Megacity Environment Painting
Artist: Mark Weaver
Greek philosopher Plato thought the ideal POLIS (πόλις) had 5,000 inhabitants.
A city that size is considered small in our...
The phenomenon of ‘The Megacity’ is not a new one.
MEGALOPOLIS in Ancient Greece had a population of 40,000 in 370-371BC.
...
Year

City

Country

Population
(est.)
50,000

1050BC

Thebes

Egypt

500BC

Babylon

Iraq

150,000

432BC

Athens

Greece...
Megapolis today.

Megalopolis, located in the south-western part of Arcadia, southern Greece, was
clearly regarded by the ...
The Acropolis - ‘Acro’ = edge, ‘polis’ = city

Even Athens, which we know seemed dangerously large to the people of the
an...
3D Reconstruction of Classical Rome

Rome of course was much more serious: a kind of rehearsal or trailer for what
cities ...
3D Reconstruction of Classical Rome

Its huge size positively forced its administrators to devise complex systems of
inter...
Around 1800 LONDON became indisputably the greatest city that had ever existed
in the world.
The population of the area, t...
Skyline of New York: 1898

NEW YORK soon took over from GREATER LONDON.
Between 1870 and 1900 the population of the old ci...
The mass movement of population across the world
means that cities particularly in Asia, sub-Saharan
Africa and projected ...
Year

City

98AD-117AD Rome

Country
Italy
(Roman Empire)

Population (est)

1,600,000

775

Bagdad

Iraq

1,000,000

1800...
There are several approaches that attempt to define what a city (polis) consists of. Ekistics
was introduced as the scienc...
VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

House Group
(hamlet)

Small
Neighbourhood
(village...
Μεγάπολις

st
1
interpretation

mega-

+

Precise scientific language:
“one million”
eg megawatt, megaton

polis
coined: 1...
Μεγάπολις

nd
2
interpretation

mega-

+

From the Greek:
Megas (Μέγας)
“great, large, vast, big, high,
tall, mighty, impo...
“The concept of MEGA-CITY is a very simple one. Developed by UN institutions to describe
ever-larger urban AGGLOMERATIONS,...
A Megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge upon one
another.
The terms: ...
Despite the claim that 'mass matters' (IGU Megacity Taskforce), researchers writing on
megacities do not provide answers t...
MIGRATION, CITIES AND THE MODERN-WORLD SYSTEM
Mega-cities in Theoretical Perspective - P.J. Taylor

“Historically, cities ...
Continued:

MIGRATION, CITIES AND THE MODERN-WORLD SYSTEM
Mega-cities in Theoretical Perspective - P.J. Taylor

However, t...
Continued:

MIGRATION, CITIES AND THE MODERN-WORLD SYSTEM
Mega-cities in Theoretical Perspective - P.J. Taylor

This is ex...
Continued:

MIGRATION, CITIES AND THE MODERN-WORLD SYSTEM
Mega-cities in Theoretical Perspective - P.J. Taylor

The second...
WHAT MAKES A CITY A “MEGA-CITY” AND
WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS?
Mega-cities Project and Yale Center for Study...
WHAT MAKES A CITY A “MEGA-CITY” AND
WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS?

continued:

Mega-cities Project and Yale Cen...
WHAT MAKES A CITY A “MEGA-CITY” AND
WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS?

continued:

Mega-cities Project and Yale Cen...
WHAT MAKES A CITY A “MEGA-CITY” AND
WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS?

continued:

Mega-cities Project and Yale Cen...
[Remember:
as cities grow and merge, new urban configurations are formed.]
Agglomerations (see also: Urban Agglomeration)
...
Demographic
The study of population statistics.
migration.

It measures trends and tracks births, deaths and
Return to tex...
Gamma Cities
These can be world cities linking smaller regions or states into the world economy, or
important world cities...
Metacity (Hypercity)
A city with a population of over 20 million also called a hypercity.
A major conurbation – a megacity...
Population Density
Population density is an often reported and commonly compared statistic for places around
the world. Po...
Spatial Density
Spatial density deals with the space and not the number of things in it.

