Public PhD defense

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Yannick Wurm's public defense on 18 december 2009

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  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • green, orange, yellow
  • males
  • are there any americans in the room?

    them fire ants is nasty critters
    you go and take em all

    dog mother in law
  • anecdote: customs
  • anecdote: customs
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • ◊ DNA ~ blueprint for repertoire of all genes
    gene = piece of DNA
    not all genes are used simultaneously
    active genes are transcribed to RNA
  • All measurements are significantly correlated in pairwise comparisons.
  • using each measure, the slower is always slower, the faster always faster.
  • Public PhD defense

    1. 1. SOCIOGENETICS OF FIRE ANTS Yannick Wurm supervised by Laurent Keller December 18th. 2009
    2. 2. © Alex Wild & others
    3. 3. © Alex Wild & others
    4. 4. © Alex Wild & others
    5. 5. © Alex Wild & others
    6. 6. © Alex Wild & others
    7. 7. © Alex Wild & others
    8. 8. © Alex Wild & others
    9. 9. © Alex Wild & others
    10. 10. © Alex Wild & others
    11. 11. © Alex Wild & others
    12. 12. © Alex Wild & others
    13. 13. © Alex Wild & others
    14. 14. Coolest thing about ants: social life
    15. 15. Coolest thing about ants: social life •key to their success
    16. 16. Coolest thing about ants: social life •key to their success •diverse & sophisticated
    17. 17. © National Geographic
    18. 18. © National Geographic
    19. 19. © National Geographic
    20. 20. © BBC
    21. 21. © ameisenforum.de
    22. 22. © ameisenforum.de
    23. 23. © ameisenforum.de
    24. 24. Solenopsis invicta fire ant Workers Queen
    25. 25. Solenopsis invicta fire ants are a big problem!
    26. 26. Solenopsis invicta fire ants are a big problem!
    27. 27. Solenopsis invicta fire ants are a big problem! a great model system!
    28. 28. After 1 to 5 days
    29. 29. Over the next weeks
    30. 30. Over the next weeks
    31. 31. Over the next weeks
    32. 32. Over the next weeks
    33. 33. Over the next weeks
    34. 34. Over the next weeks
    35. 35. Over the next weeks
    36. 36. Over the next weeks
    37. 37. Over the next weeks
    38. 38. Over the next weeks
    39. 39. Over the next weeks
    40. 40. Main questions
    41. 41. Main questions What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning?
    42. 42. Main questions What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? How do workers choose queens?
    43. 43. Molecular tools for ant research
    44. 44. Molecular tools for ant research DNA? RNA? WTF? Ant gene discovery Microarrays
    45. 45. DNA is made up of As, Cs, Gs & Ts DNA is stored in chromosomes
    46. 46. DNA is made up of As, Cs, Gs & Ts DNA is stored in chromosomes
    47. 47. DNA is made up of As, Cs, Gs & Ts DNA is stored in chromosomes
    48. 48. DNA is made up of As, Cs, Gs & Ts DNA is stored in chromosomes
    49. 49. DNA is made up of As, Cs, Gs & Ts DNA is stored in chromosomes
    50. 50. DNA is made up of As, Cs, Gs & Ts DNA is stored in chromosomes RNA indicates gene activity
    51. 51. Fire ant gene discovery
    52. 52. Extraction Fire ant gene discovery Fire ants
    53. 53. Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + Fire ants
    54. 54. Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants
    55. 55. Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA
    56. 56. Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA RNA
    57. 57. Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer
    58. 58. Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer
    59. 59. Assembly Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer
    60. 60. Assembly Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer CAGATAGGCGATTACA GATTACACGTGGATGC
    61. 61. Assembly Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer CAGATAGGCGATTACA TTACACGTGGATGC
    62. 62. Assembly Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer CAGATAGGCGATTACA GATTACACGTGGATGC
    63. 63. Assembly Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer CAGATAGGCGATTACA GATTACACGTGGATGC
    64. 64. Assembly Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer
    65. 65. Assembly Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer
    66. 66. Assembly Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer
