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cellular respiration
 

cellular respiration

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cellular respiration

cellular respiration

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    cellular respiration cellular respiration Presentation Transcript

    • Cellular Respiration
        • When we eat, we get energy (glucose and other sugars)
        • Food energy is broken down into usable energy
          • Energy used to bond phosphate groups to ADP to make ATP
    • Cellular Respiration
      • What is cell respiration???
        • Respiration: the process of breaking down food molecules into usable energy
        • THE GOAL:
          • Create ATP for cells to use
          • Free up electrons—have high energy
    • Cellular Respiration 2 2 34 Cellular Respiration
    • Cellular Respiration
    • Cellular Respiration
      • Types of cell respiration
        • Aerobic Processes:
          • REQUIRE oxygen to take place
          • A lot of energy available (efficient)
        • Anaerobic Processes:
          • DO NOT require oxygen to take place
          • Get energy quickly (inefficient)
    • Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
    • Glycolysis
      • Involves breaking down 6-carbon sugars
        • Break sugars into pyruvic acid molecules
          • 3-Carbon molecules
      • This process is ANAEROBIC
        • No oxygen necessary
      • Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells
    • Glycolysis
      • You will need to know this…
    • Glycolysis
      • Just Kidding… 
    • Glycolysis
      • Glycolysis also creates hydrogen ions and free electrons
          • The whole point of respiration = high energy
      • H + ions bond with NAD + to form NADH + H +
          • NADH carries electrons and H + ions
      • This process uses 2ATP molecules and creates 4 ATP molecules
    •  
    • Glycolysis
      • TOTAL ATP PRODUCTION:
        • Glycolysis Step 1 uses 2 ATP molecules
        • Glycolysis Step 2 converts 4 ADP molecules into 4 ATP molecules
        • Net ATP production = 2 ATP for every glucose molecule
    • Glycolysis
    • Glycolysis
      • Oxygen is our friend…
        • When oxygen is present, aerobic respiration occurs
          • Happens in the mitochondria
    • Glycolysis
      • Breaking down Pyruvic Acid…
        • Occurs in the mitochondria
        • Pyruvic Acid = 3-carbon compound
        • Broken down into…
          • 2-Carbon compound—acetic acid
          • Carbon Dioxide
    • Glycolysis
      • Intermediate Step in Glycolysis
        • 2-Carbon Compound—Acetic Acid
          • Combined with coenzyme A (CoA)
          • Forms compound called acetyl-CoA
        • This is only an intermediate step—have to move pyruvic acid into Krebs Cycle
    • Glycolysis Glycolysis = 2 ATP
    • Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
    • Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
      • Produces more ATP and releases more electrons
        • Electrons picked up by NAD + and FAD
          • Organic carrier molecules
      • Occurs inside mitochondria
        • Mitochondrial Matrix
    • Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
      • Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon molecule to form a 6-carbon molecule
          • Citric Acid
      • Citric Acid broken down into a 5-carbon compound
          • NAD + removes electrons (NADH + H + )
          • CO 2 released
    •  
    • Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
      • 5-carbon compound broken down into a 4-carbon compound
          • ATP created
          • NAD + removes electrons (NADH + H + )
          • CO 2 released
      • 4-carbon compound (oxaloacetic acid) is created
          • Used to bond with acetyl- CoA to restart cycle
    •  
    • Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
    • Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle Citric Acid Cycle = 2 ATP
    • Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
    • Electron Transport Chain
      • What is the ETC???
        • A series of molecules along which electrons are transferred, releasing energy
        • Occurs in the mitochondria— wall of mitochondria
        • Aerobic process
          • Oxygen is involved
            • Acts as the electron acceptor
    • Electron Transport Chain
      • As the electrons are passed between carrier proteins, energy is released
        • ATP is created
      • Electrons are given up by the carrier molecules
        • NADH and FADH 2 ------- NAD + and FAD
    • Electron Transport Chain
    • Electron Transport Chain
      • As the electrons (H + ions) travel down the chain, they bond with oxygen
          • 2 H + + 1 O = water (H 2 O)
          • Electron acceptor
      • Carbon is given off as carbon dioxide
    • Electron Transport Chain
    • Glycolysis ETC = 34 ATP
    • Electron Transport Chain
      • A problem exists if there is no oxygen
          • Anaerobic process
        • When oxygen is used up, electrons cannot be removed
          • Traffic jam in the mitochondria
      • KEY POINT —Electron Transport Chain cannot run without oxygen
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • If no oxygen present after glycolysis, pyruvic acid can still be broken down
        • Fermentation
      • 2 ATP made during fermentation
      • Uses electrons carried by NADH + H + so that NAD + can regenerate for glycolysis
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • Two types of fermentation
      • Lactic Acid Fermentation
      • Alcoholic Fermentation
      Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Lactic Acid Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Ethanol + 2 CO 2
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • Lactic Acid Fermentation
        • NADH produce during glycolysis transfers H atoms to pyruvate reducing it to lactate.
        • Muscle fatigue
          • When your muscle cells require more energy than can be produced
          • Lack of oxygen
          • Lactic acid build up = muscle fatigue
          • When oxygen is present, lactic acid breaks down
    • Anaerobic Respiration
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • Alcohol Fermentation
        • Occurs in bacteria, plants and most animals
        • Can you think of a bacteria that is used for fermentation???
        • Pyruvic Acid is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide
      • Dacrboxylate pyruvate , releasing CO2 and forming 2-C compound called acetaldehyde.
      • NADH produced during glycolysis transfers hydrogen atoms to acetaldehyde, reducing it to ethyl alcohol.
      • Basis for the production of beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages.
    • Anaerobic Respiration
    • Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
    • Cellular Respiration
      • General Formula
      C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O