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Capitalism

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The only presentation which gives you full information about capitalism and its aspects.

The only presentation which gives you full information about capitalism and its aspects.

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  • 1. C A P I T A L I S M Done by: M-Yaqoob
  • 2. DEFINITIONS:  An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. Oxford dictionary  The economic, political, and social system that is based on property, business, and industry being privately owned, and is directed towards making the greatest possible profits for private people and organizations. Cambridge dictionary
  • 3. HISTORY: Capitalism is presented as a 'natural' system, formed a bit like mountains or land masses by forces beyond human control, that it is an economic system ultimately resulting from human nature. However it was not established by 'natural forces' but by intense and massive violence across the globe. First in the 'advanced' countries, enclosures drove self-sufficient peasants from communal land into the cities to work in factories. Any resistance was crushed. People who resisted the imposition of wage labor were subjected to vagabond laws and imprisonment, torture, deportation or execution. In England under the reign of Henry VIII alone 72,000 people were executed for vagabondage.  Later capitalism was spread by invasion and conquest by Western imperialist powers around the globe. Whole civilizations were brutally destroyed with communities driven from their land into waged work. 
  • 4. HISTORY: The only countries that avoided conquest were those - like Japan - which adopted capitalism on their own in order to compete with the other imperial powers. Everywhere capitalism developed, peasants and early workers resisted, but were eventually overcome by mass terror and violence.  Capitalism did not arise by a set of natural laws which stem from human nature: it was spread by the organized violence of the elite. The concept of private property of land and means of production might seem now like the natural state of things, however we should remember it is a man-made concept enforced by conquest. Similarly, the existence of a class of people with nothing to sell but their labor power is not something which has always been the case - common land shared by all was seized by force, and the dispossessed forced to work for a wage under the threat of starvation or even execution.  As capital expanded, it created a global working class consisting of the majority of the world's population whom it exploits but also depends on. As Karl Marx wrote: "What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers." 
  • 5. Competition: In order to accumulate capital, our boss must compete in the market with bosses of other companies. They cannot afford to ignore market forces, or they will lose ground to their rivals, lose money, go bust, get taken over, and ultimately cease to be our boss. Therefore even the bosses aren't really in control of capitalism, capital itself is. It's because of this that we can talk about capital as if it has agency or interests of its own, and so often talking about 'capital' is more precise than talking about bosses.  Both bosses and workers, therefore, are alienated by this process, but in different ways. While from the workers' perspective, our alienation is experienced through being controlled by our boss, the boss experiences it through impersonal market forces and competition with other bosses.  Because of this, bosses and politicians are powerless in the face of ‘market forces,’ each needing to act in a way conducive to continued accumulation (and in any case they do quite well out of it!). They cannot act in our interests, since any concessions they grant us will help their competitors on a national or international level. 
  • 6. Competition: So, for example, if a manufacturer develops new technology for making cars which doubles productivity it can lay off half its workers, increase its profits and reduce the price of its cars in order to undercut its competition.  If another company wants to be nice to its employees and not sack people, eventually it will be driven out of business or taken over by its more ruthless competitor - so it will also have to bring in the new machinery and make the layoffs to stay competitive.  Of course, if businesses were given a completely free hand to do as they please, monopolies would soon develop and stifle competition which would lead to the system grinding to a halt. The state intervenes, therefore to act on behalf of the long-term interests of capital as a whole. 
  • 7. Types of capitalism:                Mercantilism Free-market capitalism Social-market economy State capitalism Corporate capitalism Mixed economy Anarcho-capitalism Crony capitalism Finance capitalism Financial capitalism Late capitalism Neo-capitalism Post-capitalism Techno capitalism Welfare capitalism
  • 8. Characteristics of Capitalism:  Economic systems determine what to produce, how to produce, and who will receive production.  An economic system must also have the ability to adapt to changing economic environments.  For example, How will America's economic system adapt to changes caused by September 11?  Adam Smith described the beginning of capitalism. 1. His book, The Wealth of Nations, was the first description of capitalism. 2. Published in 1776, it described capitalism as it was practiced in 18th century England.
  • 9. Characteristics of Capitalism: 3. Private property-the right to own resources and bequeath property 4. Freedom of enterprise-own a business 5. Freedom of economic choice-work/not work, spend/not spend 6. Role of self-interest a. People are by nature economic creatures b. Self-interest is a fundamental characteristic of people 7. Competitive market system a. Many buyers and sellers b. Market participants, buyers and sellers, have little control over price c. Competition performs the organizing and controlling functions for a market economy 8. Limited government ("Laissez-faire ") Government should let markets be with a hands-off philosophy.
  • 10. The Advantages Of Capitalism  Economic freedom helps political freedom.  Efficiency.  Economic growth.  There are no better alternatives.
  • 11. The Disadvantages Of Capitalism:       Monopoly Power. Social Benefit Ignored. Inherited Wealth and Wealth inequality. Inequality creates social division. Diminishing marginal utility of wealth. Boom and Bust cycles.
  • 12. Capitalism and Islam: Is there any real difference between the Capitalist and the Islamic economic system? Both systems allow you to make money, but they are completely different in how money is accumulated and spent. The reasons for such great differences is the source and hence, the ultimate goal of each system.
  • 13. Conclusion: The current economic crisis has exposed an enormous weakness in the global capitalist system. The collapse of the financial markets is just the beginning of a massive paradigm shift that will transform the social and ecological relationships inherent to capitalism.

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