Return to text

Sustainable City...
Urban (continued)
An ‘Urban Area’ can be defined by one or more of the following:
• Administrative criteria or political b...
The First Megacities Lecture February 1997, Rotterdam – Peter Hall
Megacities, World Cities, and Global Cities
By Peter Ha...
Megacities and Microcities
Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Ekistics
Resource efficiency in an urban context: Defi...
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MINUS EKISTICS interactive: The Phenomenon of the Megacities or not? What is a: Μεγάπολις (Megapolis)?

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The Phenomenon
of the
Megacities… or not?
What is a: Μεγάπολις (Megapolis)?
WITHOUT THE EKSTICS INTERACTIVE...

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MINUS EKISTICS interactive: The Phenomenon of the Megacities or not? What is a: Μεγάπολις (Megapolis)?

  1. 1. Megacity Environment Painting Artist: Mark Weaver
  2. 2. Greek philosopher Plato thought the ideal POLIS (πόλις) had 5,000 inhabitants. A city that size is considered small in our times, but that ‘cap on’ population had a reason: • it allowed for participation; that is, that every citizen could have a measurable contribution to the polis.
  3. 3. The phenomenon of ‘The Megacity’ is not a new one. MEGALOPOLIS in Ancient Greece had a population of 40,000 in 370-371BC. (Chandler and Fox, 1974:80) ATHENS had a population of 300,000 in 432BC. In terms of population, Athens of 432BC was 1/30th the size of Greater London in the 1980’s and 1/38th the size of New York City in the 1980’s. (Chamoux, 1965; Ehrenberg, 1969; Grant and Huxley, 1964; Hammond, 1967; Kitto, 1951) Under Emperor Trajan, 98AD-117AD, the population of ROME was at its largest 1.6 million people; a figure that is not reached again for another 1850 years later. ANTIOCH capital of Syria (Syria was a Roman (Byzantine) province from 64 BC to 636 AD) was one of the largest cities in the ancient world, with a total estimated population of 500,000. PATALIPUTRA (Ancient Patna, in India) around 300BC had a population of 400,000. THEBES, Egypt around 1,050BC had 50,000 people population. These cities were backed up by complex systems of administration, food supplies, traffic, water and a waste disposal system. ‘Populations’ settled with CONSTANTINOPLE (Istanbul) in the Middle Ages and PEKING (Beijing) in the early modern period. LONDON joined after the 1800’s, setting the precedent of rapid urban development, followed by cities in North America and Australasia in the C19th and those in the developing world in the C20th .
  4. 4. Year City Country Population (est.) 50,000 1050BC Thebes Egypt 500BC Babylon Iraq 150,000 432BC Athens Greece 300,000 370BC Megalopolis Greece 40,000 300BC Pataliputra (Patna) India 400,000 Syria 500,000 64BC-636AD Antioch 98AD-117AD Rome (Roman Empire) Italy (Roman Empire) 1,600,000 500AD Constantinople (Istanbul) Turkey 1800 Peking (Beijing) China 1,100,000 1900 London United Kingdom 6,480,000 (Byzantine Empire) 450,000
  5. 5. Megapolis today. Megalopolis, located in the south-western part of Arcadia, southern Greece, was clearly regarded by the Greeks as ‘a very big place’, at least potentially as it never became any bigger than about 40,000 people. MEGALOPOLIS (Μεγαλόπολις) means ‘great city’ (big city) in Ancient Greek. When it was founded 370-371BC by Epaminondas of Thebes, it was the first large urbanization in Arcadia. It had a wall reaching about 9 kilometres round and Epaminondas helped its progress by forcibly moving into it the inhabitants of some forty local villages. Its theatre had a capacity of 20,000 visitors.
  6. 6. The Acropolis - ‘Acro’ = edge, ‘polis’ = city Even Athens, which we know seemed dangerously large to the people of the ancient world, was preposterously small by our standards. In 432 B.C., at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, when its population probably reached its maximum, the entire Athenian polis - city and surrounding countryside - had between 215,000 and 300,000 people. It was the most populous Greek state, yet in population it was one-thirtieth the size of Greater London or one-thirty-eighth of New York City in the 1980s. (Kitto 1951, 95, Chamoux 1965, 304; Grant 1964, 195; Hammond 1967, 329-30; Joint Association of Classical Teachers 1984, 73, 157; Ehrenberg 1969, 31-2).
  7. 7. 3D Reconstruction of Classical Rome Rome of course was much more serious: a kind of rehearsal or trailer for what cities would later become. It was, simply, the first giant city in world history. Precisely how big is a matter for conjecture: the estimates vary wildly, from 250,000 to 1,487,560 [plus slaves], but the great majority, for various dates from the late Republican age to the fourth century AD, come in the range from three quarters of a million to around one and a quarter million, most of them close to one million. You can take your pick: the fact is that Rome was very big, bigger by far than any city before, two or three times the record set by Patna three hundred years earlier, or by Babylon one hundred and fifty years before that, and probably bigger than any that would follow it for the next seven hundred years. (Carcopino 1941, 18, 20; Korn 1953, 32; Packer 1967, 82-3, 86-7; Chandler and Fox 1974, 300-323; Stambaugh 1988, 89; Drinkwater 1990, 371; Robinson 1992, 8).
