Geological times & continental drift
Natural History Museum
QMUL Demonstrators William        Maïté     Sebastian    PhilipPritchard      Guignard    Bailey     Sanders
Atta leaf-cutter ants© National Geographic
Atta leaf-cutter ants© National Geographic
Atta leaf-cutter ants© National Geographic
Mini-summary of lectures 1 & 2
3 Schools of evolutionary thought                • Linneaus: each   species was separately                 created.       ...
3 Schools of evolutionary thought                • Linneaus: each   species was separately                 created.       ...
Darwin’s evidence for evolution   1.           The Fossil Record   2.        Comparative Anatomy   3.       Comparative Em...
Evolution by Natural selection•   There is inherited variation within species.•   There is competition for survival within...
“Neo-Darwinism”         or“The Modern Synthesis”
“Neo-Darwinism”          or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with betterunderstanding of how things work.
“Neo-Darwinism”                   or          “The Modern Synthesis”         The same thing... but with better        unde...
“Neo-Darwinism”                   or          “The Modern Synthesis”         The same thing... but with better        unde...
“Neo-Darwinism”                   or          “The Modern Synthesis”         The same thing... but with better        unde...
“Neo-Darwinism”                   or          “The Modern Synthesis”         The same thing... but with better        unde...
“Neo-Darwinism”                   or          “The Modern Synthesis”         The same thing... but with better        unde...
Today1. Major transitions in evolution2. Geological timescales3. Major drivers of evolution4. Examples of major events.
Major transitions: early life
Major transitions: early life• Early   life:
Major transitions: early life• Early life:  • Replicating   molecules
Major transitions: early life• Early life:  • Replicating molecules  • Compartmentalization
Major transitions: early life• Early life:  • Replicating molecules  • Compartmentalization• RNA  world (RNA as informatio...
Major transitions: early life• Early life:  • Replicating molecules  • Compartmentalization• RNA  world (RNA as informatio...
Major transitions: early life• Early life:  • Replicating molecules  • Compartmentalization• RNA  world (RNA as informatio...
Major transitions: sex• Lecture   14...
Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
Major transitions: eusociality
Major transitions: eusociality• Solitary         lifestyle --> Eusociality  1. Reproductive division of labor  2. Overlapp...
Major transitions: eusociality• Solitary         lifestyle --> Eusociality  1. Reproductive division of labor  2. Overlapp...
Major transitions: culture• Lecture   13...
But “complexity of life” didn’t      increase linearly.
But “complexity of life” didn’t         increase linearly.2. Geological time scales
But “complexity of life” didn’t                 increase linearly.  2. Geological time scalesDefined by changes in flora and...
But “complexity of life” didn’t                 increase linearly.  2. Geological time scalesDefined by changes in flora and...
Geological timescales: Eon > Era > Period > Epoch                                                            2 Ma:        ...
Geological timescales: Eon > Era > Period > Epoch                                                            2 Ma:        ...
End of Proterozoic (Ediacaran) biota       Dickinsonia
TrilobitesCambrian to late permian
Geological timescales: Eon > Era > Period > Epoch                                                            2 Ma:        ...
Ear   th
Li    feEar   th
Eu              ka                   ry                     ot                          es  Li    feEar   th
N                                H         Eu                                 M              ka                           ...
W                                  hi                               N                                    te               ...
H                                 W om                                  hi o                               N              ...
3. Major drivers of evolution                 Conditions on earth change.• Tectonic   movement (of continental plates)• Vu...
Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics
Crustal plates and continental drift
Fossil distribution
Recent continental movements...
Recent continental movements...
Earthquakes• Some   tectonic movement is violent.   • E.g. 2004   Sumatra earthquake & tsunami...
Vulcanism
Vulcanism• Local   climate change (e.g. thermal vents, hot springs...)
Vulcanism• Local   climate change (e.g. thermal vents, hot springs...)• Global   climate change: Emission of gasses & part...
Vulcanism• Local   climate change (e.g. thermal vents, hot springs...)• Global   climate change: Emission of gasses & part...
Vulcanism• Local   climate change (e.g. thermal vents, hot springs...)• Global   climate change: Emission of gasses & part...
Climate changeSnowball earths?