    67. 67. Assembly Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer
    68. 68. Assembly Sequencing Extraction Fire ant gene discovery + + Fire ants RNA + RNA Sequencer
    69. 69. Fire ant gene discovery Assembly: is complex because 10,000s of sequences
    70. 70. Fire ant gene discovery Assembly: is complex because 10,000s of sequences Annotation: inferring functions by comparing to sequences from from other organisms
    71. 71. Fire ant gene discovery Assembly: is complex because 10,000s of sequences Annotation: inferring functions by comparing to sequences from from other organisms Fourmidable: process for assembly & annotation server for ant genetic & genomic data Wurm et al (2009)
    72. 72. Microarrays measure gene activity gene A gene B gene C Wang et al (2007)
    73. 73. Microarrays measure gene activity RNA RNA gene A gene B gene C Wang et al (2007)
    74. 74. Microarrays measure gene activity RNA RNA gene A gene B gene C Wang et al (2007)
    75. 75. Microarrays measure gene activity RNA RNA gene A gene B gene C Wang et al (2007)
    76. 76. Microarrays measure gene activity RNA RNA gene A gene B gene C Wang et al (2007)
    77. 77. Microarrays measure gene activity RNA RNA gene A gene B gene C Wang et al (2007)
    78. 78. Main questions What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? How do workers choose queens?
    79. 79. Gene activity after orphaning
    80. 80. Gene activity after orphaning Field colonies Brought into lab
    81. 81. Gene activity after orphaning Field colonies Brought into lab Orphaning simulated ×15 simulations per colony × 8 replicated colonies
    82. 82. Gene activity after orphaning Field colonies Brought into lab Orphaning simulated Collected for RNA 0h 6h 24h ×15 simulations per colony 5 5 5 × 8 replicated colonies
    83. 83. Gene activity after orphaning RNA labelled & hybridized to microarray of 10,000 genes Wurm et al (accepted)
    84. 84. Gene activity after orphaning RNA labelled & hybridized to microarray of 10,000 genes Analysis: 10,0000 linear models Wurm et al (accepted)
    85. 85. Gene activity after orphaning RNA labelled & hybridized to microarray of 10,000 genes Analysis: 10,0000 linear models significant activity changes for 297 genes Wurm et al (accepted)
    86. 86. Gene activity after orphaning RNA labelled & hybridized to microarray of 10,000 genes Analysis: 10,0000 linear models significant activity changes for 297 genes • most after 24h Wurm et al (accepted)
    87. 87. Gene activity after orphaning RNA labelled & hybridized to microarray of 10,000 genes Analysis: 10,0000 linear models significant activity changes for 297 genes • most after 24h • Increased activity: Wurm et al (accepted)
    88. 88. Gene activity after orphaning RNA labelled & hybridized to microarray of 10,000 genes Analysis: 10,0000 linear models significant activity changes for 297 genes • most after 24h • Increased activity: • proteasomal genes Wurm et al (accepted)
    89. 89. Gene activity after orphaning RNA labelled & hybridized to microarray of 10,000 genes Analysis: 10,0000 linear models significant activity changes for 297 genes • most after 24h • Increased activity: • proteasomal genes • genes for reproductive development Wurm et al (accepted)
    90. 90. Gene activity after orphaning RNA labelled & hybridized to microarray of 10,000 genes Analysis: 10,0000 linear models significant activity changes for 297 genes • most after 24h • Increased activity: • proteasomal genes • genes for reproductive development • Decreased activity: Wurm et al (accepted)
    91. 91. Gene activity after orphaning RNA labelled & hybridized to microarray of 10,000 genes Analysis: 10,0000 linear models significant activity changes for 297 genes • most after 24h • Increased activity: • proteasomal genes • genes for reproductive development • Decreased activity: • detoxification genes (GSTs, Cytochrome P450s) Wurm et al (accepted)
    92. 92. JH: Juvenile Hormone relative level 0h 6h 24h Time since orphaning 0h 6h 24h
    93. 93. JH: Juvenile Hormone relative level JH-degradation genes (esterases & epoxide hydrolases) 0h 6h 24h Time since orphaning 0h 6h 24h
    94. 94. JH: Juvenile Hormone relative level JH-degradation genes (esterases & epoxide hydrolases) 0h 6h 24h Time since orphaning JH suppressed by degradation 0h 6h 24h before orphaning
    95. 95. Main questions What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? How do workers choose queens?
