Key Concepts to Remember About Latin America By Mrs. Cullen
Geography and Its Effects• Location – Latin America is that part of the Western Hemisphere south of the United States – Contains four regions: Mexico, Central America, Caribbean, and South America – Effects of Location:
Regionalism• People feel more loyalty to their local areas than they do to their country• Caused by geography by:
Resources• Has a variety of resources including oil in Venezuela• Venezuela belongs to:• Effects of having resources:
Important Geographic EffectsFeaturesMountains - Andes, Sierra Causes regionalismMadres Hinders farming, settling, trading Terrace farming?Plains - pampas, llanosRainforests - AmazonIsthmus - PanamaDesert - AtacamaRivers - Amazon, Rio deJaneiro, Orinoco
Early Civilizations• What does the term Pre-Columbian mean?• What does the term Mesoamerican mean?
The MayaLocation GuatemalaAchievementsHow They Adapted toTheir EnvironmentReasons for Decline Disease? Invasion?
The AztecsLocation MexicoAchievementsHow They Adapted toTheir EnvironmentReasons for Decline
The IncaLocation Peru, South AmericaAchievementsHow They Adapted toTheir EnvironmentReasons for Decline
Cultural Terms• Latin America is culturally diverse - has been affected by Native American, African, Asian, and European cultures
Cultural Terms• Machismo - traditional attitude of male superiority• Patriarchal - male dominates the family
Cultural Terms• Roman Catholic Church - important institution in Latin America since the 1500s• Traditionally supported the governments (including the corrupt ones)
Cultural Terms• Liberation theology: Catholic nuns and priests who encourage Latin American people to fight for social justice (even though the Pope does not approve of their actions)
Cultural Diffusion• Latin America has experienced cultural diffusion through the mixing of ideas from African slaves, European settlers, Asian immigrants and Native Americans• Examples of Cultural Diffusion:
European Colonialism 1500-1825• Political Aspects•Spanish king was absolute monarch •Appointed Viceroys (governors) torun the colonies• •Appointed audiencias (court/spies) to monitor the activities of the viceroy
European Colonialism 1500-1825• Economic Aspects•Mercantilism - •Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade•Encomienda•Repartimiento - Native Americans work part of the year for the Spanish•Peonage - cycle of debt that kept Native Americans stuck working for Spanish
European Colonialism 1500-1825• Social Aspects• Peninsulares =• Creoles/Criollos =• Mestizos & Mulattos =• Native Americans =• (Bartholomew de las Casas)• African slaves = worked on plantations
Independence Movements late 1700s-early 1800s• Causes:
Independence Movements late 1700s-early 1800s• Toussaint L’Ouverture – Freed ________________ – Miguel Hidalgo • Led rebellions in _________________
Independence Movements late 1700s-early 1800s• Simon Bolivar “The Liberator” – Freed ____________________ – Gran Colombia = _______________• Jose de San Martin – Freed __________________ – “Knight of the Andes”
Problems in Latin America Following Independence• Caudillos/Dictators & Juntas – Democracy requires educated citizens and compromise; most people were uneducated; easier for a dictator to take control• Economies reliant on one or two cash crops =• Power of the Oligarchy – Three groups that held the most power • 1. – 2. » 3.
Relationship with the United States • Monroe Doctrine = US told Europe that they were not allowed to reestablish colonies in Latin America
Relationship with the United States • Spanish-American War 1898 – US assisted Cuba in breaking away from Spanish colonialism – US obtained:
Relationship with the United States• Roosevelt Corollary – US established itself as the “policeman of the Western Hemisphere”
Relationship with the United States • Good Neighbor Policy/Alliance for Progress – Efforts by the US to help Latin American nations improve standard of living – US tries to improve its image
Relationship with the United States • NAFTA = North American Free Trade Agreement • Involves USA, Mexico, and Canada • Removes tariffs on trade among these three countries
Civil War in Nicaragua late 1970s-1980s• Somoza family dictators ruled from 1936-1970s• 1978 – assassination of Pedro Chamorro, publisher of opposition newspaper, sparked uprising which toppled the Somoza government• 1979 – Sandinistas came to power under Daniel Ortega – wanted a socialist type of state to improve lives of people
Civil War in Nicaragua• Sandinistas vs. Contras• USA supported Contras – military force trying to overthrow Sandinistas• 1990 – Violetta Chamorro is elected President; has people from both the Contras and the Sandinistas in her government
El Salvador• Smallest, most densely populated Central American nation• Coffee cultivation important• Largely dominated by few wealthy families• Civil war – protest against long years of corrupt military governments & economic unfairness
El Salvador• 1979 – government tries a US-backed program to distribute land to peasants – turned 472 privately-owned plantations into cooperative farms• Divided the population• Terrorist groups formed – death squads & guerrillas• 1980s – 70,000+ people killed• Over 500,000 people homeless• 1989 – murder of Jesuit priests and nuns
Death Squads in El Salvador• Death squads common in 1970s and 1980s - military groups who made people “disappear” in the middle of the night
El Salvador• Archbishop Oscar Romero was assassinated while saying mass for his support of liberation theology
• Liberation theology: Catholic nuns and priests who encourage Latin American people to fight for social justice (even though the Pope does not approve of their actions)
Puerto Rico’ Position as a Commonwealth• Are citizens of USA• Are not allowed to vote for president• Do not pay federal income taxes• Debate in PR on whether to become the 51st state, stay a commonwealth, or declare independence
Panama• The Canal – The Beginning: Who built the canal?• December 31, 1999 - Control of the Panama Canal Zone passed from the US to Panama – Still a major international trade route
Panama - Manuel Noriega• Panamanian President involved in drug trafficking between Colombia and USA• US Marines entered Panama to apprehend Noriega• Surrounded him in a church - played loud music to get him to leave the church• Still in a Miami jail?
Drug Cartels• Gangster organizations – established an illegal but highly profitable drug trade• 2 main centers/cartels – Medellin & Cali• Use bribery, murder, bombings as terrorist techniques to keep power
Drug Trafficking• 1989 – US govt gave Colombian govt military equipment and advisers in war against cocaine• In return, US wanted heads of drug cartels to be EXTRADICTED to US (turned over to stand trial)• Didn’t work – drug cartels increased terrorism
Brazil & Deforestation• What is deforestation?