Evolution lectures1&2 September 2013
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Evolution lectures1&2 September 2013

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Queen Mary U London

Queen Mary U London
SBC174/SBS110 Evolution lectures from September 23rd, 2013

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    Evolution lectures1&2 September 2013 Evolution lectures1&2 September 2013 Presentation Transcript

    • SBC174/SBS110: Evolution (& Ecology)
    • Taking notes... Being a student...
    • Course Outline andTimetable
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Yannick Wurm YW Andrea Hatlen AH Dave Hone DH
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Semester A: Evolution
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Semester A: Evolution
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Semester A: Evolution
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Semester A: Evolution
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Semester A: Evolution
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Semester A: Evolution
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Semester A: Evolution
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures. Semester A: Evolution
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures. Week 8: AH – Founder Effects, Genetic Drift Semester A: Evolution
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures. Week 8: AH – Founder Effects, Genetic Drift + Computer Practical (tues or thurs afternoon) Semester A: Evolution
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures. Week 8: AH – Founder Effects, Genetic Drift + Computer Practical (tues or thurs afternoon) Week 9: AH – Mutation, Selection and Gene Selection Semester A: Evolution In Jean Smith’sTimetable; not yet on “SMART”
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures. Week 8: AH – Founder Effects, Genetic Drift + Computer Practical (tues or thurs afternoon) Week 9: AH – Mutation, Selection and Gene Selection Week 10: DH – Systematics, Speciation Semester A: Evolution In Jean Smith’sTimetable; not yet on “SMART”
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures. Week 8: AH – Founder Effects, Genetic Drift + Computer Practical (tues or thurs afternoon) Week 9: AH – Mutation, Selection and Gene Selection Week 10: DH – Systematics, Speciation Week 11: DH – Evolution of Parasites, Antibiotics Semester A: Evolution In Jean Smith’sTimetable; not yet on “SMART”
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures. Week 8: AH – Founder Effects, Genetic Drift + Computer Practical (tues or thurs afternoon) Week 9: AH – Mutation, Selection and Gene Selection Week 10: DH – Systematics, Speciation Week 11: DH – Evolution of Parasites, Antibiotics Week 12: DH – Convergence, Revision Session Semester A: Evolution In Jean Smith’sTimetable; not yet on “SMART”
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures. Week 8: AH – Founder Effects, Genetic Drift + Computer Practical (tues or thurs afternoon) Week 9: AH – Mutation, Selection and Gene Selection Week 10: DH – Systematics, Speciation Week 11: DH – Evolution of Parasites, Antibiotics Week 12: DH – Convergence, Revision Session Semester A: Evolution Final Grade: In Jean Smith’sTimetable; not yet on “SMART”
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures. Week 8: AH – Founder Effects, Genetic Drift + Computer Practical (tues or thurs afternoon) Week 9: AH – Mutation, Selection and Gene Selection Week 10: DH – Systematics, Speciation Week 11: DH – Evolution of Parasites, Antibiotics Week 12: DH – Convergence, Revision Session Semester A: Evolution 20% Workshop Final Grade: In Jean Smith’sTimetable; not yet on “SMART”
    • http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3972 Week 1: YW – Introduction, Historical context, Neo Darwinism Week 2: YW – Geological Aspects, Drivers of Evolution, Levels of Evolution Week 3: YW – Fossils, DNA and Molecules Week 4: YW – Human Evolution Week 5: DH – Evolution of Sex, Sexual Selection Week 6: AH – Genetic Basis of Evolution Week 7: Mid semester break, no lectures. Week 8: AH – Founder Effects, Genetic Drift + Computer Practical (tues or thurs afternoon) Week 9: AH – Mutation, Selection and Gene Selection Week 10: DH – Systematics, Speciation Week 11: DH – Evolution of Parasites, Antibiotics Week 12: DH – Convergence, Revision Session Semester A: Evolution 20% Workshop Final Grade: 80% Exam In Jean Smith’sTimetable; not yet on “SMART”
