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Individual differences
 

Individual differences

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    Individual differences Individual differences Presentation Transcript

    • Individual DifferencesandComputer – Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
      By,
      RatnatyaraWahyuhadi
      RofiqoMujahidah
      Tri Yanuarsih
    • Theories of second language learning
      Individual differences
    • Models with independent learner variables
      - The “Good Language Learner’ Model
      - Monitor theory
      - Brown & Fraser’s Framework
      - Levin’s Schematic Model
      Models with Interdependent learner variables
      - Gardner’s Educational Model
      - Skehan’s Model of influences on language learning
      - Spolsky’s Model of second language learning
      Models of Second Language Acquisition (SLA)
    • The ‘Good Language-Learner’ Model
      Proposed by Naiman, Frohlich, Todesco and Stern (1978)
    • TEACHING
      Materials
      Syllabus
      Methodology
      Resources
      OUTCOME
      THE LEARNERS
      LEARNING
      Proficiency
      • Listening
      • Speaking
      • Reading
      • Writing
      Errors
      Inter language
      Affective reason
      Unconscious processes
      • Generalization
      • Transfer
      • Simplification
      Conscious processes
      - strategies
      Age
      Intelligence
      Motivation
      Attitude
      Personality
      Cognitive Style
      THE CONTEXT
      EFL/ESL
      Opportunities for use
      Social Milieu
    • Proposed by :
      - Krashen (1978,1981,1982, 1985)
      - Dulay, Burt & Krashen (1982)
      - Krashen & Terrel (1983)
      Monitor Theory
    • MONITOR
      O
      UTPUT
      INPUT
      Affective
      Filter
      Cognitive
      Organizers
      Affective Filter :
      • Attitude
      • Motivation
      • Self-confidence
      • Anxiety
    • 1979
      Brown & Fraser’s Framework
    • Situation
      Scene
      Participants
      Setting
      (bystanders,
      local, time)
      Purpose
      (buying, lecturing,
      playing a game)
      Individuals
      Relationship
      Between
      Individuals
      (shared
      Knowledge,
      power)
      Individual
      Qua individual
      (personality,
      attitude)
      Individual as
      member of a
      social category
      (class, ethnicity)
    • Levin (1977)
      Levin’s Schematic Model
    • 2 major stages :
      - diagnostic
      - prescriptive
      Focused on 2 variables :
      - input (traits, abilities, prerequisites)
      - output
    • Models with interdependent learner variables
      These models not only identify the independent influence of the individual-related variables and other variables but also consider that these variables influence each other and jointly create differences in learning outcomes.
      Models of this type include:
      - Gardner’s educational model
      - Skehan’s model of influences on language learning
      - Spolsky’s model of second language learning
    • The model encompasses three main aspects:
      - Cultural beliefs
      - Individual differences
      - Second Language Learning (SLA)/learning contexts
      There are three points that can be inferred from Gardner’s model.
      - There should be a direct link between cultural beliefs and individual difference variables
      - Gardner highlights the importance of individual differences (e.g. intelligence, language aptitude, motivation, and situational anxiety) upon which his approach is primarily based.
      - There is a linkage between variables within the framework which, in turn jointly affect other variables.
      Gardner’s Educational Model
    • Individual
      Differences
      Social Milieu
      Social Milieu
      Social Milieu
      Intelligence
      Formal
      Language
      Training
      Language
      Aptitude
      Linguistic
      Cultural
      Belief
      Motivation
      Non
      Linguistic
      Informal
      Language
      Training
      Situational
      anxiety
      Gardner’s (1979) schematic representation of the theoretical model
    • Linguistic
      Integrativeness
      formal
      Cultural
      Belief
      Motivation
      informal
      Nonlinguistic
      Attitudes
      towards the
      learning
      situations
      Language
      Aptitude
      Operational formulation of the socio-educational model (Gardner, 1985)
    • A modification of the ‘Good Language Learner (GLL)’ model developed by Naiman, et al, (1978)
      There are two differences between the two models:
      1. A new ‘opportunities for target language use’ category has been added
      2. The sub-variables under the ‘classrooms and materials’ variable was proposed
      Skehan’s Model of Influences on Language Learning
    • Spolsky’s Model of Second Language Learning
      Spolsky based his model on a core of five features summarized as follows:
      - Combining in a single theory all aspects of second or foreign language learning which he described as ‘unabashed immodesty’.
      - A restriction to the specific domain of second language learning and a focus on individual differences.
      - ??
      - A spirit of eclecticism seems to underlie Spolsky’s model.
      - The model recognizes the importance and existence of ‘social context’ as an important domain affecting learning outcomes.
      Spolsky’s model consists of two main clusters, i.e. ‘conditions of social contexts’ and ‘conditions of learners’.
    • Classrooms
      Andmaterials
      The learner
      Materials
      Syllabus
      Methodology
      Resources
      Organization
      • Structuring
      • Explicitiveness
      Responsiveness
      • Appropriateness
      of pacing
      • Individualization
      • Feedback
      provision
      Intelligence
      Aptitude
      Motivation
      Attitude
      Personality
      Cognitive style
      Opportunities
      for target
      language use
      Access to NS
      -In class
      -Out of class
      Opportunities for
      communication
      language use
      Opportunities for
      negotiation
      Out comes
      Learning
      Conscious
      strategies
      Unconscious
      strategies
      Proficiency
      Errors
      Fossilization
      Affective
      outcome
      SocialContext
      Expectation of
      bilingualism
      Relationship to
      target language
      community
      Attitudes to target
      language
      Social class
    • There are two points that can be noted from Spolsky’s model of language learning and its underlying features:
      1. Spolsky’s model appears to be promising as a parameter for identifying variations in learner variables
      2. The second point relates to the fourth feature underlying Spolsky’s model. This feature of eclecticism clearly implies that his model can be modified and adjusted according to learning conditions (contexts).
    • Social context
      Leads to
      Social context
      Which appear in the learners as
      Motivation
      Which joins with other personal characteristic such as
      Personality
      Capabilities
      Previous Knowledge
      Age
      All of which explain the use the learner
      makes of the available
      Learning opportunities
      (formal or informal)
      The interplay between learner and
      situation determining
      Linguistic and non-linguistic
      Outcomes for the learners
    • From the review of these specific SLA models, there are two points that can be highlighted:
       
