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Slides from City of Chicago 311 Student Project from Sep 2008-May 2009.

Slides from City of Chicago 311 Student Project from Sep 2008-May 2009.

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  • 1. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009City of Chicago:311 Call CenterErica Yamada, 2008-2009Institute of Design at Illinois Institute of TechnologySlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 1
  • 2. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Project OverviewSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 2
  • 3. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Project Overview• Client: City of Chicago, Department of Innovation & Technology & Philip Hampton, Director of the 311 Call Center• Date: Fall 2008-Spring 2009• Problem: Fix an overloaded call center and improve interaction between the City and citizens• Goals: Approach call center problem from a service design methodology and present a portfolio of solution concepts• Methods Used: Design thinking, systems/ platform strategy, user centered design research• Advisor: Jeremy Alexis, Institute of Design at Illinois Institute of TechnologySlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 3
  • 4. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Team MembersErica Yamada Yu-Hsin Chiu Shilpa Rao Nai-Hwa Chiang• Project Lead • Researcher/Strategist • Researcher/Strategist • Strategist• Researcher/Strategist • Interaction Designer • Spatial Designer • Mobile Designer• Interaction DesignerSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 4
  • 5. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Client Project Environment & ObjectiveSolve for the following issues using DesignThinking/Service Design Practices• Decrease call center volume• Improve relationships and communication between the City and residents• Create additional channels of communication with residents• Increase transparency in communication• Make changes during massive budget cutsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 5
  • 6. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009About The 311 Call CenterConsidered the unofficial “face” of the City ofChicago, the 311 call center operator process/provide: • All non-emergency service requests from City Residents (e.g. potholes, lighting outages) • Service requests from other departments within the city • Information about city services/departments • Laws and processes needed to process city requests (e.g. Childcare, Shelter, Domestic emergencies) • Information & service requests for O’Hare airport (e.g. disabilities, terminal info) • Information about special events and local sports events • Federal, State, City level departments and contact numbers, addresses • A plethora of calls/information to people who dial 311 confusing it with 411 (Commercial information phone code in US)Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 6
  • 7. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009311’s Dilemma• Started in 1999 to make the 911 call center more efficient while improving communication between Citizens and City Government• The first such call center in the country• Originally won several awards for innovation in government• Call volume increased 300% while operators remained the same-causing 1/3 of calls to be dropped• Other city departments also rely on 311 to process all service requests-further increasing call volume• Service request process lack transparency causing further increased callsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 7
  • 8. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Original Web IntakeAn additional dilemma for the 311 department fell on the low usability of the originalwebsite that could act as a place for Citizens to place service requests onlineSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 8
  • 9. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Project Process Over the course of 8 months, our team of 3, followed by one more member, loosely followed the steps below in conducting our service design project.Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 CONCEPTS: RESEARCH: ANALYSIS: SYNTHESIS: Create prototypes and Identified Platform Conduct research and Identify themes and wireframes for web & of Players and Processes analysis of how all pressure points that mobile platforms, along Involved along with players and information build upon analysis and with service design industry best practices works together address areas of concern solutions Please note: Our research process tended to overlap steps 2 & 3 as it expanded into usability and we found ourselves needing more information as we went along. Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 9
  • 10. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Delivered GoodsThrough a series of four, hour long presentations (70+ Slides each) tomultiple parties within the Chicago government, we presented and offeredthe following items: RESEARCH: ANALYSIS: SYNTHESIS: CONCEPTS: • User research • User Journeys, • Service design • Service design • Operator research Points of Access themes concepts • Video Recordings • Operator • User Personas/Use • Mobile wireframes • Usability Studies workflows, Work Cases • Web intake • Secondary Research experience • Operator stories/ wireframes documentation • System Maps Use Cases • Quantitative &The work that we presented was eventually used as ammunition to getapproval from Mayor Daly to overhaul the city website. Additionally, thedirector used our presentation package as grounds to improvetransparency and make improvements to the operations of his call center.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 10
  • 11. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009ResearchSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 11
  • 12. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Research OverviewFollowing a service design approach to solving the call’s center dilemma, our groupfollowed a multi-pronged research plan to comprehend the following players CHICAGO CITY SERVICES PLATFORM Players and participants in the requesting and processing of city service and information requests. USERS OPERATORS: CITY DEPARTMENTS: OTHERS: • Experiences of City • 311 Call center • City of Chicago • Understanding of of Chicago Operators and their Service the Alderman’s residents work experience departments who offices and other and environment provide information non-profit/religious documentation to operators and points of reference/ process service services. requestsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 12
  • 13. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Research ProcessIn order to understand our users and the system wewere researching, our process included thefollowing types of research.• Primary • Design research of System players• Secondary • Academic and industry research• Usability • Research about usability of currently available channels of communication within city departmentsThe combination of these three channels of researchwere ultimately passed through a rigorous analysisprocess and lead to our concepts and insights.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 13
