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  • 1. Linux (diucapkan ˈlɪnəks atau /ˈlɪnʊks/)[1] adalah nama yang diberikan kepada sistem operasi komputer bertipe Unix. Linux merupakan salah satu contoh hasil pengembangan perangkat lunak bebas dan sumber terbuka utama. Seperti perangkat lunak bebas dan sumber terbuka lainnya pada umumnya, kode sumber Linux dapat dimodifikasi, digunakan dan didistribusikan kembali secara bebas oleh siapa saja.[2] Nama "Linux" berasal dari nama pembuatnya, yang diperkenalkan tahun 1991 oleh Linus Torvalds. Sistemnya, peralatan sistem dan pustakanya umumnya berasal dari sistem operasi GNU, yang diumumkan tahun 1983 oleh Richard Stallman. Kontribusi GNU adalah dasar dari munculnya nama alternatif GNU/Linux.[3]
  • 2. Linux telah lama dikenal untuk penggunaannya di server, dan didukung oleh perusahaan-perusahaan komputer ternama seperti Intel, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Novell, Oracle Corporation, Red Hat, dan Sun Microsystems. Linux digunakan sebagai sistem operasi di berbagai macam jenis perangkat keras komputer, termasuk komputer desktop, superkomputer,[4], dan sistem benam seperti pembaca buku elektronik, sistem permainan video (PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 dan XBox[5]), telepon genggam dan router. Para pengamat teknologi informatika beranggapan kesuksesan Linux dikarenakan Linux tidak bergantung kepada vendor (vendor independence), biaya operasional yang rendah, dan kompatibilitas yang tinggi dibandingkan versi UNIX tak bebas, serta faktor keamanan dan kestabilannya yang tinggi dibandingkan dengan sistem operasi lainnya seperti Microsoft Windows.
  • 3. Ciri-ciri ini juga menjadi bukti atas keunggulan model pengembangan perangkat lunak sumber terbuka (opensource software). Sistem operasi Linux yang dikenal dengan istilah distribusi Linux (Linux distribution) atau distro Linux umumnya sudah termasuk perangkat-perangkat lunak pendukung seperti server web, bahasa pemrograman, basisdata, tampilan desktop (desktop environment) seperti GNOME,KDE dan Xfce juga memiliki paket aplikasi perkantoran (office suite) seperti OpenOffice.org, KOffice, Abiword, Gnumeric dan LibreOffice.
  • 4. Pembuat Linux OS Linus Torvalds Linus Torvalds dilahirkan di Helsinki, Finlandia, pada tanggal 28 Desember 1969. Dalam usianya yang ke 10, Linus mulai berkecimpung di dalam pemograman komputer, dengan menggunakan komputer milik kakeknya, Commodore VIC-20. Komputing pun menjadi hobinya. Pada tahun 1988 Linus diterima menjadi mahasiswa di University of Helsinki, Finlandia. Pada tahun 1990, Linus memulai kelas pemograman C pertamanya.
  • 5. Pada April 1991, Linus Torvalds, seorang mahasiswa berusia 21 tahun dari Universitas Helsinski, Finlandia mulai memikirkan sesuatu ide sederhana untuk suatu Sistem Operasi. Ia memulai dengan task switcher dalam Bahasa Rakitan x86 pada Intel 80386 dan sebuah driver Terminal. Pada 25 Agustus 1991, Torvalds memposting sebuah pesan di comp.os.minix, sebuah newsgroup di Usenet: I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since April, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things). I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work. This implies that I'll get something practical within a few months [...] Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT portable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's all I have :-(. [...] It's mostly in C, but most people wouldn't call what I write C. It uses every conceivable feature of the 386 I could find, as it was also a project to teach me about the 386. As already mentioned, it uses a MMU, for both paging (not to disk yet) and segmentation. It's the segmentation that makes it REALLY 386 dependent (every task has a 64Mb segment for code & data - max 64 tasks in 4Gb. Anybody who needs more than 64Mb/task - tough cookies). [...] Some of my "C"-files (specifically mm.c) are almost as much assembler as C. [...] Unlike minix, I also happen to LIKE interrupts, so interrupts are handled without trying to hide the reason behind them.
