9h middleages

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9h middleages

  1. 1. e Emergence of Europe: e Middle Ages
  2. 2. Key Question: After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, what contributions did the Romans, the Christian Church, and the Germanic peoples make to the new civilization that emerged in the region?
  3. 3. Warm Up: What happened to Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire? In
the
East,
the
Byzan.ne Empire
became
a
center
for trade
&
Greco‐Roman
culture
  4. 4. The Middle Ages In
the
West,
Europe
grew weak
&
fell
into
the
Middle Ages
from
500
to
1300 Also
known
as
the
“Dark
Ages”
or
“Medieval”
era
  5. 5. Europe After the Fall of RomeWhen
barbarian
kingdoms
conquered
Rome, Europe
was
plagued
by
constant
warfare Warfare
disrupted
trade, destroyed
Europe’s
ci.es,
& forced
people
to
rural
areas Learning
declined; Few
people
could read
or
write Greco‐Roman culture
was
forgoQen Europe
lost
a
common
language;
La.n
mixed
with local
languages
to
form
Spanish,
French,
Italian
  6. 6. Germanic Tribes in the Middle AgesWithout
the
unity
of
the
Roman
Empire,
Europe became
divided
into
a
series
of
Germanic
kingdoms Germanic
people
lived
in small
communi.es

led
by chiefs
&
his
loyal
warriors Family
.es

&
loyalty were
more
important than
ci.zenship
  7. 7. The New Germanic Kingdoms -from Denmark & northern Germany -Moved into Britain -Roman influence not as strong -in Spain -maintained much of structure of Roman govt -power centered in a Germanic warrior caste -in Italy -preserved Roman tradition of govt -Theodoric kept Romans under Roman law & his own people under their own customs Angles/SaxonsVisigothsOstrogoths
  8. 8. Kingdom of the Franks  Established by Clovis, Merovingian dynasty  Became Catholic, c. 500 CE - earned him support of Roman Catholic Church  Stretched from Pyrenees to western Germany  Split up among his sons after his death
  9. 9. Germanic Society -main social bond = extended family -patriarchal -law was very personal - led to many blood feuds (different from Roman law where offenses were against society) -could get very bloody so developed system - wergeld - $ paid by wrongdoer to family of person injured or killed -method to determine guilt/innocence = ORDEAL - based on idea that divine forces would not allow an innocent person to be harmed
  10. 10. The Spread of ChristianityDuring
the
early
Middle
Ages,
the
Germanic kingdoms
were
slowly
converted
to
Chris.anity The
Catholic
Pope
became
involved
in
secular (non‐religious)
issues
like
road
repair,
aiding
the poor,
&
helping
Chris.an
kings
expand
their
power
  11. 11. Organization of the Church  Diocese - city area headed by a bishop  4 Main Cities/Bishops of Rome, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch  Rome special - Jesus had given “keys to the kingdom of Heaven” to Peter, 1st bishop of Rome
  12. 12. Monks  Sought to live life away from ordinary society to pursue life dedicated to God  Monasticism - monks living together in a community; ascetic life often  St. Benedict established rules
  13. 13. Benedict’s Rules  Divided day into activities with emphasis on prayer and manual labor  Idleness was “enemy of the soul”  Communal life - prayed, ate, slept, worked together  Monastery led by an abbot - unquestioning control of monks  Nuns - female version - convents/abbesses
  14. 14. Community Role of Monasteries  Provided schools, hospitality for travelers, and hospitals for the sick  Copied ancient works  Centers of learning  missionaries
  15. 15. The Spread of ChristianityThe
Franks
were
the
largest
&
most
powerful
of the
Germanic
kingdoms
in
the
early
Middle
Ages Frankish
kings
allied with
the
Catholic
Church &