      No matter what the model of SLA is, learner variables are claimed to relate to learning outcomes
      Most models posit learner variables as caused variables influencing the learning outcome.
    • Age
      Attitudes
      Motivation
      Intelligence
      Language aptitude
      Previous knowledge
      Familiarity with computers
      Interaction with native-speakers of English
      Language used for interaction with the community
      Individual Differences
    • young children are better in the most crucial areas particularly in oral (communicative) proficiency, but adults’ rate of acquisition is faster than children, particularly in morphology and syntax.
      Age
    • A student who has negative or positive attitude toward learning process will affect his/her interaction during the learning process.
      Attitudes
    • Intrinsic
      Intrinsic motivation is one which comes from the learners’ own persona.
      Extrinsic
      Extrinsic motivation is one which comes from out side and beyond individual.
      Motivation
    • There is a positive correlation between intelligence and language learning achievement.
      Intelligence
    • According to Carroll (1981:84) aptitude can be defined as :
      a concept which corresponds to the notion that in approaching a particular learning task or program, the individual may be thought of as possessing some current state of capacity of learning that task if the individual is motivated, and has the opportunity of doing so. The capacity is presumed to depend on some combination of more or less enduring characteristic of the individual.
      Language Aptitude
    • In a foreign language learning context, previous language knowledge plays an important role in a further process of language learning, in terms of language learning achievement.
      Previous knowledge
    • It is considered as a variable in a computer-mediated language learning environment.
      It will help the students to access the knowledge.
      Familiarity with computers
    • Can interaction with native speakers of the target language being learned enhance language learning achievement?
      Interaction with native-speakers of English
    • Smith-Kreuzen (1988) : learners will interact using the target language.
      Hartoyo : only in formal-teaching learning situations (classroom context). In informal situations (outside the classroom), Indonesian is likely to be used more than English.
      Language used for interaction with the community
    • Despite the fact that not all studies on the relationship between individual-related variable and language learning achievement have revealed similar findings, the majority of studies indicates that these variables significantly affect language learning achievement. Furthermore, the review has repeatedly demonstrated that the variables do not operate in isolation. The are important though unclear interaction between them.
      SUMMARY
    • THANK YOU