  • 6. Allan McRae Alias: Allan Email: allan.archlinux.org Other Contact: jabber:allan.mcrae@ jabber.org PGP Key: 0xEAE999BD Roles: Toolchain Maintainer, Pacman Developer Website: http://allanmcrae.co m/ Occupation: Statistical Geneticist YOB: 1980 Location: Brisbane, Australia Languages: English Interests: Anime, Martial Arts, Nature, Poker Favorite Distros: Arch, LFS
  • 7. Andrea Scarpino Alias: scarpino Email: andrea.archlinux.org Other Contact: jabber: andreascarpino {0x40} jabber {0x2E} org, irc: irc.freenode.net:scarpino PGP Key: 0xD30DB0AD Roles: Qt/KDE SC Maintainer Website: http://www.andreascarpino.it/ Occupation: Student, Developer YOB: 1988 Location: Lecce, Italy Languages: Italian, English, German Interests: Software development, girls, underwater fishing Favorite Distros: Arch Linux
  • 8. Andreas Radke Alias: andyrtr Email: andyrtr.archlinux.org Other Contact: diaspora: https://joindiaspora.com/p eople/26725, irc://irc.freenode.net:andy rtr PGP Key: 0x0F2A092B Roles: Package Maintainer Website: Occupation: Statutary accident insurance YOB: 1975 Location: Magdeburg, Germany Languages: German, English Interests: Packaging, Gym, Family+dog Favorite Distros: Arch64
  • 9. Ángel Velásquez Alias: angvp Email: angvp.archlinux.org Other Contact: jabber:angvplnx@jabbe r.linux.it, irc://irc.freenode.net/an gvp PGP Key: 0xEC133BAD Roles: Developer/TU Website: http://www.angvp.com Occupation: Software Developer YOB: 1983 Location: Buenos Aires, Argentina Languages: Spanish, Italian, English, and a little bit French Interests: IT,Programming,Soccer Favorite Distros: Arch,Arch,Arch :)
  • 10. Bartłomiej Piotrowski Alias: Barthalion Email: nospam@bpiotrowski.pl Other Contact: xmpp:b@bpiotrowski.pl, irc://irc.freenode.net/Barthalio n PGP Key: 0x487328A9 Roles: Package maintainer Website: http://bpiotrowski.pl/ Occupation: Student, system administrator YOB: 1994 Location: Poznań, Poland Languages: Polish, English, poorly German Interests: IT, crime fiction (and books in general), old x86 hardware Favorite Distros: Arch Linux, Alpine Linux, Debian/Ubuntu
  • 11. Dan McGee Alias: toofishes Email: dan.archlinux.org Other Contact: irc://irc.freenode.net:toofishes PGP Key: 0xF53A76ED Roles: Pacman Developer, Website Maintainer Website: http://www.toofishes.net/ Occupation: Software Developer YOB: 1985 Location: Chicago, IL, USA Languages: English Interests: Skiing, Ultimate Frisbee, Beach Volleyball, Sports, Travel Favorite Distros: Arch, OpenWRT, grml
  • 12. Alias: ise Email: daniel.archlinux.org Other Contact: irc://irc.freenode.net:ise jabber:ise@jabber.org PGP Key: 0xB4440678 Roles: Mono maintainer and some other packages Website: http://isenmann.blogspot.com Occupation: Software Developer YOB: 1980 Location: Near Karlsruhe, Germany Languages: German, English Interests: Climbing, MTB, Computers, Reading, Photography Favorite Distros: Arch Daniel Isenmann
  • 13. Alias: foutrelis Email: evangelos@foutrelis.com Other Contact: irc://irc.freenode.net:foutr elis PGP Key: 0xA9999C34 Roles: Developer/TU Website: http://foutrelis.com/ Occupation: Student YOB: 1988 Location: Athens, Greece Languages: Greek, English Interests: Computers, Cookies Favorite Distros: Arch, Debian Evangelos Foutras
  • 14. Gaetan Bisson Alias: vesath Email: bisson@archlinux.org Other Contact: Cooee! PGP Key: 0x00F0D0F0 Roles: Developer Website: http://www.normalesup.org/~biss on/ Occupation: Mathematician YOB: 1984 Location: Tahiti, French Polynesia Languages: English, French, etc. Interests: Diving, Sailing, Trolling Favorite Distros: Arch‽
  • 15. Gerardo Pozzi Alias: djgera Email: djgera.archlinux.org Other Contact: irc://irc.freenode.net:djgera PGP Key: 0x5BD5C938 Roles: Archiso maintainer, Bug Wrangler Website: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/ User:Djgera Occupation: Practical education teacher YOB: 1982 Location: Buenos Aires, Argentina Languages: Spanish, English Interests: Computers, Electronic, Nature, Animals, Music, Math Favorite Distros: Arch Linux, Slackware
  • 16. Giovanni Scafora Alias: giovanni Email: giovanni.archlinux.org Other Contact: irc://irc.freenode.net:giovanni PGP Key: 0xF04569AE Roles: Package Maintainer, Arch Linux Italia Website: http://www.archlinux.it Occupation: Developer YOB: 1969 Location: Livorno, Italy Languages: Italian, English, French Interests: Family, Computers, Music, Books Favorite Distros: Arch Linux, Slackware
  • 17. Guillaume Alaux Alias: galaux, wikimig Email: guillaume.archlinux.org Other Contact: irc://irc.freenode.net:galaux PGP Key: 0x215B37AD Roles: Developer Website: http://www.alaux.net Occupation: Java EE and Open Source Developer YOB: 1980 Location: Paris, France Languages: French, English Interests: IT, stupid jokes, Music, History... and everything that's interesting Favorite Distros: Arch Linux, Debian
  • 18. Ionuț Mircea Bîru Alias: wonder/ioni Email: ibiru.archlinux.org Other Contact: irc://irc.freenode.net:wonder/io ni PGP Key: 0x615137BC Roles: Developer Website: http://archlinux.me/wonder/ Occupation: Student YOB: 1986 Location: Bucharest, România Languages: Romanian, English Interests: Networking, Programming, Computers, Music Favorite Distros: Arch, Debian
  • 19. Jakob Wadsager Alias: jakobw Email: jakobw.archlinux.org Other Contact: irc://irc.freenode.net:jakobw PGP Key: 0xAF924463 Roles: Mirror administrator Website: Occupation: Student YOB: Location: Aarhus, Denmark Languages: Danish, English, German Interests: Favorite Distros: Arch Linux
  • 20. Jan Steffens Alias: heftig Email: heftig.archlinux.org Other Contact: jabber:jan.steffens@gmail.com irc://irc.freenode.net:heftig PGP Key: 0x4FA415FA Roles: Developer Website: Occupation: BCS Student @ HBRS YOB: 1988 Location: Rheinbach, Germany Languages: German, English Interests: Programming, Gaming, Fantasy Novels Favorite Distros: Arch, Fedora
  • 21. Jürgen Hötzel Alias: juergen Email: juergen@hoetzel.info Other Contact: irc://irc.freenode.net:juergen_ 1974 PGP Key: 0x589874AB Roles: Package Maintainer Website: http://www.hoetzel.info Occupation: SysAdmin / Programmer YOB: 1974 Location: Frankfurt, Germany Languages: German, English Interests: Computers, Sports: Running Favorite Distros: Arch, Redhat
  • 22. Alias: lordheavy Email: lordheavym@gmail.com Other Contact: jabber:lordheavym@gmail.com, irc://irc.freenode.org:lordheavy PGP Key: 0xD1CEDDAC Roles: Developer/Trusted User Website: Occupation: Train Driver YOB: 1972 Location: Neuville sur l'Escaut, France Languages: French, English, some Dutch Interests: Free Software, cooking Favorite Distros: Arch Linux Laurent Carlier
  • 23. Pierre Schmitz Alias: pierre Email: pierre@archlinux.de Other Contact: irc://irc.freenode.net:pierres PGP Key: 0x9741E8AC Roles: Backend, Website and Package Maintainer Website: https://pierre-schmitz.com Occupation: YOB: 1982 Location: Bonn, Germany Languages: German, English Interests: yes Favorite Distros:
  • 24. Ray Rashif Alias: schivmeister Email: schiv.archlinux.org Other Contact: jabber:$Alias@gmail.com, irc://irc.freenode.net:schiv PGP Key: 0xC0711BF1 Roles: Package Maintainer Website: http://schivmeister.wordpress.com/ Occupation: Self-employed YOB: 1989 Location: Singapore, Singapore Languages: Singlish, English, Malay, Bengali, Hindi Interests: Prehistory, Linguistics, Anthropology Favorite Distros: IRIX?
  • 25. Rémy Oudompheng Alias: remy Email: remy.archlinux.org Other Contact: PGP Key: 0x2D1493D2 Roles: Developer Website: Occupation: Engineer YOB: 1986 Location: Paris, France Languages: French, English, and a bit of Spanish and Italian Interests: Mathematics, TeX, uncommon programming languages, uncommon human languages Favorite Distros: Arch
  • 26. Aplikasi Adalah subkelas dari perangkat lunak (software) yang memanfaatkan kemampuan komputer langsung untuk melakukan suatu tugas yang diinginkan pengguna. Contoh utama aplikasi adalah pengolah kata ( Ms. Word ), Lembar kerja, dan pemutar media ( Windows Media Player ) OS/ Sistem Operasi Adalah seperangkat program yang mengelola sumber daya perangkat keras komputer dan menyediakan layanan umum untuk aplikasi. OS adalah jenis yang paling penting dari perangkat lunak sistem dalam sistem komputer. Tanpa sistem operasi, pengguna tidak dapat menjalankan program aplikasi pada komputer mereka, kecuali program aplikasi booting. Contoh OS adalah Linux, Android, Symbian, Mac OSX, Microsoft Windows Kesimpulanya : Aplikasi, Program, dan OS merupakan software. Aplikasi itu tersusun atas program ( instruksi-instruksi sehingga bisa digunakan oleh pengguna), dan semuanya itu tidak bisa dijalankan apabila tidak ada OS.