0
ED73.9002: Processing Effects on the functional   components of foodAcrylamide: Thermal   Process induced      Toxicant   ...
Presentation Outline• Introduction• Mechanisms of formation• Toxicology• Amounts in different food sources• Regulations & ...
Less tasty side to these culinary delights:Thermally induced harmful chemicals(Carcinogens)                               ...
What is    Acrylamide ?• Synthesized for the first time in 1949• Unsaturated & highly reactive          amide• White odorl...
Properties of Acryl amideS.N.    Properties             Values1.   IUPAC name        Prop-2 enamide2.   Molecular formula ...
Acrylamide in industrial use• 1950s: Synthetic Polyacrylamide-based         flocculants• 1960s: Synthetic coagulants in mi...
Acrylamide production in foodsConcentrations          AA Formed by         Factors (temp.,& availability of     Maillard r...
Impact of Potato variety on AA Levels                       (Source: D. Mottram, U. Reading)Sample                   Acryl...
Heat                 Acryl                 amide               formation Carbonyl                  L-Asparagine  source   ...
Mechanism for formationFrom Asparagine and Reducing sugar                                         OH OH                   ...
Mechanism for formationFrom Asparagine and Reducing sugarH2N                   N      C – CH2 – CH                   Maill...
Mechanism for formationFrom Triglycerides Triglycerides     Heat, O2                             Acrylic acid           Ac...
Variation in concentration of Acrylamide                          with temperature and time                   1400        ...
AA Formation as a function of Temperature                                                                                 ...
Effect of pH on Acrylamide Formation           30000           25000           20000AA (ppb)                              ...
Effect of browning in AA formation                 (Source: D. Mottram, U. Reading)Sample                     Acrylamide  ...
Amount of Acrylamide in Foods (ppm)Category                European Data   FDA DataBreads                     12-3200     ...
Amount of Acrylamide in Foods (ppm)           Category            European Data FDA DataMeats                             ...
Asparagine !!! Amino Acids               Level of Acrylamide FormationAlanine                                  <50 ppbAspa...
Stability of acrylamide in various foodstuffs    Food product            Interval   Acrylamide level (µg/kg)              ...
Asparagine in Various Crops• Cheese                     40 – 300 mg/100gm• Asparagus                  5.4 – 108 mg/100gm• ...
Toxicology• Known neurotoxicant (IARC 2002; Manson et al. 2005)      – Peripheral neuropathy      – Tingling/numbness of e...
Maximum allowable dose level (MADL•2 micrograms per kg body weight per day(Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessmen...
• Water extraction• Analysis by GC-MS with or w/o  bromination• by LC-MS/MS• by LC-MS or -UV after deriv. with  mercaptobe...
Acryl amide extracted with water, testGC-MS    portion homogenized, acidified to pH 4-5method          Addition of Carrez ...
Acrylamide Precursors – Where to           Intervene Asparagine                Reducing Sugars                            ...
Acrylamide Possible Mitigation Strategies1. Reduction or removal of sugars.    Selection of low sugar cultivar.    Blanc...
Reduction of Acrylamideformation in Potatoes products•   Improve agronomic practices•   Select potatoes variety with less ...
Reduction of Acrylamide   in cereal products• Adjustment of time and temperature during  baking.• Extend fermentation time...
Enzyme mechanism                   30
Impact of treating with Asparaginase• By treating with asparaginase there was a  99% reduction in the levels of  acrylamid...
Relative Exposure to Acrylamide in U.S. Food 30 25             French Fries & 20             Potatoes                     ...
Conclusion• Acrylamide formation in thermally  processed foods is a major challenges for  bakery, French fries and chip pr...