3. Major drivers of evolution                 Conditions on earth change.• Tectonic   movement (of continental plates)• Vu...
3. Major drivers of evolution                Meteorite impact            ?        Vulcanism    ?    Climate change        ...
3. Major drivers of evolution                        Meteorite impact                    ?                Vulcanism    ?  ...
3. Major drivers of evolution                          Meteorite impact                      ?                Vulcanism   ...
3. Major drivers of evolution                          Meteorite impact                      ?                Vulcanism   ...
3. Major drivers of evolution                          Meteorite impact                      ?                Vulcanism   ...
3. Major drivers of evolution                          Meteorite impact                      ?                Vulcanism   ...
3. Major drivers of evolution                          Meteorite impact                      ?                Vulcanism   ...
3. Major drivers of evolution                          Meteorite impact                      ?                Vulcanism   ...
Module pagehttps://www2.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/control-panel      --> Modules --> Evolution
Today1. Major transitions in evolution2. Geological timescales3. Major drivers of evolution4. Examples of major events: tw...
4. Recent major exinction  fraction of genera present in each timeinterval but extinct inthe following interval           ...
4. Recent major exinction  fraction of genera present in each timeinterval but extinct inthe following interval           ...
4. Recent major exinction  fraction of genera present in each timeinterval but extinct inthe following interval           ...
4. Recent major exinction  fraction of genera present in each timeinterval but extinct inthe following interval           ...
Late Carboniferous 306 Mya
Late Carboniferous 306 Mya• Tetrapods and early amniotes.
Late Carboniferous 306 Mya• Tetrapods and early amniotes.• Tropical conditions around equatorial landmasses.
Late Carboniferous 306 Mya• Tetrapods and early amniotes.• Tropical conditions around equatorial landmasses.• Damp forests...
Late Carboniferous 306 Mya• Tetrapods and early amniotes.• Tropical conditions around equatorial landmasses.• Damp forests...
Late Carboniferous 306 Mya• Tetrapods and early amniotes.• Tropical conditions around equatorial landmasses.• Damp forests...
Early Permian mammal-like reptiles             DimetrodonOrder Pelycosauria (sub-class Synapsida)
Permian-Triassic ExtinctionSun et al Science 2012
Permian-Triassic ExtinctionWent extinct: •Up to 96% of marine species & 70% of terrestrial vertebrates •21 terrestrial tet...
Permian-Triassic ExtinctionWent extinct: •Up to 96% of marine species & 70% of terrestrial vertebrates •21 terrestrial tet...
Jurassic/Cretaceous•Mammal-like reptiles were replacedas dominant land vertebrates byreptiles (dinosaurs).• Lizards, moder...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                    66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of gene...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                    66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of gene...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                    66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of gene...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                    66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of gene...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                    66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of gene...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                    66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of gene...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction           66 million years ago                                  http://www.scotese.co...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction           66 million years ago                                  http://www.scotese.co...
Evidence for Chixulub impact
Evidence for Chixulub impact     Magnetic field near siteCrater: 180km diameter; bolide: 10km.
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction           66 million years ago
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                          66 million years ago• Bolide   impact at Chixulub.
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                        66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub.    • huge tsu...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                        66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub.    • huge tsu...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                          66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub.    • huge t...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                        66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub.    • huge tsu...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                         66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub.    • huge ts...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                        66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub.    • huge tsu...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                        66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub.    • huge tsu...
Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction                          66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub.    • huge t...
Ongoing Anthropocene extinction?•Hunting•Habitat destruction, modification &fragmentation•Pollution•Climate change•Spread o...
Summary.• The   history of the earth is divided into geological time periods•   These are defined by characteristic flora an...
xx xx  xx  xx  xxx    x    xx     x     xx     xx      xx       xx        xx
Don’t forget to hand in              the questionnaire! William        Maïté     Sebastian    PhilipPritchard      Guignar...
