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104774162 mb0043-mb0043-–human-resource-management-november-2012 104774162 mb0043-mb0043-–human-resource-management-november-2012 Document Transcript

  • Summer/ May 2012Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 1MB0043 –Human Resource Management - 4 Credits(Book ID:B1132)Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.Q1.What are the objectives of job evaluation?Ans : Objectives of Job EvaluationThe decision to measure or rate jobs should only be made with the intent to reach certainobjectives which are important to both management and the employee. Although there aremany side benefits of job evaluation, the purpose is to work towards a solution of the manywage and compensation related administrative problems which confront the industry. Thebelow-mentioned are some of the important objectives of a job evaluation programme:1. Establishment of sound salary differentials between jobs differentiated on the skillsrequired.2. Identification and elimination of salary-related inequities.3. Establishment of sound foundation for variable pay such as incentive and bonus.4. Maintenance of a consistent career and employee growth policy/ guidelines.5. In organizations with active unions, creation of a method of job classification, so thatmanagement and union officials may deal with major and fundamental wage issues duringnegotiations and grievance meetings.6. Collection of job factsa) Selection of employeesb) Promotion and transfer of employeesc) Training of new employeesd) Assignment of tasks to jobse) Improving working conditions
  • f) Administrative organization, andg) Work simplification.There are many established methods to carry out job evaluation in a scientific manner. Afour-fold system of classifying evaluation systems is presented here. Two are described asnon-quantitative and two as quantitative.1. Non-quantitative evaluation measures,a. The ranking system.b. The job-classification system.2. Quantitative evaluation measures.a. The point system.b. The factor-comparison system.Q2.What are the major problems faced in benefits management?Ans : Major problems faced in benefits managementOne of the main problems faced by management in organizations is the need to maintain acompetitive advantage. With the global economic climate it has been difficult for companiesand organizations to keep up with their rivals, let alone better them. Corporate culture is oneresponsibility that management need to adhere to because it is vital when you want tosucceed in business. It creates a sense of innovation and productivity as opposed to a morenegative culture which may stifle employees and detrimentally affect job gratification. Inaddition, managers have a huge responsibility for guiding the organization in the rightdirection as they are the prime decision makers. Managers have to make the plans andorganize their employees and resources in order to put the organization in a direction that willgrant them success. Most modern management take on a strategic management style whichinitially states the main aim of the particular mission which follows by the processes that willbe carried out on a day-to-day basis.
  • Moreover, one of the most important aspects that a good manager requires is solidcommunication skills. It is very likely in business that you are going to come into contactwith conflicting styles of communication, however it is the managers job to be aware of thisas well as their own style. They need to be able to enforce their own style of communicationwhile being able to adapt to others, especially if they are consulting with other organisationsand companies.Some of the basic problems faced by management are1: How to produce a qualitative product:This is the first problem faced by management that what is to produce, how much to produceand where to be produce. And the organization has to decide either they have to producedifferent products or to emphasis on one product.2: How to deal the labour union:The labour is the group of people working for the betterment of the employees working in theorganization. The management has to decide that how to full fill the demands of the labourunion in respect of salaries, bonuses, insurance, medical allowances, fringe benefits etc.3: How to compete in the market:Various decisions for example how to charge the price, how to place the product, how topromote the product has to be taken by the management and they try to solve these problemsin a best manner.4: How to utilize the organization resources:The management made various decisions about the organization resources that is man,money, material, machinery, market and methodology.5: To avoid stick out situation:Stock out situation is that situation when the customer demands for the product and thecompany has no product at that time. The management has to decide how to tackle thisproblem.Q3.State the major career development activities found in organizations. Career Development:
  • Although scholars have defined career development (CD) in a variety of ways, Simonsen‟s(1997) definition will be used as the foundation for the proposed framework:Career development is an ongoing process of planning and directed action toward personalwork and life goals. Development means growth, continuous acquisition and application ofone‟s skills. Career development is the outcome of the individual‟s career planning and theorganization‟s provision of support and opportunities, ideally a collaborative process. . .(Simonsen as cited in Simonsen, 1997, pp. 6-7)This definition recognizes that career development is ongoing, that it involves reciprocalinteraction between employee and employer, and that attainment and/ or enhancement ofindividual capabilities are not restricted to a particular job, career path, or organization.This definition and the framework that follows are predicated on a few essential assumptions.• HRD remains integral to the career-development process. The HRD function is uniquelypositioned to integrate the interests of employees with the needs of the system, stayingattuned to the strategic plans of the organization while remaining cognizant of the free agentnature of the employer employee relationship (Boudreaux, 2001; Swanson & Holton, 2001;van Dijk, 2004).• The return on investment of career development must be considered to gain organizationalinterest in expanding CD efforts. However, the potential value of career development toorganizational success depends on how well the system supports the career developmentprocess in terms of resources allotted and priority assigned to career development endeavors.For example, when small systems find their minimal resources stretched, career developmentmay languish so that seemingly more urgent needs, like mandatory training, can be addressed(Kuchinke, 2003).Larger systems simply may choose to focus on more high profile initiatives, like organizationdevelopment, rather than invest resources in career development in this era of uncertainloyalties. Yet, one of the advantages of less structured learning activities is that they often areembedded within daily work. As a result, they can be implemented with little financialinvestment while contributing to the success of other endeavors, like organizationdevelopment.• Career development should not be restricted to a select few or to those at particular levelswithin the system. Conlon (2004) addresses this by noting both the practical as well as theethical aspect of this premise. As organizations become flatter, a broad-based, well-developedworkforce will be essential to meet their current and future needs. Ironically, although theHRD literature has routinely discussed “management development” as separate from “careerdevelopment,” much of what traditionally has been described as “career development” hastargeted managerial-level employees and excluded those in non management tracks(McDonald, Hite, & Gilbreath, 2002).• Career development can be both formal and informal and may take place within and outsideof the organization. For example, Gilley et al. (2002) describe an “effective career
  • development program” (p. 63) as one that includes a variety of experiences in addition toclassroom training, citing for example, “self-directed learning projects and involvement inprofessional organizations and associations” (p. 63).• Individual life and work priorities influence choices about careers and developmentopportunities. In some instances, the choice is one of focusing on intrinsic rather thanextrinsic rewards to define career success and satisfaction (Forret & Sullivan, 2002). Inothers, the decision may be based less on a quest for a balanced life and/or work experienceand more on necessity.Hