9hbyzantinemepire

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9h byzantine empire pre-ap world

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9hbyzantinemepire

  1. 1. The Byzantine Empire
  2. 2. Engineering an Empire  http://youtu.be/jFdTt9lNkE8
  3. 3. Essential Question: What is the significance of the Byzantine Empire?
  4. 4. What happened to the Roman Empire by 500 A.D.?
  5. 5. The Fall of the Roman Empire After the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire entered an era of decline The Roman Empire had a series of weak emperors Romans had a large trade imbalance (they bought more than they produced) As Rome grew more in debt, the military became weak & began using foreign mercenary soldiers
  6. 6.  Text Emperor Diocletian tried to save Rome by dividing the empire The Western Roman Empire continued to grow weak Emperor Constantine moved the Roman capital to Constantinople in the Eastern Roman Empire
  7. 7. The Fall of the Roman EmpireBy 476, barbarians conquered the Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire fell into the Middle Ages (“Dark Ages”) from 500 to 1300 A.D.
  8. 8. What happened in the Eastern Roman Empire?
  9. 9. The Fall of the Roman EmpireWhile the Western Roman Empire was in decline… …the Eastern Roman Empire remained strong The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire
  10. 10. the Byzantine capital of Constantinople? Text
  11. 11. The Byzantine capital was Constantinople Constantinople was a wealthy trade city located between the Mediterranean & Black Seas
  12. 12. Byzantine Capital of Constantinople
  13. 13. The Byzantine Empire ■Citizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire: –The Byzantine Empire kept alive Greco-Roman culture –Constantinople was a center for learning where schools taught philosophy, medicine, Greek and Latin grammar, geometry
  14. 14. The Byzantine Empire ■Citizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire: Byzantine Hagia Sophia How was architecture similar? Roman Pantheon
  15. 15. The Byzantine Empire ■Citizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire: –Constantinople used Roman-style architecture such as arches & domes –Byzantine cities had forums for trade & arenas to entertain citizens
  16. 16. One of the most impressive architectural buildings in the Byzantine Empire was a Christian cathedral called the Hagia Sophia
  17. 17. The Byzantine Empire ■Citizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire: –The official language was Latin, but most Byzantines spoke Greek
  18. 18. The Byzantine Empire ■Citizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire: Religion in the Byzantine Empire Religion in the late Roman Empire How was religion similar?
  19. 19. Because of its location close to Judea, most Byzantines had converted to Christianity before those in the Western Roman Empire
  20. 20. The Byzantine Empire Roman government Byzantine government How was government similar? ■Citizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire: –Both the Roman & Byzantine Empires were ruled by emperors who had absolute power over the empire –Justinian was the most famous Byzantine Emperor
  21. 21. About 50 years after the fall of Rome, Byzantine Emperor Justinian came to power & began reconquering Roman territories
  22. 22. In addition to empire building, what else did Emperor Justinian value? In addition to empire building, what else did Emperor Justinian value?
  23. 23. The Justinian Code  To oversee his new empire, Justinian ordered legal experts to consolidate old Roman laws into a single law code  The Justinian Code served as the legal basis for criminal justice, marriage, property, slavery, & women’s rights  The law code became one of the most important legacies of the Byzantine Empire & served as the basis for laws for the next 900 years
  24. 24.  In addition to expanding the empire & creating a uniform set of laws, Emperor Justinian also began large building projects  He ordered the construction of the Hagia Sophia to show the importance of the church  He built hospitals, aqueducts, public baths, schools, & courts Justinian
  25. 25.  Justinian’s wife Theodora had a lot of power & influence in the Byzantine Empire:  She met with & wrote to foreign leaders  She advised Justinian & helped him pass laws  She encouraged building of Christian cathedrals Empress Theodora
