cellular respiration

  • 2,270 views
Uploaded on

cellular respiration

cellular respiration

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,270
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
153
Comments
1
Likes
3

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Cellular Respiration
      • When we eat, we get energy (glucose and other sugars)
      • Food energy is broken down into usable energy
        • Energy used to bond phosphate groups to ADP to make ATP
  • 2. Cellular Respiration
    • What is cell respiration???
      • Respiration: the process of breaking down food molecules into usable energy
      • THE GOAL:
        • Create ATP for cells to use
        • Free up electrons—have high energy
  • 3. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34 Cellular Respiration
  • 4. Cellular Respiration
  • 5. Cellular Respiration
    • Types of cell respiration
      • Aerobic Processes:
        • REQUIRE oxygen to take place
        • A lot of energy available (efficient)
      • Anaerobic Processes:
        • DO NOT require oxygen to take place
        • Get energy quickly (inefficient)
  • 6. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
  • 7. Glycolysis
    • Involves breaking down 6-carbon sugars
      • Break sugars into pyruvic acid molecules
        • 3-Carbon molecules
    • This process is ANAEROBIC
      • No oxygen necessary
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells
  • 8. Glycolysis
    • You will need to know this…
  • 9. Glycolysis
    • Just Kidding… 
  • 10. Glycolysis
    • Glycolysis also creates hydrogen ions and free electrons
        • The whole point of respiration = high energy
    • H + ions bond with NAD + to form NADH + H +
        • NADH carries electrons and H + ions
    • This process uses 2ATP molecules and creates 4 ATP molecules
  • 11.  
  • 12. Glycolysis
    • TOTAL ATP PRODUCTION:
      • Glycolysis Step 1 uses 2 ATP molecules
      • Glycolysis Step 2 converts 4 ADP molecules into 4 ATP molecules
      • Net ATP production = 2 ATP for every glucose molecule
  • 13. Glycolysis
  • 14. Glycolysis
    • Oxygen is our friend…
      • When oxygen is present, aerobic respiration occurs
        • Happens in the mitochondria
  • 15. Glycolysis
    • Breaking down Pyruvic Acid…
      • Occurs in the mitochondria
      • Pyruvic Acid = 3-carbon compound
      • Broken down into…
        • 2-Carbon compound—acetic acid
        • Carbon Dioxide
  • 16. Glycolysis
    • Intermediate Step in Glycolysis
      • 2-Carbon Compound—Acetic Acid
        • Combined with coenzyme A (CoA)
        • Forms compound called acetyl-CoA
      • This is only an intermediate step—have to move pyruvic acid into Krebs Cycle
  • 17. Glycolysis Glycolysis = 2 ATP
  • 18. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
  • 19. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
    • Produces more ATP and releases more electrons
      • Electrons picked up by NAD + and FAD
        • Organic carrier molecules
    • Occurs inside mitochondria
      • Mitochondrial Matrix
  • 20. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
    • Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon molecule to form a 6-carbon molecule
        • Citric Acid
    • Citric Acid broken down into a 5-carbon compound
        • NAD + removes electrons (NADH + H + )
        • CO 2 released
  • 21.  
  • 22. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
    • 5-carbon compound broken down into a 4-carbon compound
        • ATP created
        • NAD + removes electrons (NADH + H + )
        • CO 2 released
    • 4-carbon compound (oxaloacetic acid) is created
        • Used to bond with acetyl- CoA to restart cycle
  • 23.  
  • 24. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
  • 25. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle Citric Acid Cycle = 2 ATP
  • 26. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
  • 27. Electron Transport Chain
    • What is the ETC???
      • A series of molecules along which electrons are transferred, releasing energy
      • Occurs in the mitochondria— wall of mitochondria
      • Aerobic process
        • Oxygen is involved
          • Acts as the electron acceptor
  • 28. Electron Transport Chain
    • As the electrons are passed between carrier proteins, energy is released
      • ATP is created
    • Electrons are given up by the carrier molecules
      • NADH and FADH 2 ------- NAD + and FAD
  • 29. Electron Transport Chain
  • 30. Electron Transport Chain
    • As the electrons (H + ions) travel down the chain, they bond with oxygen
        • 2 H + + 1 O = water (H 2 O)
        • Electron acceptor
    • Carbon is given off as carbon dioxide
  • 31. Electron Transport Chain
  • 32. Glycolysis ETC = 34 ATP
  • 33. Electron Transport Chain
    • A problem exists if there is no oxygen
        • Anaerobic process
      • When oxygen is used up, electrons cannot be removed
        • Traffic jam in the mitochondria
    • KEY POINT —Electron Transport Chain cannot run without oxygen
  • 34. Anaerobic Respiration
    • If no oxygen present after glycolysis, pyruvic acid can still be broken down
      • Fermentation
    • 2 ATP made during fermentation
    • Uses electrons carried by NADH + H + so that NAD + can regenerate for glycolysis
  • 35. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Two types of fermentation
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • Alcoholic Fermentation
    Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Lactic Acid Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Ethanol + 2 CO 2
  • 36. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation
      • NADH produce during glycolysis transfers H atoms to pyruvate reducing it to lactate.
      • Muscle fatigue
        • When your muscle cells require more energy than can be produced
        • Lack of oxygen
        • Lactic acid build up = muscle fatigue
        • When oxygen is present, lactic acid breaks down
  • 37. Anaerobic Respiration
  • 38. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Alcohol Fermentation
      • Occurs in bacteria, plants and most animals
      • Can you think of a bacteria that is used for fermentation???
      • Pyruvic Acid is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide
  • 39.
    • Dacrboxylate pyruvate , releasing CO2 and forming 2-C compound called acetaldehyde.
    • NADH produced during glycolysis transfers hydrogen atoms to acetaldehyde, reducing it to ethyl alcohol.
    • Basis for the production of beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages.
  • 40. Anaerobic Respiration
  • 41. Cellular Respiration 2 2 34
  • 42. Cellular Respiration
    • General Formula
    C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O