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  • 1. 1.Intel ectual p at i v e
  • 2. 80th prOC88888 and produca or klIowIecIge syetems often eapIor8d Ethnobiology WelinawIecIge In EIhnobIoIoQy Ct88Ied. acquJred. tranaformed and nnemltted. We -conaIdef howcadifIcatfon _ * about lcnowIedga it8eIf. VarIabIae mknowledga are inYaetigatad incIudIngiIItetUtIon ween ac:II!Ince.and tradIticInal knowIlIdge are a major fDcuá of EIhnobioIcgy ., Uedklin heallh. and nutritlorl beyond the appIIed rl8ldl!. demonetrale compIax mteractíOn:S among peoplo planlIId enwonment. In partlC1.llm medicinal planta 8/8 an active anIiI 01 research In Ethnobology Al NSF. Director Rita Colwel dltY Iopmenfor rr~ W88 apurred by her mveatigatlons of oholera and he comp/ellntaraclions among ertVIfOOmental SO<:iaI. blolog andmoIecu,* factofa. Th¡_ IS rlch IlI8lm Ior Ethnóblclogy, lield tIlat IS centrally pOSllloned tQ addreaa th ni r Mt lO RetIean:h10piCs in EthnobIolOCW lncIude tradltional knowledge and h, nulntron, medJcínal plan the mfluence ot huma -enYllonment lnteractlOClon heallh. and zoopharmacognoay- medicinal planl use by anlmals olller Ihan humana. Ecology evOlutlOn, and ByIItematics ara Irachtlonal coneema In biology and al N F however lhe) seldom accounl for humandimensIOna except for negatllB Impacts on "natura" r "artificial eelectlon" Elhnoblology on Ihe other hand di Iy 1 corporal 8 humanintaractlonS In all Iheir Iaborate complexrty Into these tradrtlonallielda. We can only illuetrale thesa productIVa nqUll19s hola How dohuman uae and management of blod1V8rsily affect ecoIoglCéIl processes and pattllms? How hava human Inleracbon Wlfh tlllCa-fromgathering to do icalJOn-influenced BY lution and ayslematics. and what trends Ot diff8lences ate Ihera w llhln and among !&la? In th Utionary procesa. how are natural and "artificial" seleclion similar and dlffe. ni? Whll muen 01 biolog bar Ir IBCOQnlZ8S th rol 01hwnana beyond their ¡nRuenee Qn dlBturbance aOO extinct1on, ethnoblOlogists are overwhelmed by lile ahv lO! ractions among peoplebiota. ~ thelr enllironmants. Certainly, II i8 pes! lime lO talte our lessons from POSltiV examples 01 human medJated boollelSlty e eatJonand management. Smaller·scale human, biola, and enVllonmenlal IOteracllona often play out al hlgher levels 01 communili s, Iand8Capes and global!renda Ethnoblology traces !hall& etfecls nd examines thelr causes Planl comm nities such as Iropical ratnloresl5-often assumed to beprimary, pnsline even "1IIrgln"-are now recognlzed as belOg slgniflcantly InRuenced by human management L ndscape lTansformalionsare dependent on diSfributlon8 01 culture, blQta. and envlronmenls resulttng in surprising paltems· blQdl ersily is corrEllalad wuh humancultural diversíty. Thc complex links belween human cultures and blodlVet811y are 01 great concern 10 Ethnoblology wrth brollder Impacla onbolh biodllersity conservabon and cultural survlVal. Related lo many 01 these intellectual questl0ns In Eihnoblology 18 B(ocomplexlty. What 15 Ihu relallonship belWt!en human dlm n0 1 Biocomplexity and Elhnobiology? Traditional knowl dge systems al the result 01 Intcractions among soc~l . biollc. and nVlronm ncomponents 01 an ecosystem. and these knowledge systems provlda feedback mechanis s belween bicla and human ommuni1rHuman interactlons with biotic and envlronmenlaJ ayslems can altar processea In diversa ways. lime sea/es can be a1tered or dlScordantoBcillation amplitudes n be modlfred. and transformalions can be found in persistence. racovery. and pradiclability. Al! o Ihasemodifications can promote nonlinear responses. Social. cultural. and politlcal systems should be Included In dynamlc ecosystem analyses.but Ilftle 18 understood about the conlrols Ihat drive these systems
