StephenYangPhD Defense – Dept. of KinesiologyPhysical Education PedagogyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityOctober 18, 2012
* Increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular                  disease, high blood cholesterol        ...
¡  ↑Sedentary activities¡  ↑Media use¡  ↑Inactivity-­‐-­‐-­‐> ↑ obesity                                        3
–    -­‐ Rideout, 2010
5
¡    # of Articles      §  2 articles (2005)      §  200 + articles (2012)¡    Review (Biddiss, 2010)      §  N=18 st...
¡    Lanningham-­‐Foster, 2006      §  N=25      §  8-­‐12 years      §  15 mins      §  VO2         ▪  DDR & EyeToy ...
¡    Maddison, 2007      §  N=21      §  10-­‐14 years      §  5 minutes      §  VO2 & Actigraph         ▪  DDR      ...
¡    Pilot #1¡    n=35 (18 girls, 17 boys)      §  8-­‐18 years old      §  Up to 45 minutes¡    DDR Max 2      §   ...
¡    Pilot #2, 2008      §  N=12, F=7, M=5      §  9-­‐18 years      §  45 mins¡    HRM      §  Any level, game, lev...
¡     Self-­‐Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)-­‐    Sallis, 1991; Hassandra, 2003; Cuddihy, 1998; Ntoumanis, 2001...
1.  Multiple games types2.  Motivation (SDT) §         Autonomy       ▪     Time, game options3.  Teens4.  % Time MVPA-­‐...
¡    To examine differences in duration and percent      time of MVPA for adolescents playing three      different exergame...
¡  Quasi-­‐experimental¡  Within-­‐subjects design¡  Randomized counter-­‐balanced design  §  Day 1  §  Days 2-­‐4   ...
¡  Similar to:  §  Lanningham (2006), Maddison (2007), Bausch (2008)¡  Games  §  DDR (legs), EyeToy Kinetic (arms and ...
¡  YMCA (Northeast rural US)¡  Multipurpose room  §  Near lobby, gyms, pool  §  Blank wall, lighting                  ...
¡    Recruitment      §  Sample size estimate (n=20)        ▪  HR confidence interval 19.55, confidence level 95% ~100    ...
¡  Parental  §  Informed consent  §  PAR-­‐Q¡  Participant  §  Assent (witnessed)  §  PHQ  §  Height & Weight      ...
¡  HRM (Polar E600)  §  PE Manager  §  Coded monitors  §  Validation VO2 (Eston, 1998)¡  SenseWear Armband PRO2  §  ...
¡    OMNI-­‐RPE (0-­‐10 scale)      §  Validation (Robertson, 2005)¡    IMI (1-­‐7 Likert scale)      §  4 items¡    ...
¡  LCD projector & Sound system  §  Projected on white wall (6ft wide)  §  Sound system (10 watts)¡  ExerGames  §  So...
1        Random                     Random                       Random      ExerGame 1                 ExerGame 2        ...
1                        2      Visit 2 -­‐      Visit 3 –         Visit 4 –     ExerGame1        ExerGame2         ExerGa...
1¡  SPSS 19.0     §  Significance alpha 0.05¡  Repeated Measures ANOVA (within-­‐subjects)       ▪  Mean HR       ▪  %MV...
2                              3¡    Repeated Measures ANOVA (within-­‐subjects) across 3      games      §    Mean dura...
¡          Volunteers      §     Limited to those who volunteer to participate             thus reducing chances of a ra...
¡  14-­‐18 year olds¡  YMCA members¡  3 Exergames  §  DDR, EyeToy Kinetic, XaviX Tennis¡  < 10 hours exergame experie...
1                          2                    3¡  Paper 1       1     §  15mins¡  Paper 2       2     §  Up to 60 mi...
1¡  Mean HR ¡    Highest HR = ETK¡  %MVPA     §  Highest %MVPA = ETK¡  OMNI-­‐RPE     §  Highest RPE = ETK¡  Enjoym...