expanded
their
power In
771,
Charlemagne (“Charles
the
Great”) became
king
of
the
Franks
  16. 16. Charlemagne & the Frankish EmpireCharlemagne
was
the
greatest
Medieval
king because
he
did
something
no
other
king
was
able to
do…create
an
organized
empire
– The
Holy
Roman
Empire
(First
Reich) Charlemagne
expanded the
Frankish
empire He
spread Chris.anity
– Missi
Dominici He
valued
learning
&
built schools
in
his
empire He
created
schools
to train
future
priests
  17. 17. Charlemagne & The Holy Roman Empire A]er
Charlemagne’s
death in
814,
his
Frankish
Empire was
divided
&
lost
power… …This
was
the
last opportunity
to
provide unity
in
medieval
Europe
  18. 18. Consolidation of Power in Frankish Kingdom  7-8th centuries - chief officers within king’s household took power - Pepin  768 - Pepin’s son Charles the Great, aka Charlemagne took over  Strong leader, pious Christian, illiterate  Patron of learning  Carolingian Empire - covered much of western & central Europe  Used counts as king’s chief representatives in local areas  Missi dominici - messengers of the king who checked local districts to see if counts were carrying out king’s wishes
  19. 19. Significance of Charlemagne 800 CE - acquired title “Emperor of the Romans” Demonstrated the enduring strength of concept of a Roman empire Fusion of Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements: Germanic king crowned emperor of Romans by spiritual leader of western Christendom
  20. 20. Carolingian Empire disintegrates *By
843,
Charlemagne’s
empire
was
divided
among
3 grandsons 1. Western
Frankish
lands
‐
eventually
becomes
France 2. Eastern
lands
‐eventually
becomes
Germany 3. “Middle
Kingdom”
extending
from
North
Sea
to Mediterranean
‐
became
a
source
of
incessant struggle
between
the
two
other
Frankish
rulers *The
figh.ng
allowed
powerful
nobles
to
rise
  21. 21. Invasions of the 9th & 10th Centuries
  22. 22.  Text From
800
to
1000,
a
2nd
major
wave
of
invasions struck
Europe
led
by
Vikings,
Muslims
&Magyars These
invasions caused
widespread fear
&
suffering Kings
could
not defend
against invasion People
stopped looking
to
kings for
protec.on
  23. 23. e Barbarians: Vikings hQp://youtu.be/545c2A4Imhk
  24. 24. Feudalism • Feudalism
began
in Europe
as
a
way
to offer
protec.on • Feudalism
is
based
on land
&
loyalty • Land‐owning
lords offer
land
(called
a
fief) to
knights
in
exchange for
their
loyalty
& promise
to
protect
the lord’s
land • Feudalism
came
to England
with
Norman Invasion
in
1066 Bayeaux Tapestry
  25. 25. Feudal Structure Kings
had
land
but very
liQle
power Lords
(also
called
Nobles)
were
the upper‐class
landowners;
they
had inherited
.tles
(“Duke,”
“Earl,”
“Sir”) Knights
were
specially
trained
soldiers who
protected
the
lords
&
peasants
– vassals
took
an
oath
of
fealty
(loyalty) Some
peasants
were
serfs
& could
not
leave
the
lord’s
estate
  26. 26. Subinfeudation - vassals had vassals who had vassals
  27. 27. Lords built castles to protect their territory from outside invasions
  28. 28. The Manorial System The
lord’s
land
was called
a
manor During
the
Middle
Ages,
the manorial
system
was
the
way in
which
people
survived The
lord
provided peasants
with
housing, farmland,
&
protec.on In
exchange,
peasants repaid
the
lord
by working
his
land
& providing
a
por.on
of the
food
they
produced
  29. 29. Manors
were
self‐sufficient
communi.es;
Everything that
was
needed
was
produced
on
the
manor Peasant
life
was
hard:
They
paid
taxes
to
use
the lord’s
mill,
had
to
get
permission
to
get
married, &
life
expectancy
was
about
35
years
old
  30. 30. For Discussion: What roles did aristocrats, peasants, and townspeople play in medieval European civilization, and how did their lifestyles differ?
