Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Neighborhood Design and Energy Efficient Lifestyle in China: Treating Residence and Mobility as Lifestyle Bundle
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Neighborhood Design and Energy Efficient Lifestyle in China: Treating Residence and Mobility as Lifestyle Bundle

63
views

Published on

Dissertation Defense

Dissertation Defense

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
63
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Talk about three initial hypotheses
  • Transcript

    • 1. Neighborhood Design and the EnergyEfficiency of Urban Lifestyle in China:Treating Residence and Mobility as Lifestyle BundleYang Chen07/27/2012
    • 2. IntroductionOutline• Introduction• Theory• Context and Methods• Qualitative Analysis• Vehicle Portfolio Choice• Lifestyle Bundle Choice• Energy Consumption• Implications & LimitationsTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 3. IntroductionGlobal Primary Energy ConsumptionTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionData Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012
    • 4. IntroductionChina’s Energy TrendsTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionData Source: China Energy Statistical Year Book 2011
    • 5. IntroductionChina’s Net Energy ImportsTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionData Source: IEA (2010), "World Indicators", IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances (database)Percentage of Net Energy Import in Total Energy Supply
    • 6. IntroductionResearch QuestionTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion• How does neighborhood design influencehouseholds’ direct energy consumption inChinese cities?– Direct energy consumption– Urbanization & Changing Lifestyles– Neighborhood level
    • 7. IntroductionUrban Lifestyle-VehiclesTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionSource: author’s calculation based on China Statistical Year Book 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011
    • 8. IntroductionUrban Lifestyle-AppliancesTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionSource: author’s calculation based on China Statistical Year Book 1991-2011
    • 9. IntroductionTheory• Energy analysis• Consumer behavior and location choice• Form and travel• Form and residential energy• The concept of lifestyleTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 10. IntroductionEnergy AnalysisTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionLifestyle-oriented Energy and Emission Model Structure. Adopted from Weber and Perrels (2000)
    • 11. IntroductionConsumer Behavior, Location ChoiceTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionDistance to City CenterBid Rent of Urban Land ($/acre)City Center
    • 12. IntroductionForm and TravelTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionNet Utility Curves of Difference Modes, adopted from Maat et al. (2005)
    • 13. IntroductionForm and Residential EnergyTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionCausal Paths between Urban Form and Residential Energy ConsumptionBased on Ewing and Rong (2008)Urban Form-Density-Accessibility-CentralityHousing Stock-Size-TypeLocal Climate(e.g. Temperature)Residential EnergyConsumptionHousing ChoiceUrban Heat IslandSolar/Wind
    • 14. IntroductionConcept of LifestyleTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionDemandBehaviorAttitudes, Perceptions, PreferencesValues
    • 15. Household CharacteristicsNeighborhood Design IndicatorsResidentialChoiceVehiclePortfolioChoiceIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseRent/ OwnNeighborhoodUnit SizeE-bikesMotorcyclesCarsHousehold CharacteristicsNeighborhood Design IndicatorsResidentialChoiceVehiclePortfolioChoiceIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseRent/ OwnNeighborhoodUnit SizeE-bikesMotorcyclesCarsHousehold CharacteristicsNeighborhood Design IndicatorsResidentialChoiceVehiclePortfolioChoiceIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseRent/ OwnNeighborhoodUnit SizeE-bikesMotorcyclesCarsIntroduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionHousehold CharacteristicsNeighborhood Design IndicatorsResidentialChoiceVehiclePortfolioChoiceTrip RateModeDistanceApplianceOwnershipIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseRent/ OwnNeighborhoodUnit SizeE-bikesMotorcyclesCarsNeighborhood Design Indicators
    • 16. IntroductionResearch ContextTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionJinan
    • 17. IntroductionNeighborhood TypesTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionGraphs by “Making the Clean Energy City in China” MIT Form Team, adopted from Year 2 ReportTraditionalGrid (1920s)Enclave (1980-1990s)Superblock (-2000s)
    • 18. Traditional
    • 19. Grid
    • 20. Enclave
    • 21. Superblocks
    • 22. TESGESEE S
    • 23. TESGESESGGEETSSSSE STESS
    • 24. TESGESESGGEETSSSE STESSS
    • 25. IntroductionAnalysis Methods• Qualitative• Interview• Quantitative• Vehicle Portfolio Choice Model• Lifestyle Bundle Choice Model• Energy Consumption Model• Elasticity and SimulationTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 26. IntroductionMultinomial LogitTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionUtilityExplanatory Variables XinRevealed Choiceis extreme value i.i.d.
    • 27. IntroductionLatent Class ChoiceTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 28. IntroductionStructural Equation Model with IV’sTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 29. IntroductionElasticities and SimulationsTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion• Elasticity• Sample Enumeration• Simulation• Sample average vs. median household• Stack graph• Line graph• Dummy variables
