Psy100 ch1 king f12 lecture
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  • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Science: process of evaluating empirical knowledge Empirical : derived from or guided by experience or experiment We will talk more about scientific process in Chapter 2. However, science involves critical thinking, skepticism, objectivity, curiosity Note : Instructors should note the goals of psychology – to describe, predict, and explain behavior. Those goals can easily be tied to the research methods discussed in Chapter 2 for added emphasis.
  • Ask them a question. Provide examples of each point e.g. normal - creativity, abnormal schizophrenia All aspects of behavior – clarify – voluntary and involuntary Normal and abnormal behavior Normal: thinking, learning, brain processes Abnormal: psychological disorders, brain traumas Humans and other species 5% of all psychological research is animal research All aspects of behavior Voluntary behavior vs. Involuntary behavior
  • Psychology has roots in ancient traditions Philosophy : Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Descartes (mind/body connection) Natural sciences: biology, physiology Spiritual traditions Psychology as a scientific domain Relatively new domain Less than 150 years old!
  • Known as “the father of scientific psychology”, Established the 1 st psychological laboratory, University of Leipzig, Germany, December 1879; Introspection - Research method in which trained observers report their own experiences
  • Philosopher and psychologist; Taught at Harvard, Trained as a M.D. Functionalism - Research method, which focuses on understanding how the mind works In 1890, James published Principles of Psychology. Functionalism was the study of how the conscious mind helps humans survive and successfully adapt to their environment pioneering American psychologist and philosopher who was trained as a medical doctor. He wrote influential books on the young science of psychology, educational psychology , psychology of religious experience and mysticism , and on the philosophy of pragmatism . He was the brother of novelist Henry James and of diarist Alice James . William James was born at the Astor House in New York City. James is one of the two namesakes of the James-Lange theory of emotion , which he formulated independently of Carl Lange in the 1880s. The theory holds that emotion is the mind's perception of physiological conditions that result from some stimulus. In James's oft-cited example; it is not that we see a bear, fear it, and run. We see a bear and run, consequently we fear the bear. Our mind's perception of the higher adrenaline level, heartbeat, etc., is the emotion.
  • Born in Moravia (now Czech Republic; Degree in neurophysiology University of Vienna, Austria; Known as the father of Psychoanalysis; Hysteria; Free association; Unconscious mind In October 1885, Freud went to Paris on a traveling fellowship to study with Europe's most renowned neurologist and researcher of hypnosis, Jean Martin Charcot . He was later to remember the experience of this stay as catalytic in turning him toward the practice of medical psychopathology and away from a less financially promising career in neurology research. [8] Charcot specialised in the study of hysteria and susceptibility to hypnosis, which he frequently demonstrated with patients on stage in front of an audience. Freud later turned away from hypnosis as a potential cure for mental illness, instead favouring free association and dream analysis. [9] Charcot himself questioned his own work on hysteria towards the end of his life. [10] All of Freud's many sisters perished in The Holocaust. Freud escaped to London.
  • Biological Focuses on the brain and the nervous system Neuroscience Study of the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the nervous system, study thoughts and emotions have physical basis in brain, allowed psychologists to better understand the brain
  • Burrhus Frederic Skinner Watson- Classical Conditioning Skinner – Operant Conditioning Rejected thought processes
  • unconscious thought; conflict between biological drives and demands of society; early childhood family experiences; Psychoanalysis - Freud
  • Emphasizes positive human qualities capacity for positive growth free will
  • Information- processing model Model that explains how people perceive, process and use information
  • Evolutionary Psychologists David Buss Leda Cosmides
  • Focuses on differences between ethnic and cultural groups within and across countries
  • Critical Thinking - process of actively examining information; does not blindly accepts “facts” Behavior is a biopsychosocial event - to understand behavior we must analyze various influences We operate on a two-track mind - Dual processing : conscious vs. unconscious Psychology explores human strengths as well as challenges
  • All psychologists specialize (subarea & approach) as they earn their degrees.
  • All psychologists specialize (subarea & approach) as they earn their degrees.

Psy100 ch1 king f12 lecture Psy100 ch1 king f12 lecture Presentation Transcript

  • PSY 100Chapter 1: What is Psychology?
  • What is Psychology?• The scientific study of behavior and mental processes – Science – Empirical
  • What Do Psychologists Study?• Normal and abnormal behavior• Humans and other species• All aspects of behavior
  • History of Psychology• Psychology has roots in ancient traditions• Psychology as a scientific domain• Pioneers in Psychology • Wundt • James • Freud • Many others…
  • Wilhelm Wundt • The “father” of scientific psychology • Established the first psychological laboratory • IntrospectionWilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
  • William James • Philosopher and psychologist • Published the first textbook in psychology in 1890. • FunctionalismWilliam James (1842-1910)
  • Sigmund Freud • The “father” of psychoanalysis • Neurophysiologist , University of Vienna • Unconscious mindSigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • Current Psychological Perspectives • Biological • Behavioral • Psychodynamic • Humanistic • Cognitive • Evolutionary • Sociocultural
  • Biological Approach • Focuses on the brain and the nervous system • Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Approach • Focuses on the influences of the environment on observable behaviorJohn Watson (1847-1939) B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
  • Psychodynamic Approach • Emphasizes – Unconscious thought – Internal conflicts – Early childhood experiences – Freud
  • Humanistic Approach • Emphasizes positive human qualitiesAbrahamMaslow(1908-1970) Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • Cognitive Approach • Emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing
  • Evolutionary Approach • Uses ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection to explain human behavior
  • Sociocultural Approach • Examines how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processes
  • Four Big Ideas in Psychology • Critical Thinking • Behavior is a biopsychosocial event • We operate on a two-track mind • Psychology explores human strengths as well as challenges
  • Areas of Specialization• Social psychology• Personality psychology• Developmental psychology• Experimental (basic processes) psychology• Physiological/biological psychology• Cognitive psychology• Psychometrics (psychological testing)• Clinical psychology• Industrial/organizational psychology• Etc….
  • Careers in Psychology
  • Related Degrees• Clinical and Counseling Psychologists – Degrees: Ph.D., Psy.D., Ed.D., M.A./M.S. – State license• Social Work – Degrees: MSW, DSW• Psychiatry – Degrees: M.D.• Psychology: Other areas – Degrees: Ph.D., M.A./M.S, B.A./B.S,