1                         ¡  H1: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ                                                  ...
1                     ¡  H1: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ                                            Mean Heart...
1               ¡  H1: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ                                  Mean Percentage Time Spent...
1                                          Mean Ratings of Perceived Exertion by Game                   8                 ...
1                                   Mean Enjoyment by Game            8            7                                      ...
1¡  Discussion     §  High intensity and High Enjoyment don’t have to      be mutually exclusive       ▪  Contrasts Lyon...
2¡  Days 2-­‐4¡  Time (60 min max)¡  Self-­‐selected game options  §  XVT-­‐player, court type, court location, oppone...
2¡    Time      §  Highest Time = ETK¡    HR      §  Highest HR= ETK¡    %MVPA      §  Highest %MVPA = ETK¡    OMNI...
2          ¡  H2: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ          70                       Mean Minutes by Game          ...
2                   200                   Mean Heart Rate by Game                   180                   160             ...
2                                 ¡  H3: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ                           100            ...
2¡  H5a: Gender will not have a moderating effect  on percentage time spent in MVPA. þ  §  No differences by gender using...
2¡  H6a: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis ⊗            7                            Mean Motives for Physical Activity...
2¡  H6b: MPAM-­‐R scores will have a moderating effect on percentage time spent in MVPA. ⊗  §  XVT      ▪  Enjoyment-­‐-­...
2¡  Discussion  §  High HR, exertion over self-­‐selected time  §  Choice (autonomy) important¡  Given schools, home a...
3¡  Comparing Energy Expenditure (EE)    §  Heart rate monitor (HRM)    §  Sensewear Armband (AB)¡  Two Phases    §  ...
3¡  Comparing Energy Expenditure (EE)  §  Heart rate monitor (HRM)  §  Sensewear Armband (AB)¡  Phase 1 (15 mins)  § ...
3¡    H4.1a: AB > HRM (Calories)-­‐ Phase 1 ⊗¡    H4.1b: AB > HRM (Calories) Phase 2 ⊗                                  ...
3¡  H4.2a: AB > HRM (CPM) – Phase 1 ⊗¡  H4.2b: AB > HRM (CPM) – Phase 2⊗                                            48
3¡  Discussion  §  Armband difference – skin, upper body, skin temp      ▪  Extra weight of racquet  §  HR formula limit...
1                                     2                              3¡    Paper 1          §  H1 %MVPA: EyeToy Kinetic ...
¡  Public Health Message  §  Obesity and inactivity epidemic¡  Real world setting  §  Ecological/external validity    ...
¡  1. Long-­‐term use  §  Motivation, autonomy¡  2. Exergame Gateway Effect  §  Will exposure to exergames lead to    m...
1.    Advanced sensor integration      §  Kinetic/Joule, MOVE, WiiU      §  Kinect PlayFIt -­‐ Data tracking2.    SDT fe...
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¡  Research Groups  §  RWJF  §  GFH¡  Collaborations  §  Health/Fitness Industry & Pres. Council Fitness  §  Healthc...
$8.25 million  2008 -­‐ 12  2009 -­‐ 14                57
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¡  Take advantage of VG motivation¡  Find alternate opportunities to attain MVPA¡  Home, community & schools¡  Enjoyab...
StephenYangPhD Defense – Dept. of KinesiologyPhysical Education PedagogyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityOctober 18, 2012
Stephen Yang 2012 PhD defense - Comparing MVPA, EE, RPE, & Enjoyment in Adolescents Playing Exergames
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Stephen Yang 2012 PhD defense - Comparing MVPA, EE, RPE, & Enjoyment in Adolescents Playing Exergames

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Exergames (fitness video games) are gaining popularity, and may have the potential to provide more physical activity for adolescents if properly implemented. Exergames require physical activity and the moving of one's body as the game controller rather than a traditional hand-held game controller. The purpose of these studies was to determine the differences of time spent in MVPA, energy expenditure, ratings of perceived exertion and enjoyment while playing three fitness video games (XaviX tennis, EyeToy Kinetic, and Dance Dance Revolution). Gaining better insight on which types of interactive technologies are most effective in eliciting MVPA and which activity monitor is capable of gathering quality data will greatly assist educators, parents and community leaders in providing quality healthy alternative programming.