    • Semester B: Ecology All lectures by David Hone Week 1: Introduction, Ecosystem services Week 2: Extinctions, Plants (global view) Week 3: Invertebrate Ecology, Invertebrate Invaders Week 4: Microbes, Techniques for Analysing Microbes Week 5: Plankton, Techniques for Analysing Plankton Week 6: Ecological Systems, Productivity, Week 7: Mid semester break – no lectures. Week 8: Salt Marsh Pollution, UK Habitats Week 9: Woodlands, Global Warming Week 10: Pollinator networks, Surveys Week 11: Ecological Solutions, QMUL research Week 12: Revision session + Workshop + Fieldcourse Final Grade:
    • Semester B: Ecology All lectures by David Hone Week 1: Introduction, Ecosystem services Week 2: Extinctions, Plants (global view) Week 3: Invertebrate Ecology, Invertebrate Invaders Week 4: Microbes, Techniques for Analysing Microbes Week 5: Plankton, Techniques for Analysing Plankton Week 6: Ecological Systems, Productivity, Week 7: Mid semester break – no lectures. Week 8: Salt Marsh Pollution, UK Habitats Week 9: Woodlands, Global Warming Week 10: Pollinator networks, Surveys Week 11: Ecological Solutions, QMUL research Week 12: Revision session + Workshop + Fieldcourse Final Grade: 80% Exam; 5% Workshop; 15% Fieldcourse
    • BL BL 38 3735 2223 24 34 25 33 19 19a 17 61 62 64 56 63 16 18 20 15 15 15 8 10 11 12 6 7 5 4 3 2 2 14 39 40 13 27 26 31 29 28 46 46 49 54 55 5758 60 59 55 44 41 47 48 52 53 51 50 43 45 42 32 36 9 Arts Quarter Geography Square Library Square The Curve Godward Square West Gate East Gate Alderney Road Moody StreetLeatherdale Street Bancroft Road Holton Street Longnor Road Bradwell Street Mile End Hospital Mile End RoadGreen Tube Station Mile End Tube Sta Nuevo Burial Ground GrantleyStreet BancroftRoad PorteletRoad BancroftRoad WestfieldWay 12-1: Drapers Lecture Theater Geography Building 9-10: Great Hall, People’s Palace
    • SBC174/SBS110: Evolution (& Ecology) “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution” Theodosius Dobzhansky 1973
    • Recommended Reading
    • Paperback 352 pages (2010) Publisher: Profile Books Amazon price: £5.89
    • Paperback 596 pages (11 Aug 2005) Publisher: Oxford University Press Amazon price: £26.99
    • +Lots of stuff on youtube.
    • Lecture 1: Introduction and some historical perspectives
    • Early ideas Two camps: Fixity of species or change?
    • Early ideas Two camps: Fixity of species or change? 350 B.C.Aristotle: individuals in a “Species” are identical and unchanging
    • Early ideas Two camps: Fixity of species or change? 350 B.C.Aristotle: individuals in a “Species” are identical and unchanging 1749 Buffon Histoire Naturelle encyclopedia: The earth is very old. Species change.
    • Early ideas Two camps: Fixity of species or change? 350 B.C.Aristotle: individuals in a “Species” are identical and unchanging 1749 Buffon Histoire Naturelle encyclopedia: The earth is very old. Species change. 1785 Hutton. Geologist: Uniformitarianism: Changes in nature are gradual.
    • Early ideas Two camps: Fixity of species or change? 350 B.C.Aristotle: individuals in a “Species” are identical and unchanging 1749 Buffon Histoire Naturelle encyclopedia: The earth is very old. Species change. 1785 Hutton. Geologist: Uniformitarianism: Changes in nature are gradual. 1798 Cuvier: Fossils show extinct species (due to catastrophe). Species don’t change.
    • 3 Schools of evolutionary thought 1. Linnaeus:1700s 2. Lamarck: 1744—1829 3. Darwin & Wallace: 1800s
    • Carolus Linnaeus (1707—1778) • Swedish • 180 books classified nature: “revealing the order of life created by God.”: “God created, Linnaeus arranged” • Devised the binomial naming system: Genus species • Thought that species do not change.
    • 3 Schools of evolutionary thought
    • 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Linneaus: each species was separately created.
    • J-B. de Lamarck (1744—1829) • Worked most of his life at the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris) • He promoted the idea that species change.
    • 3 Schools of evolutionary thought 1. Linnaeus:1700s 2. Lamarck: 1744-1829 3. Darwin & Wallace: 1800s
    • 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Linneaus: each species was separately created.
    • 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Lamarck: characteristics acquired by an individual are passed on to offspring. • Linneaus: each species was separately created.
    • Giraffe necks • Lamarck: stretching giraffes lengthened their necks to reach tree-top vegetation. This acquired characteristic is passed to offspring. • Darwin & Wallace: giraffes with long necks out- compete those with short necks.
