cellular respiration


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cellular respiration

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cellular respiration

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration <ul><ul><li>When we eat, we get energy (glucose and other sugars) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food energy is broken down into usable energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy used to bond phosphate groups to ADP to make ATP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>What is cell respiration??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration: the process of breaking down food molecules into usable energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE GOAL: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create ATP for cells to use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free up electrons—have high energy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34 Cellular Respiration
  4. 4. Cellular Respiration
  5. 5. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Types of cell respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic Processes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REQUIRE oxygen to take place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of energy available (efficient) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic Processes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT require oxygen to take place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get energy quickly (inefficient) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
  7. 7. Glycolysis <ul><li>Involves breaking down 6-carbon sugars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break sugars into pyruvic acid molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3-Carbon molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This process is ANAEROBIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No oxygen necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells </li></ul>
  8. 8. Glycolysis <ul><li>You will need to know this… </li></ul>
  9. 9. Glycolysis <ul><li>Just Kidding…  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Glycolysis <ul><li>Glycolysis also creates hydrogen ions and free electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The whole point of respiration = high energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>H + ions bond with NAD + to form NADH + H + </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NADH carries electrons and H + ions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This process uses 2ATP molecules and creates 4 ATP molecules </li></ul>
  11. 12. Glycolysis <ul><li>TOTAL ATP PRODUCTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis Step 1 uses 2 ATP molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis Step 2 converts 4 ADP molecules into 4 ATP molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net ATP production = 2 ATP for every glucose molecule </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Glycolysis
  13. 14. Glycolysis <ul><li>Oxygen is our friend… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When oxygen is present, aerobic respiration occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Happens in the mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Glycolysis <ul><li>Breaking down Pyruvic Acid… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvic Acid = 3-carbon compound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken down into… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-Carbon compound—acetic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Glycolysis <ul><li>Intermediate Step in Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-Carbon Compound—Acetic Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combined with coenzyme A (CoA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms compound called acetyl-CoA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is only an intermediate step—have to move pyruvic acid into Krebs Cycle </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Glycolysis Glycolysis = 2 ATP
  17. 18. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
  18. 19. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle <ul><li>Produces more ATP and releases more electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons picked up by NAD + and FAD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic carrier molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs inside mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondrial Matrix </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle <ul><li>Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon molecule to form a 6-carbon molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citric Acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Citric Acid broken down into a 5-carbon compound </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAD + removes electrons (NADH + H + ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 released </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle <ul><li>5-carbon compound broken down into a 4-carbon compound </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATP created </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAD + removes electrons (NADH + H + ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4-carbon compound (oxaloacetic acid) is created </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to bond with acetyl- CoA to restart cycle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
  22. 25. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle Citric Acid Cycle = 2 ATP
  23. 26. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
  24. 27. Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>What is the ETC??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of molecules along which electrons are transferred, releasing energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the mitochondria— wall of mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen is involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as the electron acceptor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>As the electrons are passed between carrier proteins, energy is released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP is created </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrons are given up by the carrier molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH and FADH 2 ------- NAD + and FAD </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Electron Transport Chain
  27. 30. Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>As the electrons (H + ions) travel down the chain, they bond with oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 H + + 1 O = water (H 2 O) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electron acceptor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Carbon is given off as carbon dioxide </li></ul>
  28. 31. Electron Transport Chain
  29. 32. Glycolysis ETC = 34 ATP
  30. 33. Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>A problem exists if there is no oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When oxygen is used up, electrons cannot be removed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic jam in the mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>KEY POINT —Electron Transport Chain cannot run without oxygen </li></ul>
  31. 34. Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>If no oxygen present after glycolysis, pyruvic acid can still be broken down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 ATP made during fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Uses electrons carried by NADH + H + so that NAD + can regenerate for glycolysis </li></ul>
  32. 35. Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Two types of fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholic Fermentation </li></ul>Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Lactic Acid Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Ethanol + 2 CO 2
  33. 36. Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Lactic Acid Fermentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH produce during glycolysis transfers H atoms to pyruvate reducing it to lactate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When your muscle cells require more energy than can be produced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid build up = muscle fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When oxygen is present, lactic acid breaks down </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 37. Anaerobic Respiration
  35. 38. Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Alcohol Fermentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in bacteria, plants and most animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you think of a bacteria that is used for fermentation??? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvic Acid is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Dacrboxylate pyruvate , releasing CO2 and forming 2-C compound called acetaldehyde. </li></ul><ul><li>NADH produced during glycolysis transfers hydrogen atoms to acetaldehyde, reducing it to ethyl alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for the production of beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. </li></ul>
  37. 40. Anaerobic Respiration
  38. 41. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
  39. 42. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>General Formula </li></ul>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O
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