  • 3. ethods for Ethnobiolo........~---~- Early "!he developmenl r EthnoblorOgy des nplton alld oIlection We{e Ihe promm nI melhods 01 r68earch (e.g, lmnaeus study f lhe Lapps A lhouBh thl radll on con Inue loday wilh mvenlones af useful plants around !he wotld modem melhodology m Ethnoblology 1 5 prol leratlOg W1 t ypoth Bis lestlng nd quanlilatlvt m hOds dominaung 1M field. A definttive aspect of Ethnoblology 18 it5 mulhchsclpllnary ure. Han e l1e m Ihod usad m Elhnoblology research for galhenng and analyzmg data are nol unlque to Ihe diSCipline, but ralh r are ntegrated rom bi logical ~o al. and lingwstlc scleness. Sdence and tradltlonal knowleclge IS bndged by Elhnobiology W are 10 a prilileged poslllon 10 d elop lheones basad on the views 01 local or ind,genous e~perts. Tho pe pie are pnmary observor 01 Biooomple~i y at the level 01 local landscapes communitlea and populaboos, nd ar nI mately qu:unled wlth chemlcaJ and gen"lie variatinn In Ible 8/Id medIcinal biola. ese Indlgenous Insighls, whlch can trmulate Importanl leaps in Iheo/} arto basad on many pects of day to-day lile. Examples IOclude new Iheones on typElS 01 ocean curre"ts around slancm basad on lndigenous Io;nowledgc 01 master rl&herfolk knowledge of aclive IngrodJenls 01 plants and arllmBls or 01 lhe dislrrbull behaVI r and lit hlstones (JI birds insects, lish mammal ,and reptiles, or epsod,c dlslurbance events Thls knowledge has developed Ihrough gathenng sgr culture. hunltng Ot IIsnlMg Oller time scales, whlcn are seldom matched by I rmally tfalne Ileld iol 9i81& and rtalnly nO! by recent ge rat1t!O al laboratory seientlsts. WhSI ethnobiologlsIs after, wlth rhell ablhly ta work ct ss-culturally is indigenous Instghl on compJex queslions. Hypotheses, Erhnoblology emanare lro diverse paradigms. cognition, ellolulio1, ecology. anthropology, hlstOry, and polrtleal el nce are onlya few Etnnoblology r seall.h tesIs nypothe~es about inlerrelal10nships among humans. biota. and the,r natu I cnvlronmenl by gatl1erlng d 5lOrtptrv and/of expelimental daln These hypotheses may then be expressed a . rnalhemallcal model . DeacllpUve methociotogles have prolilerated lor Intervlewm9, COIlp.Cltng, and Imaglng. wide ~ariety 01 tructured lo non truoturod tntervi ws and partlClpalory researeh may be used t galher tnfOrmallon Ircm parncipants. Many kmds 01 materials (moleoular blochemical, orgarnsmal cultural, archaeological. ~I(. ) mav be collee , preserved and stu ied 10 gather dala lor Elhnobiology resear . Sound recordmg and imaglng mothod playa slgntftcanl role In Elhn biology leseareh. Large-scal analyses of landseapes using remole sensing and olher spallal techntqu~ expand Ih range 01 dll8cnplton. Experimental technlques In EthnobJology are no less diverse than paradigms, hy theses, or des riptIVe methods. prIOri exp rimenlal design lor Slruclurpd s8mpling ay inelude desonplion and measurement Hypc¡thesea f efficlency can be lested through reenaetmenls and r plicas of subslSI l1ce and lood processing led"lques. In vitro and in VIVO expenment can lest the efficac y of medlcinaJs. Mark/recapture petlments and structured sampling can estlmale papulafl ns. Multlscal sampling can delect scaJe-dependent panern Common garden experiments and reclprocal Iransplal1ls r;an te st genelic and enw onment al infl ences. E~ peri mental hybridizallOn ar selectlon can lesl domes!lcahon Iheones Controlled ex erlmtml al lreafments can t I th~ ellect 01 h erbi~ory. fire, dlsturbance, soila, and other processes, E~perim n tal rechn iques in madf"rn Ethnabiology are diversa and lhe value al experimental ion In Ethnobiology mCTeases cont1nulIy fIlCIthada. pauetn anal,... lII1d rndwnaIiGaI modele c:oIIecting ancI pIffoImIng anl/yllea canlntegnde Wo!malIon relaUOI!IIihtpaamong peopIB biota, and global lImóng EthnobioIogy prognun8 G global ~ ...... and ~
  • 4. Fundin Ethnobiolo Currently undll1g for Elhnobiology comes from govemmenlal agen e such NSF. undaliona nongovemmentel organ IIon9 and corpol1lt 006 are Iso potential DUlCO H t b thes own mlS8lOn and 1 of objectives ethnob ol~rsl musl mp asile peol& 01 IhM rk hal appeal 0 Ihe fundlng 90U ce ntegl1lbon of componenl5 Unless lha eld 01 Elhn bIOlogy recognlzed as draclpline n Itsalf It el o opmenl WI I b I k f appropna e dlngInternational Research and Collaboration Ethnoblo alms lo undersland the c mpler t latlonshlps establ hed betwe n human OCI tios nnd their enVlronm nlB. 11 lB rocogn,zed thal most 101 glcal and cult ,.al dlv ily-wilh d compl•• inleracllve procasses between humana and the enVlrOnmen!