    • Giraffe necks • Lamarck: stretching giraffes lengthened their necks to reach tree-top vegetation. This acquired characteristic is passed to offspring. • Darwin & Wallace: giraffes with long necks out- compete those with short necks.
    • 3 Schools of evolutionary thought 1. Linnaeus:1700s 2. Lamarck: 1744—1829 3. Darwin & Wallace: 1800s
    • Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Published on “principle of population”: Human populations increase faster (geometrically=exponentially) than food production (increases arithmetically = linearly)
    • Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Geologist, strong proponent of uniformitarianism (slow gradual change)
    • Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Uniformitarianism. 4 ideas: Geologist, strong proponent of uniformitarianism (slow gradual change)
    • Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Uniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: Geologist, strong proponent of uniformitarianism (slow gradual change)
    • Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Uniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time Geologist, strong proponent of uniformitarianism (slow gradual change)
    • Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Uniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time 2. Principle of parsimony: try to explain the past by causes now in operation without inventing extra, fancy, or unknown causes, however plausible in logic, if available processes suffice. Geologist, strong proponent of uniformitarianism (slow gradual change)
    • Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Uniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time 2. Principle of parsimony: try to explain the past by causes now in operation without inventing extra, fancy, or unknown causes, however plausible in logic, if available processes suffice. • Debatable: Geologist, strong proponent of uniformitarianism (slow gradual change)
    • Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Uniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time 2. Principle of parsimony: try to explain the past by causes now in operation without inventing extra, fancy, or unknown causes, however plausible in logic, if available processes suffice. • Debatable: 3. Change is slow, steady, and gradual. Geologist, strong proponent of uniformitarianism (slow gradual change)
    • Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Uniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time 2. Principle of parsimony: try to explain the past by causes now in operation without inventing extra, fancy, or unknown causes, however plausible in logic, if available processes suffice. • Debatable: 3. Change is slow, steady, and gradual. 4. Change is evenly distributed throughout space and time. Geologist, strong proponent of uniformitarianism (slow gradual change)
    • Darwin & theVoyage of the Beagle 1831-1836
    • Galápagos finches • Analysis -> finches derived from one ancestral species arriving from the mainland to populate and diversify across the islands (adaptive radiation). 0° 1° 1° 1° 30' 0° 30' 0° 30' 1° 30' 92° 91° 30' 91° 90° 30' 90° 89° 30' 89° 92° 91° 30' 91° 90° 30' 90° 89° 30' 89° San Salvador (Santiago / James) Santa Cruz (Indefatigable) Santa Fé (Barrington) Marchena (Bindloe) Genovesa (Tower) Pinta (Abington) Fernandina (Marlborough) Isabela (Albemarle) San Cristóbal (Chatham) Floreana (Santa María / Charles) Española (Hood) Rábida (Jervis) Pinzón (Duncan) Tortuga (Brattle) Baltra (South Seymour) Darwin (Culpepper) Wolf (Wenman) Bartolomé Seymour Norte (North Seymour) Plaza Sur Cuatro Hermanos (Crossman) Galápagos Islands Lobos Gardner Mosquera Daphne Mayor Caamaño Gardner Redonda Albany Sombrero Chino León-Dormido-Felsen (Kicker Rock) Enderby Campión (Champion) Caldwell Eden Bainbridge Bahia Gardner (Gardner Bay) Bahia Post Office (Post Office Bay) Bahia Darwin (Darwin Bay) Bahia Urbina (Urbina Bay) Tagus Cove Bahia Tortuga (Tortuga Bay) Bahia James (James Bay) Bahia Sullivan Bahia Ballena (Ballena Bay) Bahia Isabel (Elizabeth Bay) CanalBolívar Canal Isabela Bahia Cártago Bahia de Bancos (Banks Bay) Canal de San Salvador CanaldePinzón Canal de Pinta C anal de M archena Canal de Santa Cruz Bahia d'Esteban Hancock Bank McGowen Reef Canal de Santa Fé PACIFIC OCEAN Caleta Iguana Bahia Villamil Bahia Rosa Blanca Bahia de Hobbs Bahia Conway (Conway Bay) Punta Suárez Punta Espinosa Punta Cormorant El Barranco Punta Albemarle Punta Vicente Roca Punta Garcia Punta Pitt Punta Moreno Punta Tortuga Cabo Marshall Punta Cristóbal Cabo Rosa Cabo Woodford Punta Valdizán