
Macrofiltration orParticle filtration• Pore size: 10 to 1000 micrometers (μm)• The particles being screened are visibleto ...
Micro filtration• The particles being screened are not visibleto the naked eye.• This pore size is used for sterile filtra...
5/14/2013
Application• In biotechnology for concentration of biomass,separations of soluble products.• In non-sew age waste treatmen...
Ultra filtration• Ultrafiltration is a process of separatingcolloidal or molecular particles byfiltration, using suction o...
• This method isonly somewhatdependant uponcharge of theparticle and ismore concernedwith the size of theparticle.5/14/2013
Continue,.• UF membranes are useful in separatingcomponents by rejecting macromolecules andallowing passage of all salts t...
Application• Oil emulsion waste treatment.• Electro coat paint recovery.• Concentration of textile sizing.• Concentration ...
Nano filtration• Nanofiltration is the newest of the majormethods, serving as an intermediatebetween ultrafiltration and r...
• This process is used for sugar concentration,dye desalting, water softening, color removalin water, removing bacteria, s...
• Separation by this method is affected bythe charge of the particles being rejected- particles with larger charges more l...
Application• In biotechnology for concentration ofbiomass, separations of soluble products.• In non-sewage waste treatment...
Electro dialysis• “This is an electro-membrane process inwhich the ions are transported through amembrane from one solutio...
Continue,.• Electrodialysis is used widely forproduction of potable water from sea orbrackish water, electroplating rinser...
5/14/2013
Application• Deacidification of fruit juices• Heavy metal recovery• Recovery of organic acids from salts• pH control witho...
Gas seperation• The membrane gas separationtechnology is over ten years old and isproving to be one of the mostsignificant...
• The membrane gas separation has beenused for hydrogen separation andrecovery, ammonia purge gas, refineryhydrogen recove...
Reverse osmosis• RO has the finest membrane size.• In reverse osmosis, the natural process ofosmosis is countered by appli...
Reverse osmosis5/14/2013
The most common force is pressure generatedby a pump. Considerably higher pressures arenecessary to overcome osmotic pres...
Continue,.• RO is used to reduce inorganic salts inwater that has demanding specs such asboiler feed water, car wash rinse...
• It can also be used to removebacteria, salts sugars, proteins, particles, dyes, water recycling, concentrating milksolid...
• Pleated cartridges are used formicrofiltration and UF systems.• Materials used to make membranes arecellulose acetate, p...
5/14/2013
Factors affectingextraction5/14/2013
solvent• Cheap• Non toxic• Stable physically chemically inert• Water and ethanol are mainly used as asolvent5/14/2013
Water• Water is solvent for proteins, gums andcolouring matter• Mould and bacteria can grow in aqueousmedia• Water allow h...
Ethanol• Ethanol is solvent for alkaloids,glycosides.• Moulds and bacteria cannot grow in thismedia• It promote the absorp...
Concentration gradient• Rate of diffusion is depends upon thepresence of suitable concentrationgradient from the centre of...
Continue,.• Its also decrease the thickness of theboundary layer so that concentration issteeper and shorter.• The flow re...
Temperature andviscosity• Incresing temperature will increase theextraction rate• Viscosity of the solvent isdecreased, wh...
• extraction is never complete if the drug isimmersed in bulk of the solution• Since the equilibrium is set up betweentha ...
Emulsion formulation• Emulsion are problem that occur withcertain sample and solvent condition• If a emulsion are not brok...
Adsorption of drug onparticulate• If a particulate present in the sample willaffect the recovery of the sample• In such a ...
Binding of drug withprotein in plasma sample• Compound that are commonly recoverfrom the LLE extraction may bind withplasm...
Mutual solubility ofimmisicible solvent• Immisicible solvent have small but finitemutualsolubility and mutually dissolveds...
Continue,.• so that the volume of phase containingthe analyte can be known allowingaccurate and optimun determination ofth...
