FreeBSD & The
Embedded World
RUSLAN BUKIN
MACHDEP, INC.
What does mean Embedded?
 Small size

 Single function
 Low power
 Limited Software

 System-on-chip (highly integrat...
Today’s technologies
 ARM, MIPS, PowerPC
 Fabless (produces processor technology/design only)
 Freescale, Qualcomm, Sam...
Embedded World tomorrow
 2020 year - 20 billion devices (DST, McKinsey)

 5b people
 $200b/year ad market
 $3 trillion...
Industry trends
 Microserver ($10b market, low power, ARMv8, next year)
 Facebook Open Compute Project goes ARM

 ARM o...
Industry trends: low power
 Low power more important than speed

 Heterogeneous System-On-Chip (SoC)
 Texas Instruments...
Market requirements
 Hardware
 Low energy consumption
 Acceleration engines
oGPU
oMultimedia (Face detect, DSP, Image p...
ARMv7 Server







Calxeda ECX-2000
4U server
288 quad-core SoC’s
1152 cores
5 x 10Gbe network
5W per processor
ARM Desktop
 4 x 1.6Ghz Cortex A15

 4 x 1Ghz Cortex A7
 SATA, HDMI, USB 3.0, etc..
 MIPI DSI, eMMC
Embedded FreeBSD
 ARM, MIPS and PowerPC
 ARM v5: ARM7, ARM9, ARM10 (legacy)
 ARM v6: ARM11 (legacy)
 ARM v7: Cortex A-...
Embedded FreeBSD strengths
 BSD license
 Easy to build complete OS
 Flattened Device Tree (FDT)
 Drivers API (fdtbus, ...
Embedded FreeBSD weakness
 Bugs, not optimized, production not ready

 No packages for ARM
 Tier1 todo:
 Add support f...
Embedded FreeBSD challenge
 Linux Everywhere

 Linux users doesn’t care about GPL
 Does BSD license matter for embedded...
FreeBSD/ARM Embedded
 500 Mhz Cortex A5/M4

 256Mb RAM
 128Mb NAND
 USB, LCD, 2 x Ethernet

 i2c, i2s, GPIO, etc…
FreeBSD/MIPS Embedded
 400 Mhz Atheros MIPS
 64Mb RAM
 NAND
 USB 2.0
 2 x Ethernet
 Wi-Fi
Recent work & activity
 Porting to Qualcomm Krait (work in progress)

 GENERIC kernel (work in progress)
 Added support...
FreeBSD & The Embedded World
Thanks!
br@FreeBSD.org
br@machdep.com
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Руслан Букин: FreeBSD и встраиваемые системы

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Сначала мы разберемся в том, что представляют собой встраиваемые системы и какие существуют тенденции в их развитии. Затем плавно перейдём на встраиваемые системы в FreeBSD, узнаем их сильные и слабые стороны и то, как они отвечают на вызовы рынка.

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Руслан Букин: FreeBSD и встраиваемые системы

  1. 1. FreeBSD & The Embedded World RUSLAN BUKIN MACHDEP, INC.
  2. 2. What does mean Embedded?  Small size  Single function  Low power  Limited Software  System-on-chip (highly integrated)  No standard components
  3. 3. Today’s technologies  ARM, MIPS, PowerPC  Fabless (produces processor technology/design only)  Freescale, Qualcomm, Samsung, Apple, many more…  40nm, 28nm, 20nm, 14nm  1-4 cores, 2Ghz, <2W  SATA 3, USB 3.0, PCI-E, HDMI, eDP, i2c, …  MMU, caches, DDR3, GPU, NAND
  4. 4. Embedded World tomorrow  2020 year - 20 billion devices (DST, McKinsey)  5b people  $200b/year ad market  $3 trillion IT companies capitalization  SoC are smallest as we can imagine  No longer simple
  5. 5. Industry trends  Microserver ($10b market, low power, ARMv8, next year)  Facebook Open Compute Project goes ARM  ARM on desktop computing (small boards, chromebook)  Virtualization (Xen, KVM on ARM fast models)
  6. 6. Industry trends: low power  Low power more important than speed  Heterogeneous System-On-Chip (SoC)  Texas Instruments OMAP5 - Cortex A15/M4  Freescale Vybrid Family - Cortex A5/M4  Samsung Exynos 5 - Cortex A15/A7 (big.LITTLE)
  7. 7. Market requirements  Hardware  Low energy consumption  Acceleration engines oGPU oMultimedia (Face detect, DSP, Image processing) oNetwork packet processing (packet classification/manipulation)  Software  Time-to-market  Reliability  License availability
  8. 8. ARMv7 Server       Calxeda ECX-2000 4U server 288 quad-core SoC’s 1152 cores 5 x 10Gbe network 5W per processor
  9. 9. ARM Desktop  4 x 1.6Ghz Cortex A15  4 x 1Ghz Cortex A7  SATA, HDMI, USB 3.0, etc..  MIPI DSI, eMMC
  10. 10. Embedded FreeBSD  ARM, MIPS and PowerPC  ARM v5: ARM7, ARM9, ARM10 (legacy)  ARM v6: ARM11 (legacy)  ARM v7: Cortex A-family  SMP (symmetric multi processing)  NAND framework, NANDFS (bad blk manager, ECC)  Lot of popular community boards (Raspberry PI, Panda,…)
  11. 11. Embedded FreeBSD strengths  BSD license  Easy to build complete OS  Flattened Device Tree (FDT)  Drivers API (fdtbus, bus_dma, bus_space)  LLVM/clang or External toolchain  ATF stress testing framework  Code style  U-boot loader (ubldr)
  12. 12. Embedded FreeBSD weakness  Bugs, not optimized, production not ready  No packages for ARM  Tier1 todo:  Add support for hard-float ABI  Fix jemalloc issues  Fix SMP  Fix the endian issue  Prepare for release engineering
  13. 13. Embedded FreeBSD challenge  Linux Everywhere  Linux users doesn’t care about GPL  Does BSD license matter for embedded? How to be relevant?      Make ARM Tier1 Look forward to ARM servers Follow the industry needs (and not blindly create new port) Make GENERIC kernel More developers
  14. 14. FreeBSD/ARM Embedded  500 Mhz Cortex A5/M4  256Mb RAM  128Mb NAND  USB, LCD, 2 x Ethernet  i2c, i2s, GPIO, etc…
  15. 15. FreeBSD/MIPS Embedded  400 Mhz Atheros MIPS  64Mb RAM  NAND  USB 2.0  2 x Ethernet  Wi-Fi
  16. 16. Recent work & activity  Porting to Qualcomm Krait (work in progress)  GENERIC kernel (work in progress)  Added support for Heterogeneous A5/M4 Freescale Vybrid Family and i.MX6  Introduced Superpages for ARM
  17. 17. FreeBSD & The Embedded World Thanks! br@FreeBSD.org br@machdep.com
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