systemic problems• Post-war violence and repression still present• Violence against independent media and limited space for critical dissent• Legacy of 30 years of war: Communal distrust, no reconciliation, no political settlement, continued militarisation, national security mindset, repressive government, on-going self-censorship, poor rule of law, unconstitutional governance
The appropriate use of ICTs, in line with culture andcontext, aids adoption, adaptation, buy-in andsustainability.
ICT in peacebuilding needs to be self-effacing.ICT must build social capital, and invest in societal frameworks thatempower local communities to grapple with conﬂict in non-violentways.Technology itself should not be the cynosure, but what is achievedthrough it.
As ICT4Peace develops, there is a need to develop moreeffective cultures of collaboration based on mutually acceptedand independently veriﬁable virtual markers of trust.The ability to conduct critical discussions in virtual spaces whilstbeing assured of the conﬁdentiality of shared content.
Inadequate vernacular content / UI designLack of Internet connectivity / infrastructure / bandwidth / latencyLack of or transient human resourcesA pervasive and incipient culture of secrecy, with the abysmal levels ofmutual trustIntricacies of ethno-political conﬂict
the future is anchored to and underpinned by• Geo-location, geo-fencing and geo-referencing• New media and Web 2.0 technologies, including social networking• Mobiles, and especially smart(er) phones• Broadband, especially wireless• Interoperable ODR systems / data-portability initiatives
the enduring challenges will be• New media savvy repressive governments• Privacy controls, in the age of Facebook• Contest between culture and context, actors and process, physical vs. virtual• Engendering the political will to transform complex conﬂict• The emphasis on the process, as opposed to the technology - people as opposed to the platform• Bearing witness during violence