  26. 26. Terms associated with Justinian Corpus Juris Civilis Nikia Revolt Theodora Golden Horn Hagia Sophia Bosporus Strait codification Procopius Hippodrome Justinian’s Code
  27. 27. Problems after justinian  Too much distant territory to protect  An empty treasury  A smaller population after a plague  Renewed threats to the frontiers
  28. 28. Issues in the 7th century  Militarization of the empire as they faced attacks from Persians in east and Slavs to the north  Most serious challenge was rise of Islam - tried to besiege Constantinople in 674  Northern frontier - Bulgars in the Balkans established a strong kingdom on border  By 8th century - had lost land and was an eastern Mediterranean state
  29. 29. Issues in the 8th century  Latin fell into disuse, Greek became official language  Iconoclast controversy
  30. 30. The Division of Christianity ■Because of the distance & lack of contact between Byzantine Empire & Western Europe, Christianity developed differently –All Christians based their faith on Jesus & the Bible –But they had different practices to show their faith
  31. 31. The Division of Christianity  Christians were organized the same way:  Archbishops & bishops oversaw regions where Christianity was practiced  Priests led individual churches  But, Christians in the East & West disagreed over leadership of the Church
  32. 32. The Division of Christianity  Christians in Western Europe:  Believed that there should be a Pope to oversee bishops & give authority to all Christians  Christians in Western Europe accepted the authority of the Pope
  33. 33. The Division of Christianity  Christians in Eastern Europe:  Believed that the Byzantine Emperor had authority over issues involving Christianity  Byzantine emperors relied on a Patriarch to oversee the church, but the emperor had final authority  Christians in the Byzantine Empire did not accept the authority of the Pope
  34. 34. The Division of Christianity  One of the biggest controversies among Christians was the use of icons:  Icons were religious images to help Christians in their prayers & worship  Some Christians thought this was “idol worship”  In 730, the Byzantine Emperor banned icons & many Christians rioted
  35. 35. Emperor Leo III ordered the destruction of icons in the Byzantine Empire Riots broke out between people who wanted icons & iconoclasts (those who wanted to ban icons) The Pope in Western Europe supported the use of icons & called the Byzantine Emperor a heretic (a believer of false ideas) The Pope excommunicated the emperor (kicked him out of the church)
  36. 36. The Division of Christianity  These disagreements led to deep divisions among Christians & the Great Schism (split) occurred in 1054:
  37. 37. The Division of ChristianityChristians in Western Europe became the Roman Catholic Church Christians in Eastern Europe became the Eastern Orthodox Church
  38. 38. The Division of Christianity Roman Catholics & Eastern Orthodox Christians practice their regions differently:
  39. 39. Religion in Europe Today
  40. 40. Intellectual life  Scholars preserved classical works  Produced their own literature - very practical - legal, military & administrative matters  Many theological treatises  Procopius’ Wars
  41. 41. Constantinople & trade  Largest city in Europe during Middle Ages  Europe’s greatest commercial center until 12th century  Entrepot for exchange of products between east and west  During Justinian’s reign, 2 Christian monks smuggle silkworms from China and set up silk industry
  42. 42. Golden age (750-1025)  New dynasty - Macedonians 9th & 10th centuries  Spread Eastern Orthodox Christianity to Russia  Strong civil service, talented emperors, military advances
  43. 43. Decline & fall  After 1056, internal struggles for power between military leaders & aristocratic families  Increasing reliance on mercenaries  Schism between the two branches of Christianity  Advance of Seljuk Turks into Anatolia
  44. 44. Decline & fall  Alexius Comnenus (1081-1118) - strong revival  BUT here comes the Crusades  Emperor Alexius asked the west (Pope Urban II) for military assistance against the Seljuk Turks  Did worry about western crusading armies wanting to overthrow him  1204 - Christian crusaders sacked Constantinople
  45. 45. 1453  Ottoman Turks under Mehmet II took control of Constantinople  Turned Hagia Sophia into a mosque  Constantinople became Istanbul QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

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