  8. 8. 3D Reconstruction of Classical Rome Its huge size positively forced its administrators to devise complex systems of international food supplies, to grapple successfully with long-distance delivery of water and with complex systems of waste disposal, even to formulate rules of urban traffic management. After that, things settled down for a bit. It took another seventeen centuries before another western city came to rival and then overtake Classical Rome. Constantinople (Istanbul) may have equalled ancient Rome in the middle ages, Peking (Beijing) in the early modern period; but, some time just after 1800, London became indisputably the greatest city that had ever existed in the world.
  9. 9. Around 1800 LONDON became indisputably the greatest city that had ever existed in the world. The population of the area, that later became the METROPOLITAN BOARD OF WORKS and then the LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL, rose from: • 959,000 in 1801 to reach 2,363,000 in 1851 – more than doubling it; and then • doubled again in 1901 to 4,536,000. But by the start of the C20th, the LCC area was already inadequate as a description of the real London: the real London was GREATER LONDON. Even by 1801, Greater London had more than 12% of the population of England and Wales; by the end of the century, over 20%. By 1885 its population was larger than that of Paris, three times that of New York or Berlin. (Chandler and Fox 1974, 368; Mitchell and Deane 1962, 19-23; Young and Garside 1982, 14).
  10. 10. Skyline of New York: 1898 NEW YORK soon took over from GREATER LONDON. Between 1870 and 1900 the population of the old city of New York – just Manhattan island and the Bronx – doubled; whereas that of the outer three counties increased by more than two and half times. The extension of the New York City boundary in 1898, to include those outer counties – which became the boroughs of Queens, Brooklyn and Richmond – increased the city’s area tenfold and more than doubled the population from 1.5 million to 3.4 million. In the short forty-year period to 1940, the population more than doubled again to 7.45 million. New York was the 3rd largest city of the world in population terms in 1875; 2nd in 1900, 1st by 1925. (Rischin 1962, 10; Condit 1980, 105; Jackson 1984, 321; Hammack 1982, 186, 200, 227-8).
  11. 11. The mass movement of population across the world means that cities particularly in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and projected population growth per World Map showingSouth America, are growing in size by the hour ofhour. In 2011, 2011. What about 2013? world cities in the majority of the planet’s population of 6.9 i.e. every hour:billion people live in cities rather than the • countryside.migrate to Lagos to live. 40 people • 43 people migrate to Karachi to live. • 49 people migrate to Delhi to live. • 9 people migrate to New York to live • 3 people migrate to Sydney to live. 2% • 10 people migrate to Mexico City to live. of the earth’s surface is occupied by cities 53% of the world’s population lives in cities (2011) To see the above INFOGRAPHIC larger please select the link below: How Rapidly Cities Are Growing [INFOGRAPHIC]
  12. 12. Year City 98AD-117AD Rome Country Italy (Roman Empire) Population (est) 1,600,000 775 Bagdad Iraq 1,000,000 1800 Peking (Beijing) China 1,100,000 1825 London United Kingdom 1,350,000 1850 London United Kingdom 2,320,000 1875 London United Kingdom 4,241,000 1900 London United Kingdom 6,480,000 1925 New York USA 7,774,000 1950 New York USA 12,463,000 2012 New York – Urban USA 20,464,000 1965 Tokyo-Yokohama Japan 20,000,000 1985 Tokyo-Yokohama Japan 30,273,000 2012 Tokyo-Yokohama Japan 37,200,000
  13. 13. There are several approaches that attempt to define what a city (polis) consists of. Ekistics was introduced as the science of human settlements (Doxiades, 1968). Ekistics studies how human settlements were inhabited by humans and provides a conceptual framework for a better understanding of human settlements. The foundation of the concept is in nature, which contains ecological systems, within which humans form social network and societies and build the ‘shells’ which are the physical structures providing comfortable living conditions. The basic elements of human settlements in the ekistics studies are described below (Doxiades, 1968, p.12): 1. “Nature, providing the foundation upon which the settlements are created and the frame within which they can function” 2. “Human” 3. “Society” 4. “Shells, or the structures within which a human lives and carry out his different functions” 5. “Networks, or the natural and human-made systems which facilitate the functioning of the settlements, as for example roads, cycling corridors and infrastructure in general.” Resource efficiency in an urban context: Defining the framework of eco-municipalities