  • 14. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Primary Research: UsersCurrent User Mindset Current User ExperienceOn The Street Interviews to Researched by placing calls intounderstand preconceptions and mis- Chicago & Other Cities, placingunderstandings about 311 call center online service requests and visiting various points of City/Citizen contactResearch By NumbersQuantitative analysis of callerinformation to get broadunderstanding about requests andthe nature of calls to Call center Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 14
  • 15. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Primary Research: OperatorsWork Place ResearchPhotographic studies of work environmentand tools Operators use to process servicerequests and provide city informationPrimary Interviews Work Flow/Experience ResearchOne on one interview sessions with seasoned and Multiple operator call session ride alongs (listeningnew operators. Learning about work motivations, in and logging calls ) to understand the speed,daily challenges and attitudes towards work. breadth of requests and trials Operators face daily in processing calls. Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 15
  • 16. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Research: Secondary Academic & Industry ResearchResearched Major Industry Journals,Government and Think-tank Studies toreview best practices. Insights from findingswere used to back up Primary research andempowered the Department of Innovation &Technology and 311 call center to pursueTransparency in government communication.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 16
  • 17. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Research: Usability (Users) Web Intake Phone Intake Usability studies of the process of Usability studies of placing service collecting vital information and placing requests phone calls to 311 call centers Service Requests onlineSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 17
  • 18. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Research: Usability (Operators)Work Flow ResearchStudy of work environment againstcall volume trends, operator shiftsand 311 hours of operation Task Flow & Work Place Analysis Study of work space and tools used to process service requests/ information calls for operatorsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 18
  • 19. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleDiagram created toconvey the complexlevel of informationprocessed in seconds by311 operators.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 19
  • 20. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009AnalysisSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 20
  • 21. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Categories of AnalysisTo continue the service design approach tosolving the call volume issues, we broke ouranalysis into the user experience storiesbetween three key players,Operators ,Citizens and City departments.Throughout our presentations, we proceededto color code concepts and user stories tomatch each bucketSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 21
  • 22. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Analysis: Users Service Request Maps Created user stories and service maps to see how users may call or contact the City to get information or place service requests.Identify Key Users User StoriesGrouping users by Created user stories ofmajor categories, how users may call oragainst type of contact the City to getinformation/ information or placerequests placed. service requests. Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 22
  • 23. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleGrid created tounderstand caller typesand the nature ofrequestsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 23
  • 24. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Analysis: Operators Operator Flow Mapping Operator Mind Mapping Mapping flow of operator’s role Identifying key concerns and within processing calls/requests mental states of Operators when processing callsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 24
  • 25. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Analysis: DepartmentsRequest Map Flow Department JourneyMapping the journey of a City department basedservice request from user to journey map of processingoperator then department service requests from citizens Request Matrix Identifying key questions asked by departments and operators to process requests Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 25
  • 26. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleService type matrix mappedagainst the most populartype of requests made to citydepartmentsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 26
  • 27. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Analysis: Departments Department Process Map Request Matrix Mapping flow of service requests once Identifying types of questions asked operators have input into CSR system by operators/departments in order to assess “process-ability” of requestsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 27
  • 28. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Analysis: System Used service blue print in order to identify systemic problem areas where citizens and Identifying Users & Spaces Where they city employees they interact within the effect one another process of processing service requestsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 28
  • 29. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleService design blueprintcreated to showcase thethree department andtheir involvement insolving a user’s servicerequestSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 29
  • 30. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009SynthesisSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 30
  • 31. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Synthesis ProcessThe synthesis process looked at the service from thepoint of view of:• Users• Providers• SystemThrough out the process we used our analysis tozero in on problem areas and create user stories andideas that were woven together to solve the callcenter and City of Chicago’s from a service designpoint of view. Using several frameworks within 311 Call Center Servicethose three areas we identified six common themes Categories of Needsand created quick concepts aimed towards fixingissues.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 31
  • 32. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide exampleIn a exercise that collectsour research and analysisinsights, we mappedproblems and came upwith quick problems thatwould address involvedparties within the themes.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 32
  • 33. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Synthesis: UsersUsing design methodsand user journeys toanalyze wherecommunication & Systemneeds interconnectSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 33
  • 34. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide exampleMapped out User types,Request types andEmotional States basedoff researchSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 34
  • 35. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide exampleCreated user types andmapped against userflow while addingcommon requests andmind frames wewitnessed throughoutresearchSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 35
  • 36. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleMapping user types/stateswith service requests andcoming up withappropriate responsesolutions to help 311 callcenter operators providethe best service. Prior toour involvementOperators were judged bytheir speed, our workaimed towards accuracyand better serviceSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 36
  • 37. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Combining design methods with user personas in order to create create communication design conceptsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 37
  • 38. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleA cross mapping of user story,and user type against thestage of experience and typeof request they would place.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 38
  • 39. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009ConceptsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 39
  • 40. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Concept ProcessThe concept process bleeds in with our synthesis process can be broken into three areas.• Service Design/System Concepts• Web Solutions• Mobile SolutionsTo illustrate the concepts we mapped them against Citizen/Operator/City Department userstories and further mapped them against the problem themes of:• Awareness• Transparency• Communication• Automation & Efficient• Preparation and Motivation.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 40
  • 41. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Presentation Method: Concept MapEach concept and journey hadtheir own cards and we mappedwhere they would be effective insolving the issues through themain themes. We used the cardmethod to show there was nosilver bullet to the problem but toshow which concepts coupled bemore effective and how.Playing card size of concepts alsoallowed for easy sharing withincity departments are wereeffective tools in presentations.(Poster size of Concept Map, 5’ x 3’)Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 41
  • 42. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Concepts: User StoriesCreation of concepts foreach user type based onuser journeys for Citizens,Operators and Citydepartments (colorcoded)Each of these stories alsohad individual playingcards we color coded andpassed around whilepresenting each use caseSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 42
  • 43. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleUser story diagrams helpedto illustrate use cases . Colorcoding of concepts wasdone to illustrate whichconcepts were for Users, 311Call center operators andother City departments.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 43
  • 44. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Concept Card- ExamplesAn example of concept cards and how they map against concept mapSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 44
  • 45. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Concepts-MobileSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 45
  • 46. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Mobile Prototype Process Of DevelopmentStep One Step Two Step Three Step Four Review Concept Identify emotional Sketch initial Review initial Storyboards states of users walkthroughs wireframe Identify types of Create paper Create new paper Identify Issues tasks wireframes wireframes Identify Identify users and Identify initial user Heuristic evaluationPotential User Base Mobile devices base for testing of wireframes Identify Service Create tasks and Usability Revise wireframesRequests to focus on scenarios walkthrough testing Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 46
  • 47. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Mobile ProcessStep One Using our initial concept Review Concept storyboard from initial concepts Storyboards presented to the client Identify Issues IdentifyPotential User Base Identify Service We worked to zoom in on usersRequests to focus on and points of access we wished to address for mobile prototypes Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 47
  • 48. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Mobile ProcessStep TwoIdentify emotional states of users Identify types of tasksIdentify users and Mobile devices Identified User’s Emotional State and Tasks Based off systemic needs and Create tasks and previous user analysis scenarios Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 48
  • 49. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Mobile ProcessStep TwoIdentify emotional states of users Identify types of tasksIdentify users and Mobile devices Create tasks and Created representative users and scenarios applied possible mobile devices to solve for Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 49
  • 50. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Mobile ProcessStep TwoIdentify emotional states of users Identify types of tasksIdentify users and Mobile devices Create tasks and scenarios Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 50
  • 51. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Highlights of Screenshots-iPhoneSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 51
  • 52. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Highlights of Screenshots-Standard PhoneSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 52
  • 53. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Highlights of Screenshots-Push to TalkSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 53
  • 54. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009In-Phone Examples In-Phone ExamplesSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 54
  • 55. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009In Phone Example: Push to TalkPush to talk phones wereconnected to IVR systemsto try to automate requeststhat came from cityemployees/police officersetc. The straight to IVRsystem aimed to helpalleviate call volumeincrease to 311 from othercity departmentsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 55
  • 56. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009In Phone Example: Push to TalkSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 56
  • 57. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009In Phone Example, IphoneGiven the actual userdemographics at thetime and the peoplewho usually contactedthe City of Chicago, theiphone app was lessrelevant to our needsbut we explored howweb intake could beexplored from a webpoint of view with ourwireframes.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 57
  • 58. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009In Phone Example, IphoneSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 58
  • 59. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Concepts: WebSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 59
  • 60. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Notes on Web Proto-types: • There are three separate rounds of conceptual wireframes, each were created under very short-time frames (3-4 days) under specific demands made by the department of innovation and technology. These wireframes were often used as “inspiration” and presented to Mayor Richard Daly as part of the department’s initiative to re-design the city website. As a result of circumstances, a simple visual design style was applied, creating a polished look. • Process of Web wireframes was enmeshed with service design process and were designed more as “potential inspiration” of what the city could create. As a result, the images are concept rich but light on usability iterations • Web 2.0 wireframes focused on presenting a “possibility” of how several suggested of concepts could exist on a web platform. As a result, the content is dense and presented for studying the possibility of concepts and not exact use cases, ideal web solutions or for immediate development • Web 3.0 platform was requested for separate instances where representation of how to make revisions to specific portions and section of the website. As a result, IA was not deeply considered within the wireframes.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 60
