Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence

  1. 1. Outline: Definition history Comparisons between human and computer intelligence Branches of A.I Applications Outcomes Advantages & Disadvantages Future of A.I Conclusion
  2. 2. Definition • Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it. (Wikipedia) • A.I. is a branch of computer science that studies the computational requirements for tasks such as perception, reasoning and learning and develop systems to perform those tasks
  3. 3. Definition What is Intelligence ?  To respond to situations very flexibly.  To make sense out of ambiguous or contradictory messages.  To recognize the relative importance of different elements of situations.  To find similarities between situations despite difference  To draw distinctions between situations despite similarities which may link them.
  4. 4. History of Artificial Intelligence  1943 – McCulloh and Pitts, Boolean circuit model of brain.  1950 – Turing’ intelligence. computing machine and  1956 – John McCarthy coined the term "artificial intelligence" as the topic of the Dartmouth Conference, the first conference devoted to the subject
  5. 5. History of Artificial Intelligence  In 1956, computer were solving word problems in algebra ,proving logical theorems and speaking English.  In the early 80`s AI research was received by commercial success of Expert system . In the 90`s and Early 21st Century ,,AI achieved its greatest successes
  6. 6. Comparisons between computer and human intelligence
  7. 7. Comparison Normal humans have the same intellectual mechanisms and that differences in intelligence are related to ``quantitative biochemical and physiological conditions' , but computer programs have plenty of speed and memory but their abilities correspond to the intellectual mechanisms that program designers understand well enough to put in programs. Whenever people do better than computers on some task or computers use a lot of computation to do as well as people, this demonstrates that the program designers lack understanding of the intellectual mechanisms required to do the task efficiently.
  8. 8. BRANCHES • Logical AI • Pattern Recognition • Representation • Common Sense, Knowledge and Reasoning • Planning • Epistemology • Ontology • Heuristics • Genetic Engineering
  9. 9. APPLICATIONS OF A.I. EXPERT SYSTEMS An Expert System is a computer program designed to act as an expert in a particular domain (area of expertise). Domain of E.S. Knowledge base Facts Heuristics Phases in Expert System Expert systems currently are designed to assist experts, not to replace them, They have been used in medical diagnosis, chemical analysis, geological explorations etc.
  10. 10. APPLICATIONS OF A.I. Speech Recognition The primary interactive method of communication used by humans is not reading and writing, it is speech. The goal of speech recognition research is to allow computers to understand human speech. So that they can hear our voices and recognize the words we are speaking. It simplifies the process of interactive communication between people and computers, thus it advances the goal of NLP.
  11. 11. APPLICATIONS OF A.I. Natural Language Processing The goal of NLP is to enable people and computers to communicate in a natural (humanly) language rather than in a computer language. The field of NLP is divided in 2 categories—  Natural Language understanding.  Natural Language generation.
  12. 12. APPLICATIONS OF A.I. Computer Vision People generally use vision as their primary means of sensing their environment, we generally see more than we hear, feel or smell or taste. The goal of computer vision research is to give computers this same powerful facility for understanding their surrounding. Here AI helps computer to understand what they see through attached cameras.
  13. 13. APPLICATIONS OF A.I. Robotics A Robot is an electromechanical device that can by programmed to perform manual tasks or a reprogrammable multi functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for performance of variety of tasks. An ‘intelligent’ robot includes some kind of sensory apparatus that allows it to respond to change in it’s environment.
  14. 14. OUTCOMES OF A.I
  15. 15. Advantage  it can help improve our way of life  machines will be able to do jobs that require detailed instructions mental alertness and decision making capabilities   use robots for heavy construction, military benefits, or even for personal assistance at private homes  there will be less injuries and stress to human beings
  16. 16. Advantage  Many of our health problems now have possible solutions with the use of Artificial Intelligence in studies at universities  scientists have been using AI to test theories and notions about how our brains work  AI opens up new and exciting avenues for entertainment possibilities.  AI also makes interactive electronic games more fun by making the computer controlled characters more realistic and human-like
  17. 17. Disadvantage  Growth of Unemployment rates .  Enhance laziness in humans.  Retarding human capabilities.  Need to restructure the legal system.  Could be hazardous in Hospitals.
  18. 18. FUTURE OF A.I
  19. 19. FUTURE The day is not far when you will just sit back in your cozy little beds and just command your personal Robot's to entirely do your ruts . He will be a perfect companion for you. Just enjoy the Technology.
  20. 20. FUTURE But wait, don’t be happy. It may end in other way too. Some day there will be a knock to your door. As you open it, you see a large number of Robots marching into your house destroying everything you own and looting you. This is because ever since there is an advantage in the Technology, it attracts anti-social elements. This is true for Robots too. Because now they will have full power to think as human, even as of anti-social elements. So think trice before giving them power of Cognition.
  21. 21. CONCLUSION In it’s short existence, AI has increased understanding of the nature of intelligence and provided an impressive array of application in a wide range of areas. It has sharpened understanding of human reasoning, and of the nature of intelligence in general. At the same time, it has revealed the complexity of modeling human reasoning providing new areas and rich challenges for the future.

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