  14. 14. VII VIII IX X XI XII 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 House Group (hamlet) Small Neighbourhood (village) Neighbourhood Small Polis (town) Polis (city) Eperopolis Ecumenopolis (Global City) 7,500 M 50,000 M Small Eperopolis VI Megalopolis V Small Megalopolis IV Metropolis III House 2 Room Anthropos Ekistic units 1 II Small Metropolis I Community Scale Ekistic Elements Nature EKISTIC UNITS A classification of settlements according to their size, presented on the basis of a logarithmic scale, running from EKISTIC ELEMENTS 1), as the smallest unit Anthropos Anthropos EKISTIC POPULATION (ekistic unit Athe whole earth parts of unit 15). The settlements, starting from classification of (ekistic whole human ekistic logarithmic of measurement, to scale maximum presented people for5each of the which or and ending with unit 15, showing area Society unit 1 corresponding to Anthropos, number of people The The can be number of graphically,elements, Ekistic units. corresponding to Ecumenopolis. From unit a basis corresponds to corresponding to each unit, etc., so that it the be used as4, which for the compose can ie class I, settlements: unit measurement and classification 40humantomax. 15,in human settlements. community Shells community of many dimensions which corresponds to House Group: people class XII. Nature, (from: 6-40 is a ‘HouseAnthropos (Man), Group’) Networks Society, Shells and Networks. Synthesis: 750M 150 M 25 M 4M 500 T 75 T 10 T 1.5 T 250 40 5 2 EKISTIC POPULATION: T = Thousand M = Million 1 Human Settlements
  15. 15. Μεγάπολις st 1 interpretation mega- + Precise scientific language: “one million” eg megawatt, megaton polis coined: 1894 “ancient Greek city-state”: From the Greek: Polis (Πόλις) “city, one’s city; the state, citizens” coined/origin: 1965-1970 Megacity (Mega-city - 1968 (C.A. Dioxiades)) “A city having a population of one million or more.” Online Etymology Dictionary
  16. 16. Μεγάπολις nd 2 interpretation mega- + From the Greek: Megas (Μέγας) “great, large, vast, big, high, tall, mighty, important” polis coined: 1894 “ancient Greek city-state”: From the Greek: Polis (Πόλις) “city, one’s city; the state, citizens” Definition: 1970+ Megacity (Mega-city - 1968 (C.A. Dioxiades)) “A Great City”, “A Big City” “A city over 10,000,000 inhabitants and under 20,000,000.” Online Etymology Dictionary
  17. 17. “The concept of MEGA-CITY is a very simple one. Developed by UN institutions to describe ever-larger urban AGGLOMERATIONS, they are defined as cities with populations above a given high threshold. The latter has increased as city sizes have grown and currently the threshold is 10 million.” Mega-cities in Theoretical Perspective - P.J. Taylor A MEGACITY is generally defined as a METROPOLITAN AREA with a total population in excess of 10 million people but under 20 million; over 20 million the term generally used is METACITY or HYPERCITY. Some definitions also set a minimum level of POPULATION DENSITY (at least 2,000 persons per sq. km.). Megacities although wrongly called GLOBAL CITIES, (also WORLD CITIES*, ALPHA, BETA and GAMMA CITIES), can be distinguished from global cities by their: • Rapid growth; • New forms of SPATIAL DENSITY of population; • Formal and informal economics, as well as, • Poverty, • Crime, • High levels of social fragmentation. World cities are those that exert a dominant influence over continental and global economies and processes. This is INDEPENDENT of population size, as world cities do not have to have huge populations (but usually do) to exert such a huge influence. Indeed, a world city (also called global city or world centre) is a city generally considered to be an important node (FOCAL POINT) in the global economic system such as London, New York and Tokyo.
  18. 18. A Megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge upon one another. The terms: CONURBATION and METROPLEX are also applied to ‘metropolitan area’. The terms: MEGAPOLIS and MEGALOPOLIS are sometimes used synonymously with ‘Megacity’. “Even so using the term MEGACITY has been a problematic one. There are two major problems associated with the common use of the term ‘Megacity’. Firstly: ‘Megacity’ is strictly ‘QUANTATIVE defined’– according to UN (2008), megacities have at least 10 million inhabitants. The WUP (World Urbanization Prospects) does not provide a rationale for determining the threshold nor does anyone else (although: C.A. Doxiades attempts with his Ekistics) – suggesting that saying - five or eight million inhabitants also make a ‘Megacity’, would not be wrong – (Davis 2006). Ponder: • Has anything changed in Istanbul in recent years due to the crossing of the 10 millionline? • Do any disparities between the megacity Lagos and the ‘non-megacity' Chicago stem from the difference in population size? • Do Los Angeles and Rio de Janeiro have, except for the size of their respective population, enough in common to be qualified in the same category of cities?