    96. 96. Competition, anyone?
    97. 97. Competition, anyone?
    98. 98. Competition, anyone?
    99. 99. Competition, anyone?
    100. 100. Competition, anyone?
    101. 101. Competition, anyone?
    102. 102. Which queen is chosen? Known factor: weight ≈ fertility [Fletcher & Blum, Science 1981 &1983] vs.
    103. 103. Which queen is chosen? Known factor: weight ≈ fertility [Fletcher & Blum, Science 1981 &1983] vs. Factors we investigate: speed of wing loss gene activity
    104. 104. Field colonies Brought into lab 17×
    105. 105. Field colonies Brought into lab 17× 10× per colony:
    106. 106. 17 Colonies Time to wing loss
    107. 107. 17 Colonies ranked Time to wing loss
    108. 108. 17 Colonies ranked & paired Time to wing loss
    109. 109. 17 Colonies ranked & paired Time to wing loss • 8 “fast-slow” pairs
    110. 110. Competition setup For each “fast-slow” pair (8 pairs total): 10 from 10 from fast colony slow colony Unrelated, orphaned workers
    111. 111. Competition setup For each “fast-slow” pair (8 pairs total): 10 from 10 from fast colony slow colony Unrelated, orphaned workers 3 weeks later: genotyped & dissected surviving queens
    112. 112. Start of Competition Setup Number of 10 fast 5 0 -5 Number of -10 slow A B C D E F G H 8 Competition pairs
    113. 113. Alive after 3 weeks Number of 8 live 4 0 8 Competition pairs -4 -8 A B C D E F G H
    114. 114. Alive after 3 weeks Number of 8 live 4 0 8 Competition pairs -4 -8 Prediction: moreB A C from fast G H D E F colonies less from slow colonies
    115. 115. Alive after 3 weeks Number of 8 fast 4 0 -4 Number of slow -8 A B C D E F G H Wurm et al (in prep)
    116. 116. Alive after 3 weeks Higher survival of Number of 8 from faster fast colonies(binomial GLM likelihood ratio test p=0.009) 4 0 -4 Number of slow -8 A B C D E F G H Wurm et al (in prep)
    117. 117. Alive after 3 weeks Higher survival of Number of 8 from faster fast colonies(binomial GLM likelihood ratio test p=0.009) 4 0 -4 Number of slow -8 A B C D E F G H Winner origin: × × Wurm et al (in prep)
    118. 118. Alive after 3 weeks Higher survival of Number of 8 from faster fast colonies(binomial GLM likelihood ratio test p=0.009) 4 0 -4 Number of But not whole story... slow -8 A B C D E F G H Winner origin: × × Wurm et al (in prep)
    119. 119. Gene activity analysis Are there differences in gene activity?
    120. 120. Gene activity analysis Are there differences in gene activity? 1. between queens from faster & slower colonies?
    121. 121. Gene activity analysis Are there differences in gene activity? 1. between queens from faster & slower colonies? 2. between queens from winning & losing colonies?
    122. 122. Gene activity analysis Are there differences in gene activity? 1. between queens from faster & slower colonies? 2. between queens from winning & losing colonies? Collected 5× 24h after Microarray orphaning ×16 colonies
    123. 123. Gene activity analysis results Rank-based analysis (topGO/KS Elim test; Benjamini Hochberg 95 correction) Wurm et al (in prep)
    124. 124. Gene activity analysis results Queens from fast wing-losing queen colonies have higher: mitochondrial activity p=10-5 transcriptional activity p=0.04 biosynthetic process activity p=0.04 Rank-based analysis (topGO/KS Elim test; Benjamini Hochberg 95 correction) Wurm et al (in prep)
    125. 125. Gene activity analysis results Queens from fast wing-losing queen colonies have higher: mitochondrial activity p=10-5 transcriptional activity p=0.04 biosynthetic process activity p=0.04 Queens from winning colonies have higher: mitochondrial activity p=0.01 organ development activity p=0.02 anatomical structure morphogenesis p=0.03 cell differentiation p=0.04 Rank-based analysis (topGO/KS Elim test; Benjamini Hochberg 95 correction) Wurm et al (in prep)
    126. 126. Summary of answers What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? How do workers choose queens?