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Stephen Yang 2012 PhD defense - Comparing MVPA, EE, RPE, & Enjoyment in Adolescents Playing Exergames

  1. 1. StephenYangPhD Defense – Dept. of KinesiologyPhysical Education PedagogyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityOctober 18, 2012
  2. 2. * Increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, high blood cholesterol 2
  3. 3. ¡  ↑Sedentary activities¡  ↑Media use¡  ↑Inactivity-­‐-­‐-­‐> ↑ obesity   3
  4. 4. –  -­‐ Rideout, 2010
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. ¡  # of Articles §  2 articles (2005) §  200 + articles (2012)¡  Review (Biddiss, 2010) §  N=18 studies §  Mean ↑EE 222% §  Mean ↑HR 64% §  Light to moderate PA¡  ? Vigorous PA 6
  7. 7. ¡  Lanningham-­‐Foster, 2006 §  N=25 §  8-­‐12 years §  15 mins §  VO2 ▪  DDR & EyeToy Play¡  Low PA þ¡  Only 2 games ⊗ 7
  8. 8. ¡  Maddison, 2007 §  N=21 §  10-­‐14 years §  5 minutes §  VO2 & Actigraph ▪  DDR ▪  EyeToy Antigrav¡  Moderate PA þ¡  Only 2 games ⊗ 8
  9. 9. ¡  Pilot #1¡  n=35 (18 girls, 17 boys) §  8-­‐18 years old §  Up to 45 minutes¡  DDR Max 2 §  Any level, any song §  Mean HR = 142 bpm §  Mean time = 44 minutes §  98% Time in MVPA¡  HR, %MVPA þ¡  Only 1 game ⊗ 9
  10. 10. ¡  Pilot #2, 2008 §  N=12, F=7, M=5 §  9-­‐18 years §  45 mins¡  HRM §  Any level, game, level, song §  DDR & EyeToy Play¡  HR, MVPA þ¡  Only 2 games ⊗ 10
  11. 11. ¡  Self-­‐Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)-­‐  Sallis, 1991; Hassandra, 2003; Cuddihy, 1998; Ntoumanis, 2001) Competence Behavior Autonomy Intrinsic Motivation (VG) (Physical Activity) Relatedness 11
  12. 12. 1.  Multiple games types2.  Motivation (SDT) §  Autonomy ▪  Time, game options3.  Teens4.  % Time MVPA-­‐oriented (practical application) 12
  13. 13. ¡  To examine differences in duration and percent time of MVPA for adolescents playing three different exergames (Dance Dance Revolution, EyeToy Kinetic, and XaviX Tennis).¡  To examine motivation and moderators for duration and percent time of MVPA during three exergames. 13
  14. 14. ¡  Quasi-­‐experimental¡  Within-­‐subjects design¡  Randomized counter-­‐balanced design §  Day 1 §  Days 2-­‐4 14
  15. 15. ¡  Similar to: §  Lanningham (2006), Maddison (2007), Bausch (2008)¡  Games §  DDR (legs), EyeToy Kinetic (arms and legs), XaviX Tennis (arms) 15
  16. 16. ¡  YMCA (Northeast rural US)¡  Multipurpose room §  Near lobby, gyms, pool §  Blank wall, lighting 16
  17. 17. ¡  Recruitment §  Sample size estimate (n=20) ▪  HR confidence interval 19.55, confidence level 95% ~100 available youth §  Teens 14 – 18 §  Minimal experience with 3 exergames §  Cleared for PA¡  Members of CortlandYMCA §  N=27 (F=10, M=17) §  Non-­‐Hispanic White 82.5% 17
  18. 18. ¡  Parental §  Informed consent §  PAR-­‐Q¡  Participant §  Assent (witnessed) §  PHQ §  Height & Weight ▪  Portable Seca Stadiometer ▪  Portable Lifesource Scale (UC-­‐321) 18
