Unit 3 environment


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  • Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
  • Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
  • Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
  • Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
  • Unit 3 environment

    1. 1. UNIT 3: THE ENVIRONMENT Teacher: Daniela A. Ayala M. CEIP. TOMÁS ROMOJARO FUENSALIDA, TOLEDO 2010 - 2011 Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    2. 2. OBJECTIVES AND CONTENTS <ul><li>• To identify ecosystems and their main components </li></ul><ul><li>• To understand how the physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>affects living things, and how living things </li></ul><ul><li>can modify their environment </li></ul><ul><li>To recognise some of the principal ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>To describe types of relationships among living </li></ul><ul><li>things in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>• To identify some of the main environmental </li></ul><ul><li>problems </li></ul><ul><li>• To discover some ways to protect the environment </li></ul><ul><li>• To write reports about nature reserves </li></ul><ul><li>• To appreciate the work of environmental </li></ul><ul><li>organisations </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    3. 3. CONTENTS <ul><li>Ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships between living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting the environment. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    4. 4. LINKS .- RESOURCES <ul><li>• Earth </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.planetpals.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Find facts and fun in the section About Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>For students and teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>• Rainforests </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.rainforestheroes.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Visit About Rainforests to see a rainforest slideshow </li></ul><ul><li>and Jungle Gym for games and activities. </li></ul><ul><li>For students and teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>• Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mbgnet.net/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Explore different ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>For teachers and students. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    5. 5. EXTRA IDEAS: ECOSYSTEMS <ul><li>Show the students pictures of different </li></ul><ul><li>ecosystems for them to observe and </li></ul><ul><li>compare. Talk about why there are </li></ul><ul><li>different plants and animals in each </li></ul><ul><li>system and the reasons, e.g. climate, </li></ul><ul><li>water, soil, landscape, etc. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    6. 6. TOPIC A.- ECOSYSTEMS Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    7. 7. 0.- What’s the difference? Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    8. 8. 1.-What is an Ecosystem? <ul><li>An ecosystem consists of living things in a specific environment and the relationships between them and their habitat. For example, a lake is an ecosystem. It is made up of the: </li></ul><ul><li>water </li></ul><ul><li>lake bottom </li></ul><ul><li>shores </li></ul><ul><li>plants </li></ul><ul><li>animals </li></ul><ul><li>algae </li></ul><ul><li>An ecosystem can be as small as a pond or as large as the Amazon rainforest . </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    9. 9. 2.-The components of an environment <ul><li>Ecosystems have two components: </li></ul><ul><li>Living things: all the plant life in an ecosystem is called the vegetation. </li></ul><ul><li>All the animal life in an ecosystem is calledthe fauna. Fungi, bacteria and algae are also present. </li></ul><ul><li>Environment: everything which affects living things. Soil, climate, water and light are part of the environment. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    10. 10. 3.- Relationship within an ecosystem <ul><li>Living things interact with each other and with their environment. The characteristics of the environment determine what living things exist in an ecosystem. For example, deserts are dry, so only plants and animals which need </li></ul><ul><li>little water grow there. Only plants with small roots grow in rocky areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Living things can modify the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, plants can break down rocks,and change them into fertile soil. </li></ul>PLANTS ROOTS GRADUALLY BREAK DOWN ROCKS. Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    11. 11. 4.- TWO ECOSYSTEMS:Terrestrial and Aquatic <ul><li>4.1 TERRESTRIAL: </li></ul><ul><li>Typical terrestrial ecosystems are: </li></ul><ul><li>Forests: Trees are the most important living things in a forest. Trees provide food and shelter for many animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Grasslands: Tall grass is the most characteristic feature. Large animals, such as zebras, gazelles or antelopes,graze here: that is, they eat the grass. </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts: Precipitation is very scarce here,so vegetation and fauna are also scarce. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    12. 12. Terrestrial Ecosystems Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    13. 13. 4.2 Aquatic Ecosystem <ul><li>They can be classified into two groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh-water ecosystems are found in rivers and lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Salt-water ecosystems are found in the sea: for example, a coral reef. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    14. 14. Ecosystems: SUMMARY <ul><li>Ecosystems are made up of a community </li></ul><ul><li>of living things and their physical environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The environment affects living things, and living things can change their environment. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    15. 15. Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    16. 16. TOPIC B.- RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LIVING THINGS Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    17. 17. 1.-LIVING THINGS AND FOOD <ul><li>Living things can be classified according to how they obtain food : </li></ul><ul><li>Producers make their own food. Plants and algae which need sunlight for photosynthesis are the most common producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary consumers are animals which feed on producers. For example, herbivores ,like deer or zebras , eat plants and algae. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers are animals which feed on primary consumers. For example, predators like eagles, lions or wolves belong to this group. </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers are living things which feed on the remains of other living things: </li></ul><ul><li>F aeces </li></ul><ul><li>animal corpses </li></ul><ul><li>leaves and branches </li></ul><ul><li>Most decomposers are fungi and bacteria. </li></ul>FAECES: HECES ANIMAL CORPSES: CADÁVERES DE ANIMALES Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    18. 18. 2.- FOOD CHAINS <ul><li>Food chains show how food passes through different living things in an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Food chains usually consist of a producer, a primary consumer and a secondary consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>Food chains are longer when one secondary consumer becomes food for another </li></ul><ul><li>secondary consumer. This secondary consumer is called a tertiary consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>Food chains are not the only ways in which living things relate to each other. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    19. 19. FOOD CHAINS: EXAMPLES Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    20. 20. ACTIVITIES Teaching suggestions 1. • With books closed, ask: What is one of the most important relationships between living things? (Food.) • With books open, play . Students follow the text in their books. • In pairs, students write short notes about each category: Producers: make their own food. Mainly plants and algae. • Conduct feedback with the class. Then ask: Which category do humans belong to? (Secondary consumers.) Why? Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    21. 21. 3.- Parasitism, mutualism and competition These are three other ways in which living things relate to each other . Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    22. 22. PARASITISM <ul><li>A.- Parasitism. This relationship is harmful for the host. </li></ul><ul><li>One living thing, a parasite, lives off another, its host. </li></ul><ul><li>As the parasite feeds,it harms the host. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, the Mistletoe which grows on trees feeds on sap. </li></ul>HOST: HUÉSPED MISTLETOE: MUÉRDAGO Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    23. 23. MUTUALISM <ul><li>B.-Muatualism </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship is beneficial for two living things. For example, some small African birds feed on the parasitic insects. The insects feed on herbivores. </li></ul><ul><li>When the birds feed on the insects, they free the herbivores from the parasites </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    24. 24. COMPETITION <ul><li>C.- Competition </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship is harmful for all species. For example, several species </li></ul><ul><li>may need the same resource : food, refuge, or light. Trees in forests compete for sunlight. Some receive more light and grow tall. Others receive less light and die. </li></ul>Trees in forests compete for sunlight. Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    25. 25. Summary and Activities <ul><li>SUMMARY </li></ul><ul><li>Living things can be divided into producers, consumers and decomposers. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships among living things can be represented by food chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Other relationships are parasitism, mutualism and competition. </li></ul><ul><li>1.-Complete : If a living thing ..., it is a ... </li></ul><ul><li>a. makes its own food b. feeds on the remains of living things c. feeds on a producer </li></ul><ul><li>1. producer 2. primary consumer 3. secondary consumer </li></ul><ul><li>2.-Describe this food chain with a diagram. Use diagram as a model. </li></ul><ul><li>grass grasshopper lizard </li></ul><ul><li>3 Define the relationship between mosquitoes and human beings with one word. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer key </li></ul><ul><li>1. a – 1; b – 3; decomposer; c – 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2. grass (producer) > </li></ul><ul><li>grasshopper (primary consumer) > </li></ul><ul><li>lizard (secondary consumer) </li></ul><ul><li>3. parasitism </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    27. 27. 1.- What’s the environment? <ul><li>It’s all the circumstances, living things </li></ul><ul><li>and habitats with which a living thing interacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Environment refers to: </li></ul><ul><li>living things </li></ul><ul><li>physical features </li></ul><ul><li>soil </li></ul><ul><li> water </li></ul><ul><li>air </li></ul><ul><li>climate </li></ul>Rabbit environment. It consists of everything that affects the rabbit: physical environment and other living things. Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    28. 28. 2.- POLLUTION <ul><li>The contamination of air, soil or water with harmful substances is called pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>• The combustion of oil or coal pollutes the air. </li></ul><ul><li>• Insecticides pollute the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>• Urban and industrial waste pollutes rivers and oceans. </li></ul><ul><li>• Pollution can change ecosystems. </li></ul>COAL:CARBÓN OIL: ACEITE TO DUMP: TIRAR Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    29. 29. 3.- GLOBAL WARMING <ul><li>Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere maintains heat on the Earth. Life on Earth is possible thanks to this heat. </li></ul><ul><li>The atmosphere lets light in but does not let heat out. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called the greenhouse effect. </li></ul><ul><li>There is much more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere now. Consequently, the Earth’s temperature is increasing because more heat is retained in the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called global warming. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    30. 30. 4.-EXTINCTION <ul><li>Pollution and global warming can cause species to become extinct. Today many species are endangered. </li></ul><ul><li>All species depend on other species in food chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, if one species becomes extinct, other species can become extinct too. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    31. 31. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>4.- Copy the following statements on the board and discuss them with the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings affect, and are affected by the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution changes the physical environment and affects living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming affects many ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>All species are part of a food chain: they are dependent on each other. </li></ul><ul><li>5.- Three of the following are in danger of extinction. One is extinct. Which one? </li></ul><ul><li>giant armadillo; Asian elephant; dodo ;Iberian lynx </li></ul><ul><li>6.-What things do we use every day that produce carbon dioxide? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer Key: dodo / M.A. cars, buses, heaters </li></ul><ul><li>1.-Complete: The environment consists of ... </li></ul><ul><li>2.-True or false: If one species disappears, others may also disappear. </li></ul><ul><li>3.-Describe diagram . Complete the sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and ... b. These gases keep heat ... c. The atmosphere gets ... </li></ul><ul><li>Answer key </li></ul><ul><li>1. … nature and all the ecosystems on </li></ul><ul><li>earth. 2. True. 3. a. … gases trap heat </li></ul><ul><li>in the atmosphere; b. … from escaping; </li></ul><ul><li>c. … warmer </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    32. 32. TOPIC D.- ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    33. 33. 1.-ENVIROMENTAL AWARENESS <ul><li>Around sixty years ago, environmentalists began to realise that the environment was in danger. There were fewer wildlife areas and many more endangered species. </li></ul><ul><li>Today many people belong to environmental organisations. They try to protect the environment. In some countries, environmental political parties have also appeared. </li></ul>Ecologists from WWF/Adena use seeds from wild plants to provide vegetation in areas with few plants. Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    34. 34. 2.- WILDLIFE PRESERVES <ul><li>Wildlife preserves are areas where laws protect the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The vegetation and fauna in these preserves are protected. </li></ul><ul><li>Preserves can be established by different levels of government: for example, national or municipal. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments can protect the environment </li></ul><ul><li>in several ways. For example, they can protect an area. </li></ul><ul><li>Building, cutting down trees or other activities which harm the environment can be prohibited </li></ul>Lake Enol, Picos de Europa National Park. The first national park in Spain. It was created in 1918. Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    35. 35. 3.- ENDANGERED SPECIES <ul><li>Endangered animals need special protection to survive. For example, laws can protect animal habitats from destruction or prohibit hunting during breeding season. </li></ul><ul><li>Some species are already so endangered that more drastic measures are necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Wild animals may also be kept in zoos or special places so they can reproduce in captivity. </li></ul>Protected species. Iberian lynx can reproduce in captivity. This may help them survive. Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    36. 36. 4.- FIGHTING POLLUTION <ul><li>Pollution can be fought at several levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Individual. We can reduce pollution if we use less electricity because the power station will use less fuel to produce it. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should recycle rubbish. For example, classify rubbish for recycling as glass, packaging or paper. Then deposit each type in the appropriate bin. </li></ul><ul><li>National . Countries can pass laws to limit industrial pollution . For example: </li></ul><ul><li>– create water treatment plants for sewage and industrial waste </li></ul><ul><li>– limit and monitor smoke produced by industries and home heating units </li></ul><ul><li>Governments should also encourage the use of non-polluting sources of energy, such as solar or wind power. </li></ul><ul><li>International. Treaties can reduce global warming. The countries which signed the Kyoto Protocol are reducing the amount of carbon dioxide they release into the atmosphere. </li></ul>international treaty: an agreement between two or more states. Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    37. 37. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>1.-What environmental organisations do you know? </li></ul><ul><li>2.-Which actions can protect endangered animal species? </li></ul><ul><li>a. Put animals in zoos. b. Prohibit hunting. c. Protect animal habitats. d. All of these. </li></ul><ul><li>3.-If we save electricity, how will we reduce pollution? </li></ul><ul><li>4 .-How are the signers of the Kyoto Protocol fighting pollution? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer key </li></ul><ul><li>1. Greenpeace, WWF, Adena </li></ul><ul><li>2. d </li></ul><ul><li>3. Power stations will use less fuel </li></ul><ul><li>4. By reducing the amount of carbon </li></ul><ul><li>dioxide released into the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>1. • Write the following words on the </li></ul><ul><li>board: World Wildlife Fund, </li></ul><ul><li>Greenpeace, Adena. Ask: What are </li></ul><ul><li>they? (Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>organisations.) </li></ul><ul><li>2. • Focus attention on the definition </li></ul><ul><li>of nature reserves. Students then </li></ul><ul><li>discuss reserves (national and </li></ul><ul><li>natural parks) that they know. </li></ul><ul><li>• Ask: Why aren’t all the natural </li></ul><ul><li>spaces around us nature reserves? </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit that land is also needed for </li></ul><ul><li>industrial development, housing, </li></ul><ul><li>agriculture, forestry, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>• Say: Suggest other ways that an </li></ul><ul><li>area can be protected. </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari
    38. 38. LINKS <ul><li>ECOSYSTEM S </li></ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHY FOR KIDS </li></ul><ul><li>BITEZICE SCIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>SCIENCE RESOURCES </li></ul>Daniela Andrea Ayala Molinari I hope you enjoy this unit!!! http://maestraconpdi.blogspot.com http://english4childrentoday.blogspot.com
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