Cabo Berkeley Cabo Douglas Cabo Chalmers Punta Cevallos Cabo Hammond Punta Mangle Punta Sur Punta Veintimilla Punta Sur Punta Rocafuerte Punta Nuñez Punta Mejía Punta Montalvo Punta Espejo Punta Calle Cabo Ibbetson Punta Baquerizo Punta Ayora Punta Wreck Punta Carrión Cabo Nepean Cabo Barrington Punta Alfaro Punta Flores Puerto Baquerizo Moreno Puerto Velasco Ibarra Puerto Isidro Ayora Puerto Villamil La Cumbre 1 476 m Cerro Pajas 640 m 75 m Wolf 1 707 m Alcedo 1 130 m Cerro Azul 1 640 m Darwin 1 330 m Ecuador >790 m Sierra Negra 1 124 m 340 m 777 m 458 m Cerro San Joaquin 730 m Cerro Tijeretas Cerro Crocker 864 m Cerro Dragón Cerro Pelado 907 m 253 m Cerro Alieri Cerro Brujo Los Gemelos Istmo Perry Chico Azufre 367 m Equator 1,707 m 1,500 m 1,250 m 1,000 m 750 m 500 m 250 m 100 m 50 m 0 -200 m -500 m -750 m -1,000 m -1,500 m -2,000 m -2,500 m -3,000 m -3,500 m -3,650 m 0 300(mi) 0 500(km) 90° 85° 80° 75° 5° 5° 0° QUITO COLOMBIA PERU PANAMA COSTA RICA ECUADOR PACIFIC OCEAN 0 100(km) 0 60(mi) Projection: UTM (WGS84 Datum) Island Alternate Name Peak Provincial Capital Cantonal Capital Village Airport Isabela (Albermarle)
    • © BskyB - David Attenborough - Galápagos 2013
    • Darwin 1837
    • Charles Darwin (1809-1882) • Darwin at about 30 years old, and three years back from his voyage aboard HMS Beagle (1831-1836) • The Origin of Species was published several decades later in 1859 (prompted by competition from Alfred Russel Wallace).
    • Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) • Wallace in his thirties. (National Portrait Gallery, London.) • In 1858 he came up with similar ideas to Darwin about the mechanism of evolutionary change
    • Read at the Linnean Society
    • Evolution by natural selection
    • Under optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size. Evolution by natural selection
    • Under optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size. Because they do not: * either not all animals reach maturity * and/or some animals breed less Evolution by natural selection
    • Under optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size. Because they do not: * either not all animals reach maturity * and/or some animals breed less Individuals within a population differ (natural variation) Evolution by natural selection
    • Under optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size. Because they do not: * either not all animals reach maturity * and/or some animals breed less Individuals within a population differ (natural variation) These differences (traits) may affect survival/reproduction Evolution by natural selection
    • Under optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size. Because they do not: * either not all animals reach maturity * and/or some animals breed less Individuals within a population differ (natural variation) These differences (traits) may affect survival/reproduction Traits are heritable: passed on from parents to offspring Evolution by natural selection
    • Under optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size. Because they do not: * either not all animals reach maturity * and/or some animals breed less Individuals within a population differ (natural variation) These differences (traits) may affect survival/reproduction Traits are heritable: passed on from parents to offspring Advantageous traits lead to increased survival of certain lineages Evolution by natural selection
    • 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Lamarck: characteristics acquired by an individual are passed on to offspring. • Linneaus: each species was separately created.
    • 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Lamarck: characteristics acquired by an individual are passed on to offspring. • Linneaus: each species was separately created. • Darwin & Wallace: viewed evolution as descent with modification.
    • Giraffe necks • Lamarck: stretching giraffes lengthened their necks to reach tree-top vegetation. This acquired characteristic is passed to offspring. • Darwin & Wallace: giraffes with long necks have more offspring than those with short necks.
    • Giraffe necks • Lamarck: stretching giraffes lengthened their necks to reach tree-top vegetation. This acquired characteristic is passed to offspring. • Darwin & Wallace: giraffes with long necks have more offspring than those with short necks.
    • Giraffe necks • Lamarck: stretching giraffes lengthened their necks to reach tree-top vegetation. This acquired characteristic is passed to offspring. • Darwin & Wallace: giraffes with long necks have more offspring than those with short necks. Actually: sexual selection??