  19. 19. ¡  HRM (Polar E600) §  PE Manager §  Coded monitors §  Validation VO2 (Eston, 1998)¡  SenseWear Armband PRO2 §  InnerView Professional 6.1 ¡  Validation VO2 (Calabro, 2009) 19
  20. 20. ¡  OMNI-­‐RPE (0-­‐10 scale) §  Validation (Robertson, 2005)¡  IMI (1-­‐7 Likert scale) §  4 items¡  MPAM-­‐R (1-­‐7 Likert scale) ▪  Subscale mean §  (30) items ▪  Competence, Enjoyment, Fitness, Appearance, Relatedness ▪  High internal consistency (α = 0.709-­‐0.943) §  Validation (Ryan, Frederick, Lepes, Rubio, & Sheldon, 1997) 20
  21. 21. ¡  LCD projector & Sound system §  Projected on white wall (6ft wide) §  Sound system (10 watts)¡  ExerGames §  Sony PS2 -­‐ DDR Supernova 2 (DDR) §  Sony PS2 -­‐ EyeToy Kinetic with camera (ETK) §  XaviX Tennis (XVT) 21
  22. 22. 1 Random Random Random ExerGame 1 ExerGame 2 ExerGame 3 Prac%ce Prac%ce Prac%ce (5 min) (5 min) (5 min) Trial Trial Trial (15 min) (15 min) (15 min) Rest & Ques%ons Rest & Ques%ons Rest & Ques%ons (5 min) (5 min) (5 min) Schedule Visits 2-­‐4 Appointments 22
  23. 23. 1 2 Visit 2 -­‐ Visit 3 – Visit 4 – ExerGame1 ExerGame2 ExerGame3 Play (60 min) Play (60 min) Play (60 min)MPAM-­‐R (5min) MPAM-­‐R (5min) MPAM-­‐R (5min) Ques>ons (5 Ques>ons (5 Ques>ons (5 min) min) min) 23
  24. 24. 1¡  SPSS 19.0 §  Significance alpha 0.05¡  Repeated Measures ANOVA (within-­‐subjects) ▪  Mean HR ▪  %MVPA ▪  Mean OMNI-­‐RPE ▪  Enjoyment 24
  25. 25. 2 3¡  Repeated Measures ANOVA (within-­‐subjects) across 3 games §  Mean duration §  Mean %MVPA §  Mean OMNI-­‐RPE §  MPAM-­‐R (competence, enjoyment, fitness, appearance, social)¡  T-­‐tests for differences in % time at MVPA ▪  HRM & SenseWear Armband¡  Multiple regressions (moderating effects) on MVPA ▪  Gender ▪  BMI ▪  MPAM-­‐R 25
  26. 26. ¡  Volunteers §  Limited to those who volunteer to participate thus reducing chances of a random sample¡  Range of motivation §  Cannot control interest, skill, or motivation to play¡  Measurement tools §  Limited to the capacities of the instruments to assess their designed purpose 26
  27. 27. ¡  14-­‐18 year olds¡  YMCA members¡  3 Exergames §  DDR, EyeToy Kinetic, XaviX Tennis¡  < 10 hours exergame experience 27
  28. 28. 1 2 3¡  Paper 1 1 §  15mins¡  Paper 2 2 §  Up to 60 minutes¡  Paper 3 3 §  Comparing Energy Expenditure between HRM & AB 28
  29. 29. 1¡  Mean HR ¡  Highest HR = ETK¡  %MVPA §  Highest %MVPA = ETK¡  OMNI-­‐RPE §  Highest RPE = ETK¡  Enjoyment §  Highest Enjoyment = ETK 29
  30. 30. 1 ¡  H1: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ Heart Rate per Participant 200 180 160 140Heart Rate (bpm) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Participants XaviX Tennis EyeToy Kinetic Dance Dance Revolution 30
  31. 31. 1 ¡  H1: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ Mean Heart Rate by Game 200 180 * p < 0.05 160 140Heart Rate (bpm) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 XaviX Tennis EyeToy Kine>c Dance Dance Revolu>on Error bars: 95% CI 31