Evolution lectures 3 & 4 slideshare
Evolution lectures 3 & 4 slideshare
Evolution lectures 3 & 4 slideshare
Evolution lectures 3 & 4 slideshare
Evolution lectures 3 & 4 slideshare
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Evolution lectures 3 & 4 slideshare

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Evolution lectures 3 & 4 slideshare

  1. 1. Geological times & continental drift
  2. 2. Natural History Museum
  3. 3. QMUL Demonstrators William Maïté Sebastian PhilipPritchard Guignard Bailey Sanders
  4. 4. Atta leaf-cutter ants© National Geographic
  5. 5. Atta leaf-cutter ants© National Geographic
  6. 6. Atta leaf-cutter ants© National Geographic
  7. 7. Mini-summary of lectures 1 & 2
  8. 8. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Linneaus: each species was separately created. • Lamarck: characteristics acquired by an individual are passed on to offspring.
  9. 9. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Linneaus: each species was separately created. • Lamarck: characteristics acquired by an individual are passed on to offspring. • Darwin & Wallace: viewed evolution as descent with modification.
  10. 10. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection)
  11. 11. Evolution by Natural selection• There is inherited variation within species.• There is competition for survival within species.• Genetically inherited traits affect reproduction or survival. Thus the frequencies of variants change.
  12. 12. “Neo-Darwinism” or“The Modern Synthesis”
  13. 13. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with betterunderstanding of how things work.
  14. 14. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.• Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection (1859)
  15. 15. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.• Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection (1859)• Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008)
  16. 16. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.• Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection (1859)• Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008)• Cytogenetics (1902, 1904 - )
  17. 17. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.• Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection (1859)• Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008)• Cytogenetics (1902, 1904 - )• Population Genetics (1908; see Lectures 7-12)
  18. 18. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.• Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection (1859)• Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008)• Cytogenetics (1902, 1904 - )• Population Genetics (1908; see Lectures 7-12)• Molecular genetics (1970s- ; see SBS 633/210 and Lecture 6)
  19. 19. Today1. Major transitions in evolution2. Geological timescales3. Major drivers of evolution4. Examples of major events.
  20. 20. Major transitions: early life
  21. 21. Major transitions: early life• Early life:
  22. 22. Major transitions: early life• Early life: • Replicating molecules
  23. 23. Major transitions: early life• Early life: • Replicating molecules • Compartmentalization
  24. 24. Major transitions: early life• Early life: • Replicating molecules • Compartmentalization• RNA world (RNA as information & enzymes) to DNA information & protein enzymes
  25. 25. Major transitions: early life• Early life: • Replicating molecules • Compartmentalization• RNA world (RNA as information & enzymes) to DNA information & protein enzymes• Linkage of replicators (chromosomes)
  26. 26. Major transitions: early life• Early life: • Replicating molecules • Compartmentalization• RNA world (RNA as information & enzymes) to DNA information & protein enzymes• Linkage of replicators (chromosomes)• Prokaryote to Eukaryote
  27. 27. Major transitions: sex• Lecture 14...
  28. 28. Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
  29. 29. Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
  30. 30. Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
  31. 31. Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
  32. 32. Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
  33. 33. Major transitions: multicellularityGreen algae: Inspiration for what may have occurred: Volvocales
  34. 34. Major transitions: eusociality
  35. 35. Major transitions: eusociality• Solitary lifestyle --> Eusociality 1. Reproductive division of labor 2. Overlapping generations (older offspring help younger offspring) 3. Cooperative care of young
  36. 36. Major transitions: eusociality• Solitary lifestyle --> Eusociality 1. Reproductive division of labor 2. Overlapping generations (older offspring help younger offspring) 3. Cooperative care of young Eg: ants, bees, wasps, termites. But also: naked mole rats, a beetle, a shrimp...
  37. 37. Major transitions: culture• Lecture 13...
  38. 38. But “complexity of life” didn’t increase linearly.
  39. 39. But “complexity of life” didn’t increase linearly.2. Geological time scales
  40. 40. But “complexity of life” didn’t increase linearly. 2. Geological time scalesDefined by changes in flora and fauna (seen in fossil record).