  19. 19. Despite the claim that 'mass matters' (IGU Megacity Taskforce), researchers writing on megacities do not provide answers to these and similar questions. The question, whether crossing a certain ‘quantitative threshold’ makes any ‘QUALITATIVE difference’ in urban development or city life, remains unassessed. Secondly: More problematic is that much of the literature on ‘Megacities’ deflects from the ‘quantitative’ definition and uses ‘Megacity’ as a synonym for problems in big cities in poorer countries; a popular account is Davis’ “Planet of Slums”. ‘Megacities’ are portrayed as ‘major global risk areas’ (IGU Megacity Taskforce). According to Kraas (2008, 583) “[Megacities are] particularly prone to supply crisis, social disorganization, political unrest, natural and man-made disasters due to their highest concentration of people and extreme dynamics of development.”” Megacities in the Geography of Global Economic Governance - C.Pamreiter KEEP IN MIND: There are problems with defining population size of cities, as it often depends upon where researchers draw the boundary of the city. Do they just count within the city boundaries, or do they count all of the suburbs, or do they also count all of the surrounding satellite towns as well as a conurbation?
  20. 20. MIGRATION, CITIES AND THE MODERN-WORLD SYSTEM Mega-cities in Theoretical Perspective - P.J. Taylor “Historically, cities have been great DEMOGRAPHIC sinks: they lessened life expectancies. Thus cities only grew through MIGRATION. In other words RURAL - URBAN migration has been, literally, the lifeline of cities. And before the modern era there have been very large cities: three in particular can lay claim to be the first ‘millionaire city’: • • • Imperial Rome [55BC-476AD], Caliphate Baghdad [Caliphs of Bagdad: 750-1258], and Ch’ing Peking [Ch’ing Dynasty: 1644-1912]. And these examples clearly indicate the forces behind growth of the largest cities. These great cities are reflections of the political power wielded by large world-empires; the centralization of power is accompanied by the concentration of wealth requiring in-migration to service both state function needs and satisfy market consumption wants. In these societies there were non-political cities of reasonable size with mainly economic functions – largely coastal and river ports – but they never challenged imperial capitals for sheer size.
  21. 21. Continued: MIGRATION, CITIES AND THE MODERN-WORLD SYSTEM Mega-cities in Theoretical Perspective - P.J. Taylor However, this dominance of political cities was challenged with the transition to the modern world-system in Europe in the long sixteenth century (c. 1450-1650)*. Although Europe did not have a dominant world-empire before 1450, and its urban trajectory was led by the commercial cities of northern Italy, nevertheless Europe’s largest city at the peak of the ‘commercial revolution’ in 1300 was not Venice, with an estimated 110,000, but a political city, Paris, capital of the largest kingdom, which was more than twice this size with some 228,000 residents (Chandler 1987, 17). However in the transition there is the beginning of a new pattern with economic cities within the HEGEMONIC STATE dominating urban growth (Taylor et al 2010). In this case, cities in Holland, led by Amsterdam, which was not then a capital city, show very fast growth rates relative to the rest of Europe (Israel). This is the first modern example of economic forces rivalling political forces as a maker of cities. *The Renaissance was a period of time from the 14th to the 17th century in Europe. This era bridged the time between the Middle Ages and modern times. The word "Renaissance" means "rebirth".
  22. 22. Continued: MIGRATION, CITIES AND THE MODERN-WORLD SYSTEM Mega-cities in Theoretical Perspective - P.J. Taylor This is exemplified by the British industrial revolution where • Birmingham, • Glasgow, • Liverpool, and • Manchester are the fastest growing cities of the eighteenth century (Taylor et al 2010). By 1900 seven of the 16 ‘millionaire cities’ previously referred to do not have state capital functions: Birmingham, Boston, Chicago, Glasgow, Manchester, New York, and Philadelphia. All the latter cities grew by attracting migrants for the economic opportunities that were perceived as being available. The remaining millionaire cities at this time are all capital cities but ones that were themselves rapidly industrializing such as Berlin, London, Paris and Vienna. This is the first modern effect on urbanization that is unprecedented in history: the creation of great industrial cities as described by Weber (1899). “The large urban agglomerates we call megacities are increasingly a developing world phenomenon that will affect the future prosperity and stability of the entire world.” George Bugliarello - Megacities and the Developing World