  32. 32. 1 ¡  H1: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ Mean Percentage Time Spent in MVPA by Game 100 90 * p < 0.05 80 70 60Percentage % 50 40 30 20 10 0 Xavix Tennis EyeToy Kine>c Dance Dance Revolu>on Error bars: 95% CI 32
  33. 33. 1 Mean Ratings of Perceived Exertion by Game 8 7 * p < 0.05 6 5Exertion 0-­‐10) 4 3 2 1 0 Xavix Tennis EyeToy Kinetic Dance Dance Revolution Error Bars: 95% CI 33
  34. 34. 1 Mean Enjoyment by Game 8 7 * p < 0.05 6 5Enjoyment 4 3 2 1 0 Xavix Tennis EyeToy Kinetic Dance Dance Revolution Standard deviation bars 34
  35. 35. 1¡  Discussion §  High intensity and High Enjoyment don’t have to be mutually exclusive ▪  Contrasts Lyons findings of not liking higher exertion games (2011)¡  ? Longer durations¡  ? Choice 35
  36. 36. 2¡  Days 2-­‐4¡  Time (60 min max)¡  Self-­‐selected game options §  XVT-­‐player, court type, court location, opponent §  ETK-­‐male/female trainer, songs, length of play §  DDR-­‐songs, levels¡  MPAM-­‐R §  Enjoyment, competence, fitness, appearance, social 36
  37. 37. 2¡  Time §  Highest Time = ETK¡  HR §  Highest HR= ETK¡  %MVPA §  Highest %MVPA = ETK¡  OMNI-­‐RPE §  Highest RPE = ETK¡  MPAM-­‐R §  Enjoyment, competence, fitness, appearance, social ▪  Fitness motivator for playing ETK compared to XVT. 37
  38. 38. 2 ¡  H2: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ 70 Mean Minutes by Game 60 * p < 0.05 50 40Minutes 30 20 10 0 Xavix Tennis EyeToy Kine>c Dance Dance Revolu>on Standard Devia%on 38
  39. 39. 2 200 Mean Heart Rate by Game 180 160 140 * p < 0.05 120Heart Rate (bpm) 100 80 60 40 20 0 XaviX Tenis EyeToy Kinetic Dance Dance Revolution Error bars: 95% CI 39
  40. 40. 2 ¡  H3: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ 100 Mean Percentage Time Spent in MVPA by Game 90 * p < 0.05 80 70MVPA Percentage Time (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 XaviX Tenis EyeToy Kinetic Dance Dance Revolution Error bars: 95% CI 40
  41. 41. 2¡  H5a: Gender will not have a moderating effect on percentage time spent in MVPA. þ §  No differences by gender using Chi-­‐Square analyses.¡  H5b: BMI will have a moderating effect on percentage time spent in MVPA. ⊗ §  No correlation between BMI & %MVPA 41
  42. 42. 2¡  H6a: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis ⊗ 7 Mean Motives for Physical Activity of Exergames * p < 0.05 6 5 4 MPAM-­‐R 3 2 1 0 Enjoyment Competence Appearance Fitness Social Error bars: 95% CI XaviX Tennis EyeToy Kine>c Dance Dance Revolu>on 42
  43. 43. 2¡  H6b: MPAM-­‐R scores will have a moderating effect on percentage time spent in MVPA. ⊗ §  XVT ▪  Enjoyment-­‐-­‐-­‐Competence (moderating) -­‐-­‐ Time ▪  Enjoy -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Time ­  r = .493, p = 0.014 ▪  Enjoyment -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Competence ­  r = 0.579, p = 0.003 ▪  R2 = 0.253, b = 0.565, p = 0.024. 43
  44. 44. 2¡  Discussion §  High HR, exertion over self-­‐selected time §  Choice (autonomy) important¡  Given schools, home and communities can use these games, important to know which device can help in tracking 44