What about these cereal based foods ?     Selroti                   Puri     Chapati     Doughnut             34
“Foods should not be cookedexcessively...for too long or at toohigh a temperature... However, allfood…should be cooked tho...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Acrylamide presentation

1,205

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,205
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
59
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Acrylamide presentation"

  1. 1. ED73.9002: Processing Effects on the functional components of foodAcrylamide: Thermal Process induced Toxicant By- Yakindra Prasad Timilsena (111332) Jyotsna Shrestha Khanal 1 (111328)
  2. 2. Presentation Outline• Introduction• Mechanisms of formation• Toxicology• Amounts in different food sources• Regulations & allowable limits• Methods of Determination• Preventive measures• Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Less tasty side to these culinary delights:Thermally induced harmful chemicals(Carcinogens) 3
  4. 4. What is Acrylamide ?• Synthesized for the first time in 1949• Unsaturated & highly reactive amide• White odorless crystalline solid, soluble in water, ethanol, ether, and chloroform• Formation: baking, roasting, toasting, grilling, frying• Common foods: French fries, potato chips, bread,biscuits, coffee, roasted cereals
  5. 5. Properties of Acryl amideS.N. Properties Values1. IUPAC name Prop-2 enamide2. Molecular formula C3H5NO3. MW 71.08 g mol−14. Density 1.13 g/cm35. Melting point 84.5 C6. Solubility in water 2.04 kg/L (at 25 °C)7. Color white crystalline solid8. Boiling point 136 °C 5
  6. 6. Acrylamide in industrial use• 1950s: Synthetic Polyacrylamide-based flocculants• 1960s: Synthetic coagulants in mineral processing industries• 2002: Swedish researchers announced the discovery of acrylamide in food PAM 6
  7. 7. Acrylamide production in foodsConcentrations AA Formed by Factors (temp.,& availability of Maillard reaction heat intensity,Precursor between asparagine water activity)molecules and reducing sugars in processing (precursors) technologiesCereals, potato & coffee : variety and growing factorsCereals : reducing sugars are abundant → conc. OfAsparagine →AAPotato : asparagine is abundant →conc. of reducing sugar→AA 7
  8. 8. Impact of Potato variety on AA Levels (Source: D. Mottram, U. Reading)Sample Acrylamide SNFA result concentration (µg/kg) (µg/kg) LC-MS-MS GC-MSBaking potatoesraw <10 Nd <30Boiled <10 NdChipped & fried 310 350King Edward potatoes Acrylamide formationraw <10 Nd influenced by <30boiled <10 Nd starting raw materialChipped & fried 2800 3500Frozen frying chipsas sold 200 100Cooked 3500 3500Over cooked 12800 12000 8
  9. 9. Heat Acryl amide formation Carbonyl L-Asparagine source source• Removing or changing one of the parameter prevents formation. 9
  10. 10. Mechanism for formationFrom Asparagine and Reducing sugar OH OH HOH2N NH2 O C – CH2 – CH + OH OH O COOH Asparagine Glucose H2N N C – CH2 – CH O COOH 10
  11. 11. Mechanism for formationFrom Asparagine and Reducing sugarH2N N C – CH2 – CH Maillard reactionO Products COOH - CO2 H2NH2N N C – CH = CH2 C – CH2 – CH2 OO Acrylamide 11
  12. 12. Mechanism for formationFrom Triglycerides Triglycerides Heat, O2 Acrylic acid Acrolein NH3 Acrylamide 12
  13. 13. Variation in concentration of Acrylamide with temperature and time 1400 1200Acrylamide (ppm) 1000 800 2.5 min 600 3.5 min 400 200 0 165 170 175 180 185 190 Temperature (0C) Source: Gertz and Klosterman (2002) Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 104:762-771. 13
  14. 14. AA Formation as a function of Temperature Potato chips 20000 Frying time: 15 minutes (0.07930*(Temp-383)) AA = 442.3 * e 15000 Acrylamide (ppb)5000 100000 380 400 420 440 Temperature (Kelvin) 14
  15. 15. Effect of pH on Acrylamide Formation 30000 25000 20000AA (ppb) 120 C, 40 min 15000 150 C, 15 min 10000 5000 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 pH 15
  16. 16. Effect of browning in AA formation (Source: D. Mottram, U. Reading)Sample Acrylamide SNFA result concentration (µg/kg) (µg/kg) GC-MS LC-MS-MSBaking potatoesraw <10 nd <30Boiled <10 ndChipped & fried 310 350King Edward potatoes Yield of acrylamideraw <10 Nd increases <30boiled <10 Nd substantially withChipped & fried 2800 3500 browningFrozen frying chipsas sold 200 100Cooked 3500 3500 16Over cooked 12800 12000
  17. 17. Amount of Acrylamide in Foods (ppm)Category European Data FDA DataBreads 12-3200 <10-364Crispbread <30-1670Crackers and Biscuits <30-2000 26-504Cereal <30-2300 52-266Other Grains <30Potato Chips 150-1280 117-2762Other Salty Snacks 122-416 12-1168French Fries 85-1104 20-1325Other Potato Products <20-12400Other Veg and FruitProducts 10-<50 <10-70 17
  18. 18. Amount of Acrylamide in Foods (ppm) Category European Data FDA DataMeats < 30-64 < 10-116Candy and Dessert items < 20-110 < 10-909Cookies 36-199Coffee and Tea 170-700 175-351Other Nonalcoholic Beverages < 30Alcoholic Beverages 30Dairy Products 10-100 < 10-43Baby Food and Formula 40-120 < 10-130Dry Soup Mixes < 10-1184Gravy and Seasonings 38-54 18
  19. 19. Asparagine !!! Amino Acids Level of Acrylamide FormationAlanine <50 ppbAsparagine 9270 ppbAspartic Acid <50 ppbCysteine <50 ppbGlutamine 156 ppbLysine <50 ppbMethionine <50 ppbThreonine <50 ppb 19Source : Barbara Petersen, Exponent, Inc. October 2002 JIFSAN workshop
  20. 20. Stability of acrylamide in various foodstuffs Food product Interval Acrylamide level (µg/kg) (month) Initial SecondBreakfast cereal 12 238 238Soluble coffee powder 12 771 256Roasted barley 9 265 225Roasted coffee 7 203 147Dried chicory 5 214 174Roasted chicory 5 4015 3395Cocoa 3 180 177Chocolate with almond 2 94 73Soluble chocolate powder 1 54 41 20 Adapted from Delatour et al.