5/14/2013
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Membrane filtration

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Membrane filtration

  1. 1. Membranefiltrationn5/14/2013YASHVANT RAOCentre for NanoscienceCUG
  2. 2. Membrane filtration• In membrane separation systems, liquidcontaining two or more componentscomes into contact with a membrane thatpermits some components (forexample, water in the fluid) to passthrough the membrane (thepermeate), while other componentscannot pass through it (the retentate).5/14/2013
  3. 3. • The MFmembranes aremade from naturalor syntheticpolymers such ascellulose nitrate oracetate,polyamides.5/14/2013
  4. 4. 5/14/2013
  5. 5. TYPES OF MEMBRANESEPERATION• Reverse Osmosis. (RO)• Ultrafiltration. (UF)• Nanofiltration. (NF)• Microfiltration. (MF)• Electrodialysis. (ED)• Gas Separation.5/14/2013
  6. 6. Macrofiltration orParticle filtration• Pore size: 10 to 1000 micrometers (μm)• The particles being screened are visibleto the naked eye.• Examples of the particle size are:bubbles, insectparts, dust, debris, crystals.• Typical equipment used: bagfilters, cheesecloth, metallicscreens, nylon mesh.5/14/2013
  7. 7. Micro filtration• The particles being screened are not visibleto the naked eye.• This pore size is used for sterile filtration, cellharvesting or clarification of fruit juices andin applications where water taste is not asimportant, like breweries.• It retains particles from about 200 to 1000 Å.4• Two types of microfiltration systems: crossflow and dead-end.• The least amount of hydrostatic force required5/14/2013
  8. 8. 5/14/2013
  9. 9. Application• In biotechnology for concentration of biomass,separations of soluble products.• In non-sew age waste treatment for removingintractable particles in oily fluids, aqueouswastes which contain particulate toxics andstack gas.• In paints for separating solvents from pigmentsetc.5/14/2013
  10. 10. Ultra filtration• Ultrafiltration is a process of separatingcolloidal or molecular particles byfiltration, using suction or pressure, bymeans of a colloidal filter orsemipermeable membrane.5/14/2013
  11. 11. • This method isonly somewhatdependant uponcharge of theparticle and ismore concernedwith the size of theparticle.5/14/2013
  12. 12. Continue,.• UF membranes are useful in separatingcomponents by rejecting macromolecules andallowing passage of all salts through themembrane.• UF is used to separate milk proteins bypassing milk at high pressure through a veryfine membrane, as a pretreatment for otherpurification systems (like ion exchange).5/14/2013
  13. 13. Application• Oil emulsion waste treatment.• Electro coat paint recovery.• Concentration of textile sizing.• Concentration of gelatin.• Enzyme & pharmaceutical preparations.• Pulp mill waste treatment.• Production of ultra pure water5/14/2013
  14. 14. Nano filtration• Nanofiltration is the newest of the majormethods, serving as an intermediatebetween ultrafiltration and reverseosmosis.• This process allows some salts throughthe membrane, allowing monovalent ionsto pass while rejecting high percentagesof divalent cations and multivalent ions.5/14/2013
  15. 15. • This process is used for sugar concentration,dye desalting, water softening, color removalin water, removing bacteria, some proteins bydairy industry, and meat processors forrecovering value added by - products• Nanofiltration membranes are rated in terms ofpercent salt rejection and flow.5/14/2013
  16. 16. • Separation by this method is affected bythe charge of the particles being rejected- particles with larger charges more likelyto be rejected than others.• This method is not effective on smallerweight organics like methanol.5/14/2013
  17. 17. Application• In biotechnology for concentration ofbiomass, separations of soluble products.• In non-sewage waste treatment forremoving intractable particles in oilyfluids, aqueous wastes which containparticulate toxics and stack gas.5/14/2013
  18. 18. Electro dialysis• “This is an electro-membrane process inwhich the ions are transported through amembrane from one solution to anotherunder the influence of an electricalpotential.”5/14/2013
  19. 19. Continue,.• Electrodialysis is used widely forproduction of potable water from sea orbrackish water, electroplating rinserecovery, desalting of cheesewhey, production of ultra pure water etc.5/14/2013
  20. 20. 5/14/2013
  21. 21. Application• Deacidification of fruit juices• Heavy metal recovery• Recovery of organic acids from salts• pH control without adding acid or base• Regeneration of ion-exchange resins withimproved process design• Acid recovery from etching baths5/14/2013
  22. 22. Gas seperation• The membrane gas separationtechnology is over ten years old and isproving to be one of the mostsignificant unit operations.5/14/2013