-ls found tn assoCI3! Ihe !roplcs and in Ih developing wortd. Accordlngly. muc of El hnob.ology has dev lopad intematlonally In Coun! fl88 8uch as IndIa 8rBZJI. e it.o, and C hina, where Iheol li al and ethodologlcal developm..nls parallel tholle 01 U.S. and European Elhnobl logy M. a r 5ull. Ethn bi logy ould greatly ben hl ¡rom academlc exchange and collaboratlve researeh among . . elhno b lol~ ts Inlcrnati n I thnoblologisls d tr dltional peoplos. Intcrnational eollaboratlon shou d be a ITTlpollant C<:lmpon nI f Elhnoblology esear prolcct support d by NSF and o!her funding agencies. adin lO ros ion f both biologlcal reso rces an associa! d !radillonal k,nowledge II 18 cntclal to sIImulal y sI ud les. Int rcultural ilnd in!ernational mpar tive approaches are nccessary to bp.!ler understand lhe dynarmc evolullOfl f .nvor menl rel IIonshlps Bayon Intelleetual ami !heorellcal rescareh per pectlves. Buen sludles may cantnb e lo the formula Ion 01 nd praclices for feasible cOl1servation and sustainable development. fn order 10 facilita! IOlernalIonal cooperalion In Ihe fleld of thnoblology the f lIowlng faelurs have lo be e: nsider p rallY prOI&<: muo I support capaclly building and exchange among academics, lud nI . and local exptlrts. Lo al on munil16s !Id n tional insti!u!lons must participate In dehning re earcl1 seope purposes, an activities, i arder lo ensur Ihat rest>.arch r lIs w" b meal1ingful lO all partles Researchers and institullons musl eomply wilh relevant internationaJ nd nallanal legislalion. as well loe I cancerns. Speclal altenlJon Ghould be given lO developing just agreements on: • mean lor bP.n Jil shanng; • the usa 01 matcnals. derived p roducts, dal a, and knowledge collecled excl sively for auns pr6vloLllily aulnonzed by tno ommunitylassoclBllon ; • eonscientious communlcation of ,,11 researen and " ults I thtl eomm unltles wllh whÍl;h resear h is l.oncluc1ed. unless requestP.d ol helWise by a communil y. These e nside allo ,inherent 111 international collaboralion. lead us l o conslder "Ihical quesllon In Ethl10 lology. Although Ihe aflon I Seience Found tion does nal specifieally r quest such consideraltoM , elhlcs are so fundament I to Ethnobiology j at the Ethnobiulogy orki 9 GruUp ;5 damant aboul thelf inelusion (se insertj. I! . 1.-. . .... 1,.­ .~ , ~ ~, ~ .~I ) -- f.-­
  • 5. Broader Impacts of Ethnobiology For Interntfonal collabordon. appliCatlOr 1& cnticaJ Wlm Importllrlt elhical andpofltical impIIcatIona. AppliCatton directly affecla lha ease (or dlfficulty Wlth whidlmtemational I~ proc:eeds " cIeveIop!ng countnes with 1ha bulk 01 In woridbiologicaJ and eultl.lraJ dhlel1líty In Ihl -world counlries, ooIlaborat ng scenll IhelflnatlMiOn and countty representativea favor attenlion lo problemocenlel9d reaearch Ihaladdreaes local or natlOnal priorillBtl A focus on problem centered apphed resaaroh does nol mean thal Ihedevelopmenl of IIIteUectual and theoretical approaches to 8iocomplexrty are IgnoradO Ihe contnuy ~oIogista now haYe a well developed body of theoretrcalapproac:hes appropnBle 10r modal,"; quantltatlve analys¡s, and expeflmentatlonWe rejecl sny didl lomy betwee apphed and lheoretlCal Elhnoblology re&eaNOI only oes ptneIy Iheorelical research have unlnlen ed applied spin-offa. bul applied problem are the ulllmate mod I agaln$t which scientists n testand refine theoretrcal appro.chea and conceptual frameworks. Ther 1& worldwlde Interest and nthusiasm am ng 1.101 rSlty sludenl in r lev80 r!JSll4rch Ihat addre ses apphed problema ilh a robust Iheorehcat framework, lliis offers grest educatlOnaJ snd capacil) building opportumllos. Wllh Ihe NSF emphaslB on educarlon and graater Impacta of rescareh applied Elhnoblology-of relevan lo !ltudenls and Ihe public-Is val) appeahng. Elhnobl logy is In a positl n lo Jin researeh w lth Ih mOfe practi lIy orisnled publico We suggesl thero are major opportunltles lar bndglng Bpphed and theorelical pects 01 Ethnobiology research, and we encourage NSF and other funde la d v lop a broad. creative approach lo IOlelleclual ImperallV s, p rticularly in Ethnoblology
  • 6. Education d • ,,,a a. " )1 t ching t 31nln9 an I le mlng; • 1" lu inr. 01 rtd rr proS mled gr " p< • l11pl o JElm(:I 1 .Juc ü ien ,1i ,frastTudllr ~ ; di semlnation f results to policy-mskers. InduSI y, r10dla and 11(3 general public , benc flls to thf. communlly and i,.,peralives for " oei -Iy B3caU!le "Ulniln valu an aclJon. are ,lIl1ral te. p &¡,Oll 1 uf d gradalion 01 n tur 1, .. ources, ethm,l I/JI ~ lisis have a key r , ~pon Ib!¡<lS duc l or on ..1I 1 I~, l:v