  31. 31. For Discussion: How did cities in Europe compare with those in China and the Middle East?
  32. 32. Italian merchant fleets took crusaders to east and engaged in trade -received trading concessions in Syria & Palestine Trade between Italy & China enabled by Pax Mongolica 13th century -Marco Polo Mostly agrarian Revival of trade in 11th-12th c. Italian city-states like Venice led the way Bruges & Ghent in Flanders led way in north Trade fairs arose & use of gold & silver Middle EastChinaEurope
  33. 33. The Rise of Towns & Cities  Popped up along trade routes  Often set up outside castles & fortresses - leads to term “borough, burg, burgh, bourg)  Merchants & artisans demanded different rights from kings and nobles - needed greater mobility  Townspeople often swore oath forming a commune to stand up together against lords - wanted self-government
  34. 34. Guilds  Artisans formed these association along craft lines  Determined who could join, prices, quality, etc
  35. 35. For Discussion: What were the main aspects of the political, economic, spiritual, and cultural revivals that took place in Europe in the High Middle Ages?
  36. 36. England in the Middle Ages  1066 - Battle of Hastings  William of Normandy crowned king of England  Norman knights got fiefs and swore oath of loyalty to William - beginning of creation of a strong, centralized monarchy
  37. 37. Scene from Bayeaux Tapestry
  38. 38. Repercussions of Norman Conquest  William was King of England but vassal to king of France - kept England connected with continental European affairs
  39. 39. Growth of English Institutions  Henry II (1154-1189) - increased power of royal courts; common law began to replace local law; lost battle to control English church  Magna Carta - King John (1199-1216) - English nobles tried to secure their feudal liberties against the growing power of the king  Edward I (1272-1307) - Parliament - came from idea of 2 knights from every county and 2 townspeople meeting with Great Council to consent to new taxes (“power of the purse”)
  40. 40. Growth of French Kingdom  987 - death of last Carolingian king led to choice of Hugh Capet, establishing new Capetian dynasty  Not a lot of power - controlled only area around Paris  Would take hundreds of years for Capetian kings to centralize their power
  41. 41. Growth of French Kingdom  King Philip II Augustus (1180-1223)  Strengthened royal bureaucracy  Philip IV the Fair (1285-1314)  Reinforced French bureaucracy & created a French parliament to meet with him (reps from the 3 estates)  France = largest, wealthiest, & best governed monarchical state in Europe by end of 13th century
  42. 42. Iberian Kingdoms  10th century Muslim power weakening on Iberian peninsula  11th century - a number of small Christian kingdoms were emerging in the north  Muslims limited to Granada by 13th century Spanish
Muslims
(Moors) would
be
forced
out
of
Iberian Peninsula
by
1492
  43. 43. Holy Roman Empire  Hohenstaufen dynasty - Frederick I Barbarossa (1152-1190) and Frederick II (1212-1250) - tried to create a new kind of empire  Planned to get chief revenues from Italy as center of a “holy empire”- not as easy to take over Italy as he thought  Battle with the popes & the northern Italian towns  Result of spending so much time worrying about Italy allowed German lords to gain more power so that the Holy Roman Emperor did not have great (centralized) power over anyone
  44. 44. Central & Eastern Europe  Slavs - originally a single people in central Europe  Divided into 3: western, southern and eastern  Western Slavs converted to Catholicism  Eastern and southern Slavs embraced Eastern Orthodox Christianity
  45. 45. The Development of Russia  Eastern Slavs began to encounter Swedish Vikings (late 8th century) - Vikings built trading settlements, dominated the native peoples and called them “the Rus”  Kiev 10th century - established by Viking Oleg - married Slavic wives and assimilated into Slavic population  987 - Rus ruler Vladimir officially accepted Christianity - Byzantine Christianity became a major part of Russian religious life
  46. 46. Mongols enter Russia - 13th century  Conquered Russia but not numerous to settle the vast land  Required Russian princes to pay tribute  Alexander Nevsky - Russian prince earned favor of Mongols - earned him title “grand prince” which set up his descendants to become princes of Moscow and future leaders of Russia