  23. 23. • The membrane gas separation has beenused for hydrogen separation andrecovery, ammonia purge gas, refineryhydrogen recovery, separation inpetrochemicals industry, natural gasprocessing, air separation, nitrogenproduction, air dehydration, heliumrecovery etc.5/14/2013
  24. 24. Reverse osmosis• RO has the finest membrane size.• In reverse osmosis, the natural process ofosmosis is countered by appliedexternalpressure.• Normally, pure water would move from aregion of higher concentration (such aspure fresh water) into one of lowerconcentration (such as a solution of waterand salt).5/14/2013
  25. 25. Reverse osmosis5/14/2013
  26. 26. The most common force is pressure generatedby a pump. Considerably higher pressures arenecessary to overcome osmotic pressures. RO allows only pure water through themembrane, filtering out inorganic salts,some forms of non-ionic organic compound.5/14/2013
  27. 27. Continue,.• RO is used to reduce inorganic salts inwater that has demanding specs such asboiler feed water, car wash rinse water,potable water, glass rinsing, pure waterfor dialyses, beverages, pharmaceuticalwater and maple syrup concentration.5/14/2013
  28. 28. • It can also be used to removebacteria, salts sugars, proteins, particles, dyes, water recycling, concentrating milksolids and removing water from whey.• With RO, the charge of the particles(ions) facilitates separation. The largerthe charge and the larger theparticle, the more likely it will be rejected.5/14/2013
  29. 29. • Pleated cartridges are used formicrofiltration and UF systems.• Materials used to make membranes arecellulose acetate, polymers, such aspolyamides and polysulfones andcomposites (or ceramic) of porouscarbon, zirconium oxide or alumina.5/14/2013
  30. 30. 5/14/2013
  31. 31. Factors affectingextraction5/14/2013
  32. 32. solvent• Cheap• Non toxic• Stable physically chemically inert• Water and ethanol are mainly used as asolvent5/14/2013
  33. 33. Water• Water is solvent for proteins, gums andcolouring matter• Mould and bacteria can grow in aqueousmedia• Water allow hydrolysis of many substance• It need more heat than other.5/14/2013
  34. 34. Ethanol• Ethanol is solvent for alkaloids,glycosides.• Moulds and bacteria cannot grow in thismedia• It promote the absorption of the molecule• Latent heat of vaporisation is less thanwater5/14/2013
  35. 35. Concentration gradient• Rate of diffusion is depends upon thepresence of suitable concentrationgradient from the centre of the particleoutwards and through the boundary layer• by agitating the sample the localconcentration will disperse there byincrease the concentration gradieent5/14/2013
  36. 36. Continue,.• Its also decrease the thickness of theboundary layer so that concentration issteeper and shorter.• The flow replace the solution by puresolvent causing the increasing the theconcentration gradient• Velocity of the solvent which is reduce theboundary layer5/14/2013
  37. 37. Temperature andviscosity• Incresing temperature will increase theextraction rate• Viscosity of the solvent isdecreased, which is reduce the boundarylayer so the extraction rate is fast• The diffusion coefficient which is directlypropotional to the temperature andindirectly propotional to the viscosity5/14/2013
  38. 38. • extraction is never complete if the drug isimmersed in bulk of the solution• Since the equilibrium is set up betweentha solution containing drug and the freesolution5/14/2013
  39. 39. Emulsion formulation• Emulsion are problem that occur withcertain sample and solvent condition• If a emulsion are not broken with shortboundary the recovery can be affected.• Emulsion are broken by• adding salt solution to the aqueous phase• Heating or cooling the extraction vessel• Filtering through the glass wool plug5/14/2013
  40. 40. Adsorption of drug onparticulate• If a particulate present in the sample willaffect the recovery of the sample• In such a case washing the particulateafter filtration with strong solvent willrecover the absorbed drug• The stronger solvent for recovering thesample will affect the pH of the sampleand increased the ionic strength5/14/2013
  41. 41. Binding of drug withprotein in plasma sample• Compound that are commonly recoverfrom the LLE extraction may bind withplasma• Disturbing the protein binding in plasmasample are• adding detergent• adding orgonic solvent or strong acid• diluting with water5/14/2013
  42. 42. Mutual solubility ofimmisicible solvent• Immisicible solvent have small but finitemutualsolubility and mutually dissolvedsolvent can change the relative volume oftwo phases.• Therefore its practice to saturate the eachphase with other ery5/14/2013
  43. 43. Continue,.• so that the volume of phase containingthe analyte can be known allowingaccurate and optimun determination ofthe analyte recovery• The simplest procedure for saturation isto equilibrate two phases in seperatingfunnel without the sample5/14/2013
  44. 44. 5/14/2013

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