  21. 21. Asparagine in Various Crops• Cheese 40 – 300 mg/100gm• Asparagus 5.4 – 108 mg/100gm• Cocoa (raw) 30.9 mg/100gm - roasted @ 1250C 14.5 mg/100gm - roasted @ 1350C 9.4 mg/100gm• Potato 500 – 1000 mg/100gm• Rye 0.2 – 2.8 mg/100gm• Wheat 0.2 – 20 mg/100gm• Corn 0.6 – 1 mg/100gmSource: Ellin Doyle, Ph.D., Food Research Inst., U. Wisc. 21
  22. 22. Toxicology• Known neurotoxicant (IARC 2002; Manson et al. 2005) – Peripheral neuropathy – Tingling/numbness of extremities – Loss of reflexes – Chronic CNS dysfunction and neuropathy• Reproductive toxicity• Animal carcinogen (CNS, endocrine organs)• EPA has classified acrylamide as a B2 carcinogen (probable human carcinogen) (IRIS2009).• Biomarker – adducts on amino acid valine of Hb. 22
  23. 23. Maximum allowable dose level (MADL•2 micrograms per kg body weight per day(Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment)• Exposure at a level 1,000 times greater than the MADL isexpected to have no observable effect• No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 15 mg/kgbw/day were identified in mice• Legislation under formulation 23
  24. 24. • Water extraction• Analysis by GC-MS with or w/o bromination• by LC-MS/MS• by LC-MS or -UV after deriv. with mercaptobenzoic acid• GC-Ion Trap MS 24
  25. 25. Acryl amide extracted with water, testGC-MS portion homogenized, acidified to pH 4-5method Addition of Carrez I and Carrez II solution Extraction with Ethylacetate hexane (80:20), Filtration over Na2SO4 Clean up with Flourisil elution of acrylamide with acetone Evaporation, residue taken up in ethylacetate, triethylamine added Filtration, injection into GC-MS 25
  26. 26. Acrylamide Precursors – Where to Intervene Asparagine Reducing Sugars - Glucose - Fructose - Sucrose hydrolysis?• Factors affecting asparagine and reducing sugars - Variety of potato - Storage conditions
  27. 27. Acrylamide Possible Mitigation Strategies1. Reduction or removal of sugars.  Selection of low sugar cultivar.  Blanching and soaking to leach out sugars.2. Reduction or removal of asparagines.  Use of enzymes to degrade asparagine during food processing.  Blanching to leach out asparagine3. Processing Conditions  Altering time-temperature of processing.  Altering heat processing methods  Changing pH of food by using acids  Use of antioxidants 27
  28. 28. Reduction of Acrylamideformation in Potatoes products• Improve agronomic practices• Select potatoes variety with less asparagine• Store potatoes tubers >10 C• Blanching (82 C)• Add antioxidants• Dip slices in citric acid (0.75%) solution• Dip in NaCl, CaCl2 solution• Use of enzyme- asparaginase• Addition of amino acids glycine. 28
  29. 29. Reduction of Acrylamide in cereal products• Adjustment of time and temperature during baking.• Extend fermentation times where feasible.• Substitution of ammonium bicarbonate with alternatives• Avoid or minimize use of reducing sugars• Avoidance of very high baking temperature• Use of asparaginase in dough to degrade asparagine. 29
  30. 30. Enzyme mechanism 30
  31. 31. Impact of treating with Asparaginase• By treating with asparaginase there was a 99% reduction in the levels of acrylamide in the potato mixture• Product characteristics fully preserved• No change in process parameters• Commercially viable and available ???
  32. 32. Relative Exposure to Acrylamide in U.S. Food 30 25 French Fries & 20 Potatoes Coffee Cakes 15 Breads Dried Foods Pop Corn 10 Potato Chips Salty Snacks Cereal Chocolate Products Biscuit / Cookies Nuts/Seeds/Butters 5 All Other Foods 0 µg/day 32
  33. 33. Conclusion• Acrylamide formation in thermally processed foods is a major challenges for bakery, French fries and chip producing industries.• challenges still remain in terms of the needs to develop simple and rapid test methods.• different pre-frying treatments on the reduction of acrylamide (AA) formation are under investigation 33
  34. 34. What about these cereal based foods ? Selroti Puri Chapati Doughnut 34
  35. 35. “Foods should not be cookedexcessively...for too long or at toohigh a temperature... However, allfood…should be cooked thoroughlyto destroy food borne pathogens.”Is it possible to cook food withoutforming at least some AA ????? 35
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×