  47. 47. Christianity & Medieval Civilization
  48. 48. Reform of the Papacy  Religious officials became entangled in the secular obligations of feudalism - increasingly secular and not too worried about their spiritual obligations  Pope fought against lay investiture  Gregory claimed he had authority over all of Christendom, including its rulers  German King Henry IV fought back  Investiture Controversy led to Concordat of Worms - compromise
  49. 49. Growth of Papal Power  Interdict - forbade priests to dispense sacraments so people would put pressure on ruler to do what pope wanted  Excommunication
  50. 50. New Religious Orders  Between 1050-1150 - wave of new monasteries & monastic orders  Ex. Cistercians - strict aesthetic  St. Bernard of Clairvaux - new spiritual ideal  Increasing number of women joining religious orders/convents  Haven for female intellectuals
  51. 51. New Religious Orders  Franciscans  St. Francis of Assisi  Called for return to the simplicity & poverty of the early church  Dominicans  Dominic de Guzman, Spanish priest - desire to defend church teachings from heresy  New religious order of men who lived in poverty but were educated  Became inquisitors of the papal Inquisition
  52. 52. Popular Religion in High Middle Ages  Church = integral part of people’s lives  7 sacraments administered by clergy  Clergy = key role in anyone attaining salvation  Importance of saints in protecting poor souls  Growing importance of Mary, Jesus’ mother - many churches devoted to her  Importance of relics - bones of saints or objects connected to them
  53. 53. Culture of the High Middle Ages
  54. 54. Rise of Universities  Medieval universities = educational guilds or corporations that produced educated and trained individuals  1st = Bologna, Italy  By end of Middle Ages, 80 universities in Europe (primarily in England, France, Italy, Germany)
  55. 55. Rise of Universities  Liberal arts curriculum - grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy  Teaching by lecture method (books too expensive - teachers read from a text and then discussed it)  All male  1st degree = bachelor of arts  2nd degree - master of arts  After a liberal arts degree, he could go on to study law, medicine, or theology(could take another 10 years)
  56. 56. Scholasticism  Theology = “queen of the sciences”  Effort to apply reason or logical analysis to theology impacted study of religion  Scholasticism = tried to reconcile faith and reason  Harmonize Christian teachings with Greek teachings of Aristotle  Key “harmonizer” was Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica
  57. 57. St. Thomas Aquinas & Scholasticism  Summa - Attempted to bring together all the learning of the preceding centuries on a given subject (theologica - religion)  Used dialectical method =  Pose a question  Cite sources that offer opposing opinions on the question  Resolve matter by arriving at his own conclusions  Aquinas discussed c.600 articles
  58. 58. Romanesque Architecture  Style of cathedrals in 11th-12th centuries  Germany, France, Spain
  59. 59. Replaced
flat wooden
roofs
with long
round
stone barrel
vaults Stone
roofs
were very
heavy
‐ required
massive pillars
and
walls
to hold
them
up Le]
liQle
space
for windows Dark
on
the
inside Sense
of
solidity
& impression
of
a fortress
  60. 60. Gothic Cathedral  12th-13th centuries  Symbol of people’s preoccupation with God  2 innovations:  Combination of ribbed vaults and pointed arches replaced barrel vaults - could make church higher  Flying buttress = heavy arched pier of stone built onto outside of walls- helped distribute the weight of the ceilings - allowed magnificent stained glass windows which created different plays of light inside (believed natural light was a symbol of the divine light of God)
  61. 61. Gothic Cathedral  1st full Gothic church - Saint-Denis near Paris  By mid-13th century - Notre-Dame, Reims, Amiens, Chartres  All classes contributed to construction  Represented community’s preoccupation with a spiritual ideal
  62. 62. Question to Consider How does a society’s largest buildings reflect the values of that society?

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