  23. 23. Continued: MIGRATION, CITIES AND THE MODERN-WORLD SYSTEM Mega-cities in Theoretical Perspective - P.J. Taylor The second modern effect on urbanization unprecedented in history is the rise of mega-cities in the twentieth century. Whereas the rural-urban migration for both political and economic cities was largely based on the pull of the cities, urban opportunities seemingly outweighing the attractions of staying rural, with mega-cities the situation is much more complex. Certainly push factors relating to reorganizations of rural worlds seem to be just as important as city pull factors. This is especially the case where the mega-city in poorer countries is unable to provide anywhere near the formal jobs to match in-migration. The result has been the production of what Davis (2006) calls ‘MEGA-SLUMS’ including many ‘millionaire slums’: first, second and third generation urban slum dwellers are becoming a major global demographic (Brugmann 2009).” Push and Pull Factors: Push factors are reasons why people leave an area/country. Pull factors are reasons why people move to a particular area/country. Push factors include: lack of services, high crime, war, poverty Pull factors include: higher employment, safer, political stability, more wealth.
  24. 24. WHAT MAKES A CITY A “MEGA-CITY” AND WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS? Mega-cities Project and Yale Center for Study of Globalization “Demographers define “mega-cities” as sprawling, crowded urban centres with populations topping 10 million. In 1995, 14 cities qualified as mega-cities; analysts predict that by 2015 there will be 21. The world’s first • • • • mega-cities were in Latin America: Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Buenos Aires. But in recent years Asian countries: • Japan, • South Korea, • China and • India have grown the fastest.
  25. 25. WHAT MAKES A CITY A “MEGA-CITY” AND WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS? continued: Mega-cities Project and Yale Center for Study of Globalization Today the five largest cities are • Tokyo, • Mexico City, • São Paulo, • Mumbai (Bombay) and • New York City. The rapid population growth of these cities is due primarily to intra-country migrations as the rural poor move from the countryside to urban areas in search of better lives. The result, unfortunately, is often: • the proliferation of urban slums, • increased crime, • high rates of unemployment and • profound environmental degradation accompanied by serious health challenges for the majority of residents. “By 2050, two-thirds of the world’s population will live in urban areas, imposing even more pressure on the space infrastructure and resources of cities, leading to social disintegration and horrific urban poverty,” says Werner Fornos, president of the Washington-based Population Institute.
  26. 26. WHAT MAKES A CITY A “MEGA-CITY” AND WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS? continued: Mega-cities Project and Yale Center for Study of Globalization According to the World Resources Institute, “Millions of children living in the world’s largest cities… are exposed to life-threatening air pollution two to eight times above the maximum tolerable level [as established by World Health Organization guidelines]. Indeed, more than 80% of all deaths in developing countries attributable to air pollutioninduced lung infections are among children under five.” One organization addressing the issue is the non-profit Mega-Cities Project, based at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut. The organization has brought together a diverse international group of community, government and business leaders to share ideas on ways to make megacities more ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE and economically vital. Indeed, the fate of many of the world’s poor rests with such efforts to smooth the transition to a planet where 60% of all people crowd into a few dozen sprawling metropolises. The rise of mega-cities, poses formidable challenges in health care and the environment…the urban poor in developing countries live in squalor unlike anything they left behind…” agrees The Washington Post