  45. 45. 3¡  Comparing Energy Expenditure (EE) §  Heart rate monitor (HRM) §  Sensewear Armband (AB)¡  Two Phases §  Phase 1 (15 mins) §  Phase 2 (up to 60 mins)¡  Two Measures §  Calories (CAL) §  Calories per minute (CPM) 45
  46. 46. 3¡  Comparing Energy Expenditure (EE) §  Heart rate monitor (HRM) §  Sensewear Armband (AB)¡  Phase 1 (15 mins) §  Bland Altman Plots = agreement¡  Phase 2 (up to 60 mins) §  High correlations CAL (α = 0.650-­‐0.839) §  Bland Altman Plots = agreement 46
  47. 47. 3¡  H4.1a: AB > HRM (Calories)-­‐ Phase 1 ⊗¡  H4.1b: AB > HRM (Calories) Phase 2 ⊗ 47
  48. 48. 3¡  H4.2a: AB > HRM (CPM) – Phase 1 ⊗¡  H4.2b: AB > HRM (CPM) – Phase 2⊗ 48
  49. 49. 3¡  Discussion §  Armband difference – skin, upper body, skin temp ▪  Extra weight of racquet §  HR formula limitations §  Which TOOL should be used?? §  Practical use – §  Teachers, community §  It about the application 49
  50. 50. 1 2 3¡  Paper 1 §  H1 %MVPA: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ¡  Paper 2 §  H2 Time: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ §  H3 %MVPA: EyeToy Kinetic > DDR > XaviX Tennis þ §  H5a: Gender did not have a moderating effect on percentage time spent in MVPA. þ §  H5b: BMI did not have a moderating effect on % MVPA. ⊗ §  H6a: Moderating effect on %MVPA⊗¡  Paper 3 §  H4.1a Calories-­‐15 mins: AB > HRM ⊗ §  H4.1b Calories-­‐15 mins: AB > HRM ⊗ §  H4.2a Calories per Minute-­‐60 mins: AB > HRM ⊗ §  H4.2b Calories per Minute-­‐60 mins: AB > HRM ⊗¡  General 50
  51. 51. ¡  Public Health Message §  Obesity and inactivity epidemic¡  Real world setting §  Ecological/external validity 51
  52. 52. ¡  1. Long-­‐term use §  Motivation, autonomy¡  2. Exergame Gateway Effect §  Will exposure to exergames lead to more PA in other areas¡  3. Prescription for Exercise (Rx) §  Known intensities and tools §  Compendium update of exergames §  For teachers/professionals §  RWJF 52
  53. 53. 1.  Advanced sensor integration §  Kinetic/Joule, MOVE, WiiU §  Kinect PlayFIt -­‐ Data tracking2.  SDT features (C,A,R) §  Dance Central 2-­‐ Dance Cam ▪  Uploaded to channel §  Dance Central 3 – MakeYour Move ▪  Choreograph own routines for others to play §  Just Dance 4 – video created from video clips 53
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. ¡  Research Groups §  RWJF §  GFH¡  Collaborations §  Health/Fitness Industry & Pres. Council Fitness §  Healthcare (UnitedHealthCare, Humana) §  Game Industry (MS, Nin, NFL, ESA) 56
  57. 57. $8.25 million 2008 -­‐ 12 2009 -­‐ 14 57
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. ¡  Take advantage of VG motivation¡  Find alternate opportunities to attain MVPA¡  Home, community & schools¡  Enjoyable, rewarding, socially supportive¡  Better programming¡  Potential for Gateway Effect to healthier lifestyles 61
  62. 62. StephenYangPhD Defense – Dept. of KinesiologyPhysical Education PedagogyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityOctober 18, 2012

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