  41. 41. But “complexity of life” didn’t increase linearly. 2. Geological time scalesDefined by changes in flora and fauna (seen in fossil record). Eon > Era > Period > Epoch
  42. 42. Geological timescales: Eon > Era > Period > Epoch 2 Ma: First Hominids 230-65 Ma: 4550 Ma: Dinosaurs Hominids Mammals ca. 380 Ma: Land plants First vertebrate land animals Animals Multicellular life 4527 Ma: Eukaryotes ca. 530 Ma: Prokaryotes Formation of the MoonCambrian explosion 4.6 Ga 65 Ma ca. 4000 Ma: End of the 750-635 Ma: Ma Late Heavy Bombardment; 251Two Snowball Earths first life Cenozoic Mes a M ozoi Ha Pa 2 de 54 4 Ga an leo Era ca. 3500 Ma: c zo Era 3.8 Photosynthesis starts Eon ic Era Ga 1 Ga Eon n Pro hea ter Arc oz 3 Ga oic Eon 2 Ga a 2.5 G Ma = Million years ago ca. 2300 Ma: Atmosphere becomes oxygen-rich; Ga = Billion years ago first Snowball Earth
  43. 43. Geological timescales: Eon > Era > Period > Epoch 2 Ma: First Hominids 230-65 Ma: 4550 Ma: Dinosaurs Hominids Mammals ca. 380 Ma: Land plants First vertebrate land animals Animals Multicellular life 4527 Ma: Eukaryotes ca. 530 Ma: Prokaryotes Formation of the MoonCambrian explosion 4.6 Ga 65 Ma ca. 4000 Ma: End of the 750-635 Ma: Ma Late Heavy Bombardment; 251Two Snowball Earths first life Cenozoic Mes a M ozoi Ha Pa 2 de 54 4 Ga an leo Era ca. 3500 Ma: c zo Era 3.8 Photosynthesis starts Eon ic Era Ga 1 Ga Eon n Pro hea ter Arc oz 3 Ga oic Eon 2 Ga a 2.5 G Ma = Million years ago ca. 2300 Ma: Atmosphere becomes oxygen-rich; Ga = Billion years ago first Snowball Earth
  44. 44. End of Proterozoic (Ediacaran) biota Dickinsonia
  45. 45. TrilobitesCambrian to late permian
  46. 46. Geological timescales: Eon > Era > Period > Epoch 2 Ma: First Hominids 230-65 Ma: 4550 Ma: Dinosaurs Hominids Mammals ca. 380 Ma: Land plants First vertebrate land animals Animals Multicellular life 4527 Ma: Eukaryotes ca. 530 Ma: Prokaryotes Formation of the MoonCambrian explosion 4.6 Ga 65 Ma ca. 4000 Ma: End of the 750-635 Ma: Ma Late Heavy Bombardment; 251Two Snowball Earths first life Cenozoic Mes a M ozoi Ha Pa 2 de 54 4 Ga an leo Era ca. 3500 Ma: c zo Era 3.8 Photosynthesis starts Eon ic Era Ga 1 Ga Eon n Pro hea ter Arc oz 3 Ga oic Eon 2 Ga a 2.5 G Ma = Million years ago ca. 2300 Ma: Atmosphere becomes oxygen-rich; Ga = Billion years ago first Snowball Earth
  47. 47. Ear th
  48. 48. Li feEar th
  49. 49. Eu ka ry ot es Li feEar th
  50. 50. N H Eu M ka :fi ry rs ot t es te tr ap od Li feEar th
  51. 51. W hi N te H Eu ch M ka ap :fi ry el rs ot :D t es in te os tr au ap rs od ex ti n Li feEar th
  52. 52. H W om hi o N te sa H Eu ch pi M ka ap en :fi ry el s: rs ot :D 5m t es in te et os er tr au s ap rs od ex ti n Li feEar th
  53. 53. 3. Major drivers of evolution Conditions on earth change.• Tectonic movement (of continental plates)• Vulcanism• Climate change• Meteorites
  54. 54. Plate tectonics
  55. 55. Plate tectonics
  56. 56. Crustal plates and continental drift
  57. 57. Fossil distribution
  58. 58. Recent continental movements...
  59. 59. Recent continental movements...
  60. 60. Earthquakes• Some tectonic movement is violent. • E.g. 2004 Sumatra earthquake & tsunami...
  61. 61. Vulcanism
  62. 62. Vulcanism• Local climate change (e.g. thermal vents, hot springs...)