    • (1859) "The Origin of Species"
    • A scheme or system of ideas or statements held as an explanation or account of a group of facts or phenomena; a hypothesis that has been confirmed or established by observation and experiment, and is propounded or accepted as accounting for the known facts. theory |ˈTHēərē, ˈTHi(ə)rē| noun ( pl. theories ) Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection (Oxford English Dictionary)
    • Darwin'sTheory of Evolution (1859) "The Origin of Species"
    • Darwin'sTheory of Evolution (1859) "The Origin of Species" •There is inherited variation within species.
    • Darwin'sTheory of Evolution (1859) "The Origin of Species" •There is inherited variation within species. •There is competition for survival within species.
    • Darwin'sTheory of Evolution (1859) "The Origin of Species" •There is inherited variation within species. •There is competition for survival within species. • Natural selection is the process whereby genetically inherited characteristics become more or less common in a population as a function of the differential reproductive success of the bearers of these characteristics.
    • Darwin'sTheory of Evolution (1859) "The Origin of Species" •There is inherited variation within species. •There is competition for survival within species. • Natural selection is the process whereby genetically inherited characteristics become more or less common in a population as a function of the differential reproductive success of the bearers of these characteristics. •This process occurring independently on two populations of a single species leads to the accumulation of differences between the populations - and ultimately to speciation.
    • • But environmental conditions change: What was advantageous yesterday may be a disadvantage today. • And evolution also occurs by: • genetic drift • sexual selection • artificial selection (selective breeding) Natural selection leads to adaptive change
    • Summary of Lecture 1 Ideas on how the diversity of life was/is produced date back to the ancient Greeks These ideas developed considerably in the 1800s, culminating in theTheory of Evolution by Natural Selection
    • BL BL 38 3735 2223 24 34 25 33 19 19a 17 61 62 64 56 63 16 18 20 15 15 15 8 10 11 12 6 7 5 4 3 2 2 14 39 40 13 27 26 31 29 28 46 46 49 54 55 5758 60 59 55 44 41 47 48 52 53 51 50 43 45 42 32 36 9 Arts Quarter Geography Square Library Square The Curve Godward Square West Gate East Gate Alderney Road Moody StreetLeatherdale Street Bancroft Road Holton Street Longnor Road Bradwell Street Mile End Hospital Mile End RoadGreen Tube Station Mile End Tube Sta Nuevo Burial Ground GrantleyStreet BancroftRoad PorteletRoad BancroftRoad WestfieldWay 12-1: Drapers Lecture Theater Geography Building 9-10: Great Hall, People’s Palace
    • Lecture 2 Darwin’s evidence for evolution and “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis”
    • Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • 1. The Fossil Record Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection) Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • 1.The Fossil Record: Paleontology Random order Reality: there is sequential order to the fossil record Lecture 5
    • 1.The Fossil Record: Paleontology Random order Reality: there is sequential order to the fossil record Lecture 5
    • 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection) Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • 2. Comparative anatomy • Correspondence between parts and comparison of forelimbs among four vertebrates.
    • Diversity of type, unity of pattern • Although these vertebrate species differ, the underlying pattern of the forelimb is fundamentally the same.
    • Homology and analogy • Homology - vertebrate forearms: the bat wing, mouse forearm, and human arm are homologous structures as all are composed of similar bones inherited from a recent common ancestor.
    • Homology and analogy • Analogy:The wings of bats, butterflies, and birds evolved independently, not from a recent common ancestor. But they have a similar function, flight, and so are analogous. (here: convergent evolution)
    • Morphological series - evolution of limbs from fins • Note homology of structures
    • 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection) Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • 3. Comparative Embryology • Embryonic retention of ancestral characteristics in vertebrates (e.g. gills and tails)
    • 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection) Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • 4.Vestigial features I • Whales: hips and hind limbs are reduced to small bones with no function. • In primitive snakes, the remnants of hind limbs persist (forelimbs are absent).
    • Vestigial features II • The human appendix is a vestigial structure, reduced from the caecum of primate ancestors.
    • Vestigial features II • The human appendix is a vestigial structure, reduced from the caecum of primate ancestors. • Others: muscles to move ears,“goose bumps”
    • 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection) Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • Von Holdt et al. (2010) Nature 464, 898-903 5. Domestication (artificial selection)
    • 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection) Darwin’s evidence for evolution
    • Patterns and processes in evolutionary thought Process Inference about evolutionary process Inference about effect on taxonomic pattern Pattern
    • Lecture 2 Darwin’s evidence for evolution and “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis”
    • “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis”
    • “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.