    • 30. IntroductionQuantitative DataTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion• Household Survey (n=4161)• GIS data (23 neighborhoods)
    • 31. IntroductionQualitative DataTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion• Stratified (quota) sampling + snowballsampling• Semi-structured Interviews (n=35)• Retrospective description of residential choiceand vehicle ownership decisions; energy-usinghabits; lifestyle related attitudes; etc.
    • 32. IntroductionSample ComparisonTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionInterviewRespondentsHouseholdSurveyJinan UrbanResidents*sample size (# of households) 35 4,161 1.1 millionhousehold size 3.31** 3.03 3.08household disposable income (yuan/year) 148,333 77,571 77,989# of employed household members 1.57 1.66 1.49# of car per household 0.67 0.36 0.23unit size (m2) 96.6 88.4 90.6percentage of single 3% 7% n.a.percentage of couple 20% 21% n.a.percentage of couple with kid 54% 44% n.a.* data from Jinan Statistical Year Book 2011 for 2010 data, italic shows data for 2009** there is an outlier with 11 household members in the family
    • 33. IntroductionQualitative AnalysisTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 34. IntroductionHierarchy of LifestyleTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionDemandBehaviorAttitudes, Perceptions, PreferencesValuesPurchase/Ownership Behavior:Residential and vehicle portfolio choiceUsage Behavior:Habits of travel and in-home operation
    • 35. IntroductionLifestyle Groups and IndicatorsTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionJob-orientedChild-orientedBudget-orientedAmenity-oriented
    • 36. IntroductionLifestyle BundleTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion• Resource Constraint and Timing• Accessibility and Parking• Attitudes, Perceptions, Preferences and Values
    • 37. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionAttitudes, Perceptions, PreferencesValuesPurchase/Ownership Behavior:Residential and vehicle portfolio choiceUsage Behavior:Habits of travel and in-home operationPeer EffectExperiencefeedbackValueformationPeerEffectBundle AlternativeAttributese.g. Neighborhood Design
    • 38. IntroductionHypothesesTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion• Lifestyle Bundle• Lifestyle Groups• Neighborhood Design Influences both BundleChoice and Lifestyle Groups
    • 39. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionQuantitative Analysis
    • 40. ResidentialChoiceIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseRent/ OwnNeighborhoodUnit SizeIntroduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionHousehold CharacteristicsNeighborhood Design IndicatorsVehiclePortfolioChoiceE-bikesMotorcyclesCarsResidentialChoiceIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseRent/ OwnNeighborhoodUnit Size
    • 41. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionHousehold CharacteristicsNeighborhood Design IndicatorsResidentialChoiceIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseRent/ OwnNeighborhoodUnit SizeVehiclePortfolioChoiceNoneE-bikes OnlyMotorcyclesCars OnlyCar Plus Other
    • 42. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionVehicle PortfolioNo Motorized VehiclesE-bikes onlyMotorcyclesCars onlyCar and other
    • 43. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 44. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionUtilityVehicle Portfolio ChoiceAlternative Attributes ZkHousehold Attributes XnResidential Attributes RnUtilityAlternative Attributes ZkHousehold Attributes XnVehicle Portfolio ChoiceUtilityVehicle Portfolio ChoiceAlternative Attributes ZkHousehold Attributes XnNeighborhood Indicators NnModel Structure (MNL)
    • 45. IntroductionVehicle Portfolio Choice SimulationIncome EffectTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 46. IntroductionVehicle Portfolio Choice SimulationUnderground ParkingTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 47. IntroductionVehicle Portfolio Choice SimulationBuilding FootprintTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 48. IntroductionVehicle Portfolio Choice SimulationStreet-level ShopsTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 49. IntroductionVehicle Portfolio Choice SimulationWalking FacilitiesTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 50. IntroductionVehicle Portfolio Choice SimulationDistance between EntriesTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 51. IntroductionLifestyle BundleTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionLife CourseLikelihoodofResidentialConditionOwningRentingParental HomeEmployer-provided Housing
    • 52. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 53. IntroductionLifestyle Bundle in JinanTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 54. IntroductionLifestyle Bundle in JinanTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 55. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionHousehold CharacteristicsNeighborhood Design IndicatorsResidentialChoiceNoneE-bikes OnlyMotorcyclesCars OnlyCar Plus OtherVehiclePortfolioChoiceIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseLarge UnitMedium UnitSmall Unit
    • 56. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionHousehold CharacteristicsNeighborhood Design IndicatorsIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseLifestyle Bundle ChoiceIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy Use1. Small Unit2. Medium Unit3. Large Unit0. No Vehicle1. E-bikes Only2. Motorcycles3. Cars Only4. Cars Plus OtherLifestyle Bundle ChoiceResidential Choice Vehicle Portfolio Choice
