Wisp T38 Sudan
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  • We have to bear in mind the importance of racial harmony! Without it, a nation can crumble and fall.
  • Neighboring countriesCurfews
  • JI’s intention is to create a DaulahIslamiyah within Southeast Asia.
  • 3)Appropriate education and higher self-esteem, their prejudices will go away4)Bring together members of different groups to appreciate common experiences and backgrounds.5)Enforcing law against discriminative behavior.Words is a powerful tool. We have to ensure that we use the right and proper words.


  • 1. Wisp Project 2009
    Jun Jie
    Shu Xian
    Yue Yang
    Liu Chin
    Benjamin Teo
  • 2. Contents
    Overview of Sudan, Darfur 2003- Instances of discrimination and prejudice- Factors triggered the conflict- Elements that led to the social fracture in Darfur
    Singapore Perspective- Similarities and differences - Singapore 2009 and 2061
    Problems and Challenges for 2061
  • 3. Ethnicity of Sudan 2003
    Northern Sudan: Arabs
    • Minority are nomadic Arabs (mainly in North Darfur)
    Southern Sudan: non-Arabs and Africans
    • Vast majority are Africans who are Intentionally marginalized
  • History
    Independence of Sudan
    • Power was directly distribute to northernArab elites
    • 4. Triggered a frustration in the South.
    • 5. Sudan becomes more “Arabized”
    Before 2003
    • Nomadic Arabs attempted to occupy conventional Fur lands
  • Forces in Sudan
    Opposition Armed Groups
    • Non-Arabs and Africans tribes
    • 6. Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)
    • 7. Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)
    Government of Sudan’s reaction
    • Armed militias known as Janjaweed
    • 8. Recruited Darfur’s landless Arab tribes
  • Timeline of Darfur 2003
    25 April 2003
    • SLA and JEM attacked Sudan’s government air base in North Darfur
    • 9. Seized a large amount of ammunition and weapons
  • Instances of discrimination and prejudice in Darfur
    -According to Agence France-Presse, “that a decades-long civil war in Sudan has led to ‘growing and persistent reports of enslavement of Africans by Arabs, genocide in the Nuba Mountains area, and ethnic cleansing in the Blue Nile area” (AFP, August 30, 2001).
    -The release of the paper, by the UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) and entitled "Race, discrimination, slavery and citizenship in the Afro-Arab borderlands", was timed to coincide with the UN conference on racism starting Friday in Durban, South Africa.
  • 10. Factors which triggered the ethnic conflict
  • Factors which triggered the ethnic conflict - cont’d
    • Geographical Features.
    • 12. Historical and Ethnographic Factors.
  • What happens when governments involve in the racial problems
    • The massive killing of the people in Darfur.
    • 13. Indirectly acceleration of conflict.
    • 14. Global society intervention.
  • Elements that led to the fracture of Darfur
    Social inequality
    Prejudices leading to discrimination
    Other important social, economic, environmental and political factors.
  • 15. Elements that led to the social fracture in Darfur - Social inequality
    • Northern Sudan Arabs monopolize the resources in Sudan
  • Elements that led to the social fracture in Darfur -Prejudices leading to discrimination
    • Government supported prejudiced led to extreme discrimination
    • 16. Different languages and had different lifestyle.
  • Elements that led to the social fracture in Darfur - Other important factors
    -Play a role as a businessman  for oil
    • Environmental
    - Natural resources distribution
  • 18. Elements that led to the social fracture in Darfur - Other important factors cont’d
    Political factors.
    • China
    -Essence(oil), weapon, ideology (a form of neo-colonism)
  • 19. Elements that led to the social fracture in Darfur - Other important factors cont’d
    Political factors.
    • USA
    -Essence(oil), weapon, ideology
    Regime interference
    Neo- colonism
  • 20. Let’s Compare
    Ethnic Differences: 4 Main Races & More than 10 Religion
    Conflicts: Man- Made Disasters
  • 21. GAPS
    Good Governance
    • Good living conditions
    • 22. Mutual Respect
  • In Focus
    • Ethnic residential quotas in HDB blocks
    • 23. Killing two birds with a stone
    Future Singapore
    • Conversation of Nationality increased
  • Similar Prejudice & Discrimination which give Rise to Social Divisions in Singapore
    MasSelamat Issue
    • Conflict was intense
    • 24. Muslim being prejudice
    • 25. Received unnecessary stares; hurt
  • What Will Happen in 2061 in Singapore?
    Distrust Among People
    Social disorders
    Government loses it’s citizen
    Tourism Industry Affected; Economy Crisis
  • 26. Solutions
    United Nation (UN)
    • Seek help on recommend methods to disputes.
    • 27. Peace keeping forces.
  • Neighboring Countries
    Lend a helping hand in times of need.
    Their experience on how the problem can be solved
  • 28. Curfews
    No late nights.
    Certain timing of the day everyone should stay home.
  • 29. Setbacks
    The United Nations(UN) is slow in taking action.
    Surrounded by Muslim Neighboring countries.
  • 30. Self-esteem hypothesis
    • Contact hypothesis
    • Legal hypothesis
  • Self-esteem Hypothesis
    With proper education, we can differentiate right from wrong.
    Higher confidence level, lesser prejudices.
  • 31. Contact Hypothesis
    Bringing people of different races together, to share about their experience, to interact.
    Learn how to appreciate each other benefits and misfortunes.
  • 32. Legal Hypothesis
    By enforcing legal actions against those who discriminates.
  • 33. Conclusion
    Nobody is Perfect
    Play our Part, be it big or Small.
    The world would be a better place
    Happy 44th Birthday Singapore
  • 34. References
    CliffsNotes.com. Prejudice and Discrimination. 13 Jul 2009 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26886.html
    Detroit Gale. (2009). Darfur. Global Issues in Context Online Collection. Retrieved 18 June 2009 from http://find.galegroup.com/gic/docRetrieve.do?inPS=true&searchPageType=BasicSearchForm&prodId=GIC&docId=CP3208520033&userGroupName=ngeeann
    Genocide in Sudan. (2008). Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. (Vol.2). Retrieved on July 11, 2009 from Global Issues in Context Perspective on International News and Events.
    KishoreMahbubani. (2009). Can Singapore fail? The straits Time. Retrieved 15 June 2009 from http://www.asiaone.com/News/AsiaOne%2BNews/Asian%2BOpinions/Story/A1Story20090325-130978.html
  • 35. The End