    127. 127. Summary of answers What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? Within 24 hours: How do workers choose queens?
    128. 128. Summary of answers What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? Within 24 hours: •up-regulation of proteosomal & reproductive activity How do workers choose queens?
    129. 129. Summary of answers What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? Within 24 hours: •up-regulation of proteosomal & reproductive activity •down-regulation of detoxification genes How do workers choose queens?
    130. 130. Summary of answers What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? Within 24 hours: •up-regulation of proteosomal & reproductive activity •down-regulation of detoxification genes •degradation of Juvenile Hormone ceases How do workers choose queens?
    131. 131. Summary of answers What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? Within 24 hours: •up-regulation of proteosomal & reproductive activity •down-regulation of detoxification genes •degradation of Juvenile Hormone ceases How do workers choose queens? Choice linked to:
    132. 132. Summary of answers What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? Within 24 hours: •up-regulation of proteosomal & reproductive activity •down-regulation of detoxification genes •degradation of Juvenile Hormone ceases How do workers choose queens? Choice linked to: •speed of wing shedding
    133. 133. Summary of answers What changes occur within the young queens after orphaning? Within 24 hours: •up-regulation of proteosomal & reproductive activity •down-regulation of detoxification genes •degradation of Juvenile Hormone ceases How do workers choose queens? Choice linked to: •speed of wing shedding •activity of development, morphogenesis & differentiation genes
    134. 134. Present and future of ant sociogenetics
    135. 135. Present and future of ant sociogenetics Tools for ant sociogenetics
    136. 136. Present and future of ant sociogenetics Tools for ant sociogenetics We gained insight into the molecular changes underlying competition between queens
    137. 137. Present and future of ant sociogenetics Tools for ant sociogenetics We gained insight into the molecular changes underlying competition between queens Exciting things still to come:
    138. 138. Present and future of ant sociogenetics Tools for ant sociogenetics We gained insight into the molecular changes underlying competition between queens Exciting things still to come: • molecular evolution studies (impacts special lifestyles...)
    139. 139. Present and future of ant sociogenetics Tools for ant sociogenetics We gained insight into the molecular changes underlying competition between queens Exciting things still to come: • molecular evolution studies (impacts special lifestyles...) • functional testing of genes (involved in social decisions...)
    140. 140. THANKS TO....
    141. 141. THANKS TO....
    142. 142. THANKS TO....
    143. 143. THANKS TO.... Collaborators Michael, Miguel, Dewayne Shoemaker, Ken Ross, Vital-IT (Laurent Falquet, Ioannis, Oksana, Chris Iseli) Those who helped computationally Darlene Goldstein, Frederic Schütz, Volker Flegel, Marc R-R, Julien, Fred Ricci Those who helped in the lab Chris LaMendola, Francoise D, Those who make things work France Pham, Franck, Blaise, Jerome N, Laelia...
    144. 144. Classement de la rencontre POINTS POSITION JOUEURS POINTS 17* 11 Michaël N. 6 en 16 12 May 5 14 13 Julien 4 13 14 Dietrich 3 12 15 Michaël M. 2 ne 11 16 Alan 1 10 ophe 9 8 7
    145. 145. The sixty-five genes with the GO annotation mitochondrial inner membrane (orange) rank high according to p-values of differential expression between queens from faster and slower colonies (all other genes are in dark violet) 1 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Genes sorted by p!value from most (gene 1) to least differently expressed between queens from faster and slower colonies (gene 6116)
    146. 146. Dismembering an unwanted virgin queen
    147. 147. •a © jakorh on youtube

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