    • 57. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionUtilityLifestyleGroupsBundle ChoiceAlternative Attributes ZkHousehold Attributes XnNeighborhood Indicators NnClassMembershipModelClass-SpecificChoice Model
    • 58. IntroductionLifestyle Bundle Choice (LCM)TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14S-0 S-1 S-2 S-3 S-4 M-0 M-1 M-2 M-3 M-4 L-0 L-1 L-3 L-4“Budget-oriented”“Typical Urban”“Amenity-oriented”
    • 59. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionVehicle Portfolio Choice Housing Unit Size Choice“Budget-oriented”(Class 1)“TypicalUrban”(Class 2)“Amenity-oriented”(Class 3)
    • 60. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionIncomeEffect
    • 61. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionEffectofUndergroundParking
    • 62. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionEffectofSurfaceParking
    • 63. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionEffectofWalkingFacilities
    • 64. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionEffectofCompanyCarAccess
    • 65. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionEffectofRenting
    • 66. IntroductionEnergy ConsumptionTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 67. IntroductionHousehold Travel Energy ConsumptionTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionNotes: India 2005 data extracted from (Reddy and Balachandra, 2010), the rest data for international cities extracted from (Kenworthy,2008). Per capita travel energy consumption is converted to household travel energy consumption assuming household size = 3.
    • 68. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionHousehold In-home Energy ConsumptionNotes: International comparison data from (Nakagami et al., 2008)
    • 69. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionHousehold CharacteristicsNeighborhood Design IndicatorsResidentialChoiceNoneE-bikes OnlyMotorcyclesCars OnlyCar Plus OtherVehiclePortfolioChoiceIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseLarge UnitMedium UnitSmall Unit
    • 70. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionHousehold CharacteristicsNeighborhood Design IndicatorsIn-home Energy UseTravel Energy UseLifestyle Bundle Choice
    • 71. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionNeighborhoodDesign IndicatorsHouseholdAttributes XnTravel EnergyIn-home EnergyetIV’s:Lifestyle Bundle(e.g. Plarge_car,Pmedium_nocar)Travel Attitude AnehNeighborhoodDesign Indicatorsand HouseholdAttributes onlyinfluencing travelNeighborhood DesignIndicators andHousehold Attributesonly influencingresidential
    • 72. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionBundle Choice as IV’sAlternativeIDLifestyle Bundle ChoiceIVsResidential Vehicle Portfolio1 Small Unit No Motorized VehicleP(small unit without car)2 Small Unit Own E-bikes only3 Small Unit Own Motorcycles (only or plus e-bikes)4 Small Unit Own Cars onlyP(small unit with car)5 Small Unit Own Cars and Other Vehicles6 Medium Unit No Motorized VehicleP(medium unit without car)7 Medium Unit Own E-bikes only8 Medium Unit Own Motorcycles (only or plus e-bikes)9 Medium Unit Own Cars onlyP(medium unit with car)10 Medium Unit Own Cars and Other Vehicles11 Large Unit No Motorized VehicleP(large unit without car)12 Large Unit Own E-bikes only13 Large Unit Own Cars onlyP(large unit with car)14 Large Unit Own Cars and Other Vehicles
    • 73. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionEnergy Consumption SimulationIncome Effect
    • 74. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionEffectofKidandSenior
    • 75. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionEffectofRentingandCompanyCarAccess
    • 76. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionNeighborhoodDesignEffect:F.A.R.andUndergroundParking
    • 77. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionNeighborhoodDesignEffect:BuildingfootprintandContinuity
    • 78. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionNeighborhoodDesignEffect:DistancebetweenEntriesandWalkingFacilities
    • 79. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionVariable E (In-home) E(Travel ) E(Total Energy)Household Income 0.038 0.168 0.042Provision of Designated Surface Parking (m2/hh) 0.046 0.214 0.051Provision of Designated Underground Parking (space/hh) 0.004 0.002 0.003F.A.R. 0 -1.027 -0.048Average Building Footprint (m2) 0.483 1.326 0.529Continuity of Street Facade -2.531 -6.206 -2.684Average Distance between Neighborhood Entries (m2) -0.045 -0.213 -0.050Building Function Mix 0 0.591 0.019Surface-to-Volume Ratio 0.354 0 0.342Building Wind Index (summer) -2.750 0 -2.627Regional Accessibility (Public Space) -0.018 -0.071 -0.019Regional Accessibility (Shopping) 0.011 0.036 0.011Regional Accessibility (Office) -0.008 -0.084 -0.010Percentage of Roads with Trees 0 0.037 0.001Percentage of Roads with Street-level Shops 0.070 0.150 0.071Percentage of Roads with Walking Facilities -0.093 -0.470 -0.103Have Kid in the Family* 10.784 41.298 11.888Have Senior People in the Family* 17.376 -36.071 14.760Access to a Company/Business Car* 2.781 11.014 2.966Renting* -32.892 -16.465 -31.905
    • 80. IntroductionImplications and Limitations• Summary of findings• Lifestyle bundle• Lifestyle group and decision-making mechanisms• Neighborhood design influences bothTheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 81. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &Conclusion
    • 82. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionEnergy Efficient Neighborhood Design
    • 83. Introduction TheoryContext &MethodsInterviewVehiclePortfolioLifestyleBundleEnergyConsumptionPolicy &ConclusionEnergy Efficient Neighborhood Design
    • 84. Conclusion