  • 61. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Web Prototypes Process Of Development:Research WEB Round 1 WEB Round 2 WEB Round 3 1.Analyze current 1. Conduct service design Focus further on intake Review types of info analysis and Communication withrequested of operators website users 2. Identify users and Identify types of users & Review current 2.Review current storyboards to ideate communication needs website offerings intake process concepts 3. Create individual Create tasks andAssess current User 3.Identify core storyboards for personas concepts and map as a Concerns current user needs system Recommend wireframes for Review types of 4. Present initial 4. Present big picture intake and communication service requests IA buckets wireframes of all concepts improvements Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 61
  • 62. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Research Review current website offerings Assess current User Concerns Review types of info Review types ofrequested of operators service requests Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 62
  • 63. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Web Round 1 Process Step 1.Analyze Step 2.Review current website current intake Step 3.Identify Step 4. Presentcore current user initial IA bucketsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 63
  • 64. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 64
  • 65. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleBased on research and analysisfrom call center, informationavailable on current site anduser analysis initialrecommendations were madein the wireframes.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 65
  • 66. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleBased on a web workshop weconducted, we worked toincrease other points of entryby which users may search foranswers to their questions.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 66
  • 67. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleBased on the type of work thecall center operator naturallydoes in her process, weattempted to offerrecommendations that wouldassist citizens identify theirproblems faster to improveintake in the future.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 67
  • 68. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Slide ExampleUsing previous design methods foranalysis and user scenarios, wecreated new categories and brokedown services in digestiblecategories to improve point of entryto making service requestsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 68
  • 69. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Website Round 2 Process Step 2. Identify users and storyboards to ideate concepts Step 1. Conduct service design analysis Step 4. Present big picture wireframes of all concepts Step 3. Create individualconcepts and map as a systemSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 69
  • 70. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Service Design Concept CardsUsing the Service Design process and taking a look into front and backstage players. Conceptsfor fixing the problems focused not only on citizens but also call center operators and citydepartments. The cards presented below represented web solutions aimed to help addressservice design needs.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 70
  • 71. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009From Concept to Wireframe:An Example of concept to wireframeSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 71
  • 72. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009From Concept to Wireframe:Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 72
  • 73. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009From Concept to Wireframe:Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 73
  • 74. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009From Concept to Presentation to Wireframe:Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 74
  • 75. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009 Web Round 3 ProcessStep 1: Focus further onintake and Communicationwith users Step 2: Identify types of users & communication needsStep 3: Create tasks and Step 4: Recommend wireframesstoryboards for personas for intake and communication improvements Slide Index Slide # Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 75
  • 76. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Designing for Illiteracy:Using Microsoft research studies in emergingmarkets as a basis, designing options that couldbe made available for illiterate users who wish tomake submissions through web or kioskSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 76
  • 77. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Designing for Transparency:Working with ways to be more transparent in theprocess of fulfilling service requests whilehonoring the need to not give all information forprocesses that are confidential.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 77
  • 78. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Improving Request Intake:Improving intake with the following changes:1. Show stages of process2. Ask for service request type first3. Reduce data entry4. Allow for users to change request type withdrop down menus5. Allow for users to return to previous page6. Provide users with a tracking numberSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 78
  • 79. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Project ResultsSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 79
  • 80. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Implementation Round 1Using categories that our team had created, the city rolled these categoriesout, a change which increased web intake by 30% within the first monthSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 80
  • 81. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Implementation Round 2Empowered by our recommendations and layouts to make progress tracking available,three months after our original pitch, the center implemented a service requesttracker. Albeit a small feature, political negotiations to disclose this level oftransparency to citizens took our user centered service design presentations alongwith considerable secondary research to receive departmental approval.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 81
  • 82. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Implementation Round 37 months into our work with the city, The department of Innovation and Technologyinitiated an effort to re-design the city website. Launched in the summer of 2009, many ofour concepts and wireframes were used as initial wireframes for the website.Slide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 82
  • 83. City of Chicago: 311 Call Center Project Erica Yamada, 2008-2009Web FutureAs of Spring 2010, Service RequestIntake process still lead to thetraditional intake process but as thecity operates on a tight budget,future revisions are still in progressSlide Index Slide #Overview (2) | Research (11) | Analysis (20) | Synthesis (30) | Concepts (39) | Mobile (45) | Web (59) | Results (79) 83