  63. 63. Vulcanism• Local climate change (e.g. thermal vents, hot springs...)• Global climate change: Emission of gasses & particles. Eyjafjall ajokull
  64. 64. Vulcanism• Local climate change (e.g. thermal vents, hot springs...)• Global climate change: Emission of gasses & particles.• New geological barriers (migration...) Eyjafjall ajokull Deccan traps
  65. 65. Vulcanism• Local climate change (e.g. thermal vents, hot springs...)• Global climate change: Emission of gasses & particles.• New geological barriers (migration...) Eyjafjall ajokull• New islands (Indonesia... Hawaii... ) Deccan traps
  66. 66. Climate changeSnowball earths?
  67. 67. 3. Major drivers of evolution Conditions on earth change.• Tectonic movement (of continental plates)• Vulcanism• Climate change• Meteorites
  68. 68. 3. Major drivers of evolution Meteorite impact ? Vulcanism ? Climate change Tectonic movement
  69. 69. 3. Major drivers of evolution Meteorite impact ? Vulcanism ? Climate change Tectonic movementConsequences:
  70. 70. 3. Major drivers of evolution Meteorite impact ? Vulcanism ? Climate change Tectonic movementConsequences: • Large scale migrations
  71. 71. 3. Major drivers of evolution Meteorite impact ? Vulcanism ? Climate change Tectonic movementConsequences: • Large scale migrations • Speciation
  72. 72. 3. Major drivers of evolution Meteorite impact ? Vulcanism ? Climate change Tectonic movementConsequences: • Large scale migrations • Speciation • Mass extinctions
  73. 73. 3. Major drivers of evolution Meteorite impact ? Vulcanism ? Climate change Tectonic movementConsequences: • Large scale migrations • Speciation • Mass extinctions • Adaptive radiations
  74. 74. 3. Major drivers of evolution Meteorite impact ? Vulcanism ? Climate change Tectonic movementConsequences: • Large scale migrations • Speciation • Mass extinctions • Adaptive radiations
  75. 75. 3. Major drivers of evolution Meteorite impact ? Vulcanism ? Climate change Tectonic movementConsequences: • Large scale migrations • Speciation • Mass extinctions • Adaptive radiations
  76. 76. Module pagehttps://www2.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/control-panel --> Modules --> Evolution
  77. 77. Today1. Major transitions in evolution2. Geological timescales3. Major drivers of evolution4. Examples of major events: two recent extinctions
  78. 78. 4. Recent major exinction fraction of genera present in each timeinterval but extinct inthe following interval Pg r T P- T) (K g -P J -S r- D K O T te La ay o d T
  79. 79. 4. Recent major exinction fraction of genera present in each timeinterval but extinct inthe following interval Pg r T P- T) (K g -P J -S r- D K O T te La ay o d T
  80. 80. 4. Recent major exinction fraction of genera present in each timeinterval but extinct inthe following interval Pg r T P- T) (K g -P J -S r- D K O T te La ay o d T
  81. 81. 4. Recent major exinction fraction of genera present in each timeinterval but extinct inthe following interval Pg r T P- T) (K g -P J -S r- D K O T te La ay o d T
  82. 82. Late Carboniferous 306 Mya
  83. 83. Late Carboniferous 306 Mya• Tetrapods and early amniotes.
  84. 84. Late Carboniferous 306 Mya• Tetrapods and early amniotes.• Tropical conditions around equatorial landmasses.
  85. 85. Late Carboniferous 306 Mya• Tetrapods and early amniotes.• Tropical conditions around equatorial landmasses.• Damp forests: tall trees & lush undergrowth: giant club mosses,lycopods, ferns & seed ferns.
  86. 86. Late Carboniferous 306 Mya• Tetrapods and early amniotes.• Tropical conditions around equatorial landmasses.• Damp forests: tall trees & lush undergrowth: giant club mosses,lycopods, ferns & seed ferns.• Decaying undergrowth forms coal.
  87. 87. Late Carboniferous 306 Mya• Tetrapods and early amniotes.• Tropical conditions around equatorial landmasses.• Damp forests: tall trees & lush undergrowth: giant club mosses,lycopods, ferns & seed ferns.• Decaying undergrowth forms coal.• Good habitats for terrestrial invertebrates including spiders,millipedes and insects (e.g. giant dragonflies).