  27. 27. WHAT MAKES A CITY A “MEGA-CITY” AND WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS? continued: Mega-cities Project and Yale Center for Study of Globalization Worldwide, over a billion people live without regular access to clean water. Mega-city residents, crowded into unsanitary slums, also fall victim to serious diseases. Lima, Peru (with population estimated at 9.4 million by 2015) suffered a cholera outbreak in the early 1990s partly because, as The New York Times reported, “Rural people new to Lima…live in houses without running water and use the outhouses that dot the hillsides above.” Consumption of unsafe food and water subjects these people to regular and life-threatening diarrhoea and dehydration. “All the demographic data point to the 21st century emerging as the urban century,” says Deane Neubauer of the Yale Centre for the Study of Globalization. “But evidence also indicates that a vast portion of the new ‘megacities’…will be infested by 19th-century-style poverty.” The rise of mega-cities, poses formidable challenges in health care and the environment…the urban poor in developing countries live in squalor unlike anything they left behind…” agrees The Washington Post
  28. 28. [Remember: as cities grow and merge, new urban configurations are formed.] Agglomerations (see also: Urban Agglomeration) Agglomerations include a central city and neighbouring communities linked to it (e.g.) by continuous built-up areas or commuters. Some agglomerations have more than one central city (e.g. "The Ruhr"). Return to text Alpha City An alpha city is a city which plays a major role in the international community. Alpha cities have tremendous economic, political, and social clout, and they are viewed as primary hubs for global industry, in addition to centres of culture. Return to text Beta Cities These are important world cities that are instrumental in linking their region or state into the world economy. Return to text Caliph The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. Return to text Conurbation An extended urban area, typically consisting of several towns merging with the suburbs of one or more cities. Return to text
  29. 29. Demographic The study of population statistics. migration. It measures trends and tracks births, deaths and Return to text Demography Demography is the study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations. Return to text Ecocity or Ecopolis [also called ‘Sustainable City’] see also Sustainable City. An Ecocity is a human settlement modelled on the self-sustaining resilient structure and function of natural ecosystems. The ecocity provides healthy abundance to its inhabitants without consuming more (renewable) resources than it produces, without producing more waste than it can assimilate, and without being toxic to itself or neighbouring ecosystems. Its inhabitants’ ecological impact reflect planetary supportive lifestyles; its social order reflects fundamental principles of fairness, justice and reasonable equity. Return to text Ecology The branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings. The study of the interaction of people with their environment. Ekistics Return to text Ekistics mean the science of human settlements. It conceives of the human settlement as a living organism having its own laws and, through the study of the evolution of human settlements from their most primitive phase to Megalopolis and Ecumenopolis, develops the interdisciplinary approach needed to solve its problems.
  30. 30. Gamma Cities These can be world cities linking smaller regions or states into the world economy, or important world cities whose major global capacity is not in advanced producer services. Global City See: World City Return to text Return to text Hegemony Leadership or dominance, esp. by one country or social group. Return to text In-migration To move into a different region of the same country or territory. LEDC Less Economically Developed Country – has low level of development based on economic indicators such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product) ie country’s income. MEDC More Economically Developed Country - has high level of development based on economic indicators such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product) ie the country’s income. Megalopolis A very large, heavily populated city or urban complex. Return to text
  31. 31. Metacity (Hypercity) A city with a population of over 20 million also called a hypercity. A major conurbation – a megacity of more than 20 million people. Return to text Metroplex A very large metropolitan area, esp. an aggregation of two or more cities. Return to text Metropolitan Area/Region A formal local government area comprising the urban area as a whole and its primary commuter areas, typically formed around a city with a large concentration of people (ie. a population of at least 100,000). Return to text Migration Migration is the movement of people from one place to another. The reasons for migration can be economic, social, political or environmental. There are usually push factors and pull factors at work. Migration impacts on both the place left behind, and on the place where migrants settle. • Internal migration is when people migrate within the same country or region. • International migration is when people migrate from one country to another. • • Emigration - when someone leaves a country. Immigration - when someone enters a country. Return to text
