He was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator from the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy, whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. Between 1492 and 1503, Columbus completed four round-trip voyages between Spain and the Americas, all of them under the sponsorship of the Crown of Castile. These voyages marked the beginning of the European exploration and colonization of the American continents, and are thus of enormous significance in Western history. Columbus himself always insisted, in the face of mounting evidence to the contrary, that the lands that he visited during those voyages were part of the Asian continent, as previously described by Marco Polo and other European travelers. Columbus's refusal to accept that the lands he had visited and claimed for Spain were not part of Asia might explain, in part, why the American continent was named after the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci and not after Columbus.
In 1499, Alonso de Ojeda sailed from The Port of Cádiz, with the company of the famous cartographer Juan de la Cosa and Amergo Vespucci , who later on pointed out that the discovered lands weren’t in the East, they were a new Continent. Ojeda discovered the Sweet River (nowadays Essequibo, in Guyana), and the Orinoco Delta and Trinidad.
ALONSO DE OJEDA VOYAGES FIRST AND SECOND VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA (1499) AND (1502) VOGAGE TO NEW ANDALUCIA
Pinzón was a Spanish navigator, explorer, and a conqueror, the youngest of the Pinzón brothers. Along with his older brother Martín Alonso Pinzón who captained the Pinta , he sailed with Christopher Columbus on the first voyage to the New World in 1492, as the captain of Niña .
Martin Alonso Pinzón often disobeyed the orders of Columbus during the voyage to the Americas (1492-1493). Contrary to Columbus' orders, he sailed off on his own near Cuba, trying to make his own discoveries and find treasures (gold, silver, and spices). He returned to meet Columbus a few months later, when the fleet was to sail back to Spain. Upon his return, he found the Niña, but the Santa María had been wrecked. During the trip home, he left the fleet once again; he tried to race home to Spain in order to beat Columbus and become famous. Columbus reached Spain first.
In 1499 Pinzón sailed to the South American coast. Carried by a strong storm, he reached the north coast of what today is Brazil on January 26, 1500. Pinzón disembarked on the shore called Praia do Paraíso, in present-day Cabo de Santo Agostinho of the state of Pernambuco. According to the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) between Spain and Portugal, Spain could make no claim, but the place was named Cabo de Santa María de la Consolación by Pinzón. He also sighted the Amazon River and ascended to a point about fifty miles from the sea. He called it the "Río Santa María de la Mar Dulce", thus becoming the first explorer to discover an estuary of the Amazon River. Pinzón is considered the discoverer of the Oiapoque River.
He was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conqueror. He is best known for having crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513, becoming the first European to lead an expedition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World.
He travelled to the New World in 1500 and, after some exploration, settled on the island of Hispaniola. He founded the settlement of Santa María la Antigua del Darién in present-day Colombia in 1510, which was the first permanent European settlement on the mainland of the Americas (a settlement by Alonso de Ojeda the previous year when San Sebastián de Urabá had already been abandoned).
He served as navigator on expeditions to the Yucatan in 1506-1507 and Brazil in 1508 with Vicente Yáñez Pinzón. He became a Pilot-Major of Spain in 1512 following the death of Amerigo Vespucci, and was commissioned to update the Padrón Real with Juan Vespucci. Two years later, Díaz de Solís prepared an expedition to explore the southern part of the new continent. His three ships and crew of 70 men sailed from Sanlucar de Barrameda on October 8, 1515. He followed the eastern coast as far as the mouth of the Río de la Plata. He reached and named the Río de la Plata in 1516, sailing up the river to the confluence of the Uruguay River and Paraná River with two officers and seven men.
The little party had not proceeded far when they were attacked by local indians Charrúa. The survivors of the crew reported Díaz de Solís that most of the other men were killed, thus putting the expedition to an end. His brother-in-law, Francisco de Torres, took charge of the ships and returned to Spain.
VASCO NUÑEZ DE BALBOA VOYAGE (1513) GOING RETURN
He was a Portuguese explorer. He was born in Sabrosa, in northern Portugal, but later on he obtained the Spanish nationality in order to serve King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands" (modern Maluku Islands in Indonesia).
Magellan's expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean (then named "peaceful sea" by Magellan; the passage being made via the Strait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. It also completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth, although Magellan himself did not complete the entire voyage, due to he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines. Magellan had, however, travelled eastwards to the Malay Peninsula on an earlier voyage, so he became one of the first explorers to cross all of the meridians of the globe. There were 237 men who set out on five ships and only 18 completed the circumnavigation and managed to return to Spain in 1522, led by the Basque Spaniard navigator Juan Sebastián El Cano, who took over command of the expedition after Magellan's death. Seventeen other men arrived Spain later: twelve men were captured by the Portuguese in Cape Verde, and five of them were survivors of the Trinidad .
He was a Spanish explorer and conqueror who, while leading the first European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States, was the first European documented to have crossed the Mississippi River.