  88. 88. Early Permian mammal-like reptiles DimetrodonOrder Pelycosauria (sub-class Synapsida)
  89. 89. Permian-Triassic ExtinctionSun et al Science 2012
  90. 90. Permian-Triassic ExtinctionWent extinct: •Up to 96% of marine species & 70% of terrestrial vertebrates •21 terrestrial tetrapod families (63%) • 7 orders of insectsSun et al Science 2012
  91. 91. Permian-Triassic ExtinctionWent extinct: •Up to 96% of marine species & 70% of terrestrial vertebrates •21 terrestrial tetrapod families (63%) • 7 orders of insectsSun et al Science 2012
  92. 92. Jurassic/Cretaceous•Mammal-like reptiles were replacedas dominant land vertebrates byreptiles (dinosaurs).• Lizards, modern amphibians andearly birds appear.• The conifer- and fern-dominatedvegetation of the Late Triassiccontinued into the Jurassic.
  93. 93. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of genera).Including:
  94. 94. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of genera).Including: Ammonite
  95. 95. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of genera).Including: Mosasaur Ammonite (marine reptile)
  96. 96. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of genera).Including: Mosasaur Ammonite (marine reptile) Non-bird dinosaurs
  97. 97. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of genera).Including: Mosasaur Ammonite (marine reptile) Non-bird dinosaurs Most Plant-eating insects
  98. 98. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago75% of all species became extinct (50% of genera).Including: Mosasaur Ammonite (marine reptile) Non-bird dinosaurs Most Plant-eating insectsSubsequently, many adaptive radiations to fill newly vacant niches. eg. mammals, fish, many insects
  99. 99. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago http://www.scotese.com/earth.htm)
  100. 100. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago http://www.scotese.com/earth.htm)
  101. 101. Evidence for Chixulub impact
  102. 102. Evidence for Chixulub impact Magnetic field near siteCrater: 180km diameter; bolide: 10km.
  103. 103. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago
  104. 104. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub.
  105. 105. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub. • huge tsunamis
  106. 106. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub. • huge tsunamis • cloud of dust and water vapour, blocking sun.
  107. 107. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub. • huge tsunamis • cloud of dust and water vapour, blocking sun. • plants & phytoplankton die (bottom of food chain) --> animals starve
  108. 108. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub. • huge tsunamis • cloud of dust and water vapour, blocking sun. • plants & phytoplankton die (bottom of food chain) --> animals starve • dramatic climate & temperature changes are difficult (easier for warm-blooded?)
  109. 109. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub. • huge tsunamis • cloud of dust and water vapour, blocking sun. • plants & phytoplankton die (bottom of food chain) --> animals starve • dramatic climate & temperature changes are difficult (easier for warm-blooded?)• Additional causes?
  110. 110. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub. • huge tsunamis • cloud of dust and water vapour, blocking sun. • plants & phytoplankton die (bottom of food chain) --> animals starve • dramatic climate & temperature changes are difficult (easier for warm-blooded?)• Additional causes? • Some groups were ALREADY in decline
  111. 111. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub. • huge tsunamis • cloud of dust and water vapour, blocking sun. • plants & phytoplankton die (bottom of food chain) --> animals starve • dramatic climate & temperature changes are difficult (easier for warm-blooded?)• Additional causes? • Some groups were ALREADY in decline • Additional impacts?
  112. 112. Cretaceous–Paleogene (KT) extinction 66 million years ago• Bolide impact at Chixulub. • huge tsunamis • cloud of dust and water vapour, blocking sun. • plants & phytoplankton die (bottom of food chain) --> animals starve • dramatic climate & temperature changes are difficult (easier for warm-blooded?)• Additional causes? • Some groups were ALREADY in decline • Additional impacts? • Deccan traps (India) - 30,000 years of volcanic activity (lava/gas release)
  113. 113. Ongoing Anthropocene extinction?•Hunting•Habitat destruction, modification &fragmentation•Pollution•Climate change•Spread of invasive species•Overexploitation
  114. 114. Summary.• The history of the earth is divided into geological time periods• These are defined by characteristic flora and fauna• Large-scalechanges in biodiversity were triggered by continental movement and catastrophic events (mass extinctions)
  115. 115. xx xx xx xx xxx x xx x xx xx xx xx xx
  116. 116. Don’t forget to hand in the questionnaire! William Maïté Sebastian PhilipPritchard Guignard Bailey Sanders
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