  32. 32. Population Density Population density is an often reported and commonly compared statistic for places around the world. Population density is the measure of the number per unit area. It is commonly represented as people per square mile (or square kilometre), which is derived simply by dividing... total area population / land area in square miles (or square kilometres) For example, Canada's population of 33 million, divided by the land area of 3,559,294 square miles yields a density of 9.27 people per square mile. Return to text Qualitative Relating to, measuring, or measured by the quality of something rather than its quantity. Quantitative Return to text Relating to, measuring, or measured by the quantity of something. Rural Return to text Relating to the country and the people who live there instead of the city (urban area). Rural Migration A shift of population to urban areas. Return to text Return to text Slums Run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor. Return to text
  33. 33. Spatial Density Spatial density deals with the space and not the number of things in it. Return to text Sustainable City (see also Ecocity) A city with a liveable environment, a strong economy and a social and cultural sense of community; sustainable cities enhance the well-being of current and future generations of urban dwellers. Sustainable Cities: • are concerned about the state of the environment and how it effects it. • take steps to preserve, reuse and reduce products. • are green. Using green materials for construction and energy sources. • generally have more citizens who; recycle and grow their own food. • are PEOPLE BASED in that they focus less on expanding the economic boom of a city and more on preservation of the environment for future generations. HOWEVER, NO SUSTAINABLE CITY currently exists that uses and is completely committed to the principles of a ‘people-based’ city. Return to text Urban Related to or located in a city. The definition of ‘urban’ varies from country to country and with periodic reclassification, can also vary within one country overtime, making direct comparisons difficult. NEXT 
  34. 34. Urban (continued) An ‘Urban Area’ can be defined by one or more of the following: • Administrative criteria or political boundaries e.g. area within the jurisdiction of a municipality or town committee. • A threshold population size o i.e. where the minimum for an urban settlement is typically in the region of 2,000 people, although this varies globally between 200 and 50,000 people. • Population density • Economic function o e.g. where a significant majority of the population is not primarily engaged in agriculture or where there is surplus employment • The presence of ‘urban’ characteristics o e.g. paved streets, electric lighting, sewerage. In 2010, 3.5 billion people lived in areas classified as ‘urban’. Return to text Urban Agglomeration (see: Agglomerations) The population of a built-up or densely populated area containing the city proper, suburbs and continuously settled commuter areas or adjoining territory inhabited at urban levels of residential density. Return to text
  35. 35. The First Megacities Lecture February 1997, Rotterdam – Peter Hall Megacities, World Cities, and Global Cities By Peter Hall The author of the first Megacities Lecture – in a series of lectures to be delivered by well known authorities in the field of Megacities – is Peter Hall, Professor in Planning at the Bartlett School of Planning in London. Peter Hall is specialized in metropolitan planning and can be considered the founder of the concept “World Cities”. He published many books about the origin and development of world cities. How Rapidly Cities Are Growing [INFOGRAPHIC] Infographic depicts 2011 January 15, 2012 by Arian de Raaf A Trip to Ancient Greece: Megalopolis Megalopolis: Site Discover Ancient Rome in Google Earth SMPL: 3D Rome Reconstruction
  36. 36. Megacities and Microcities Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias: Ekistics Resource efficiency in an urban context: Defining the framework of eco-municipalities FOREIGN POLICY: The most dynamic cities of 2025 DICTIONARY.COM: Megacity REFERENCE.COM: Megacity Megacities in the Geography of Global Economic Governance Mega-cities in Theoretical Perspective City Populations and Data

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