    • “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work. • Darwin’sTheory of Evolution by Natural Selection
    • “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work. • Darwin’sTheory of Evolution by Natural Selection • Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008)
    • “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work. • Darwin’sTheory of Evolution by Natural Selection • Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008) • Cytogenetics (1902, 1904 - )
    • “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work. • Darwin’sTheory of Evolution by Natural Selection • Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008) • Cytogenetics (1902, 1904 - ) • Population Genetics (1908; see later lectures)
    • “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work. • Darwin’sTheory of Evolution by Natural Selection • Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008) • Cytogenetics (1902, 1904 - ) • Population Genetics (1908; see later lectures) • Molecular genetics (1970s- ; see SBS 633/210 and later lectures)
    • Gregor Mendel (1822-1984) Worked out the basic laws of inheritance: Segregation and independent assortment
    • J.B.S. Haldane (1892-1964) With Fisher and Wright, one of the founders of population genetics. “The Causes of Evolution” (1932): first major contribution to what became the “modern evolutionary synthesis".
    • R.A. Fisher (1890-1962) Invented Analysis of Variance and other stats! Worked on the theory of population genetics
    • Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900-1975) “Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”. Theodosius Dobzhansky's Genetics and the Origin of Species, published in 1937.
    • Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) Worked on speciation and the definition of species.
    • Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) Worked on speciation and the definition of species.
    • Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) Worked on speciation and the definition of species.
    • William D. Hamilton (1936 - 2000) Explained how natural selection acts on social behaviour (“kin selection”) Explained weird sex ratios relatedness * benefit > cost
    • John Maynard-Smith (1920-2004) Most widely known for applying game theory to evolutionary biology
    • • Dawkins summarized & popularized the kin selection arguments of W. D. Hamilton, George R. Price and John Maynard Smith 1976
    • Summary/overview of Lecture 2 EVOLUTION (“descent with modification”) Pattern Process • Fossil record • Dating methods • Molecular evolution • Molecular clocks • Mechanisms • Environmental drivers •climate •cont. drift •extinctions etc The Modern Synthesis
    • What next? • Epigenetics • Cultural transmission • Niche construction “Extended Evolutionary Synthesis” ? • Evodevo • Comparative genomics • Systems Biology “Postmodern Synthesis” ?
    • Pastafarianism - Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster
    • Early ideas Fixity of species or change?
    • FIGURE 12.5 Macroevolution and Microevolution • The overall pattern of tetrapod evolution (macroevolution) can be examined in closer detail.The cross section in time through Sauropod evolution reveals the multiple species lineages of which it is composed.At the bottom, one lineage is enlarged, showing the populations comprising the species (microevolution).
    • Fact Course Mechanism
    • Evolutionary process • Some further thoughts: • Evolution of higher taxa - is it different from speciation within taxa? • e.g. natural selection, chance, species selection? • How is morphological integration maintained (functional continuity)? • e.g. correlated progression, developmental feedback WP
    • Major drivers of evolution Vulcanism Continental movement Bolide impact Climate change? ? Consequences: Large scale migrations Speciation Mass extinctions Adaptive radiations
    • Different Functions but Similar Underlying Forelimb Anatomy • Forelimbs of bat, mole, and dugong. Each limb performs a different function: flight, digging, and swimming. All are superficially different, but all three share a common, underlying anatomical plan.
    • Diversity ofType, Unity of Pattern • (a) Similarities. Parts may be similar in ancestry, function, and/or appearance. Respectively, these are defined as homology, analogy, or homoplasy. (b) Although the vertebrate species differ, the underlying pattern of the forelimb is fundamentally the same.
    • FIGURE 6.5 Morphological Series • From four-toed to single-toed modern horses, this morphological series illustrates the correspondence between parts (feet, teeth, skull) and their modifications. Here, the stratigraphic position of these species is added.
    • Evolution of horses • Evolution of horses
    • Morphological series—evolution of jaws • Vertebrate jaws evolved from the front set of gill arches of jawless ancestors.
    • FIGURE 6.8 Convergence of Design • Groups of animals often adapt to habitats that differ from those of most other members of their group. Most birds fly, but some, such as ostriches, cannot, and live exclusively on land; others, such as penguins, live much of their lives in water. Most mammals are terrestrial, but some fly (bats) and others live exclusively in water (whales, dolphins).“Flying” fishes take to the air.As species from different groups enter similar habitats, they experience similar biological demands. Convergence to similar habitats, in part, accounts for the sleek bodies and fins or flippers of tuna and dolphins, because similar functions (analogy) are served by similar parts under similar conditions.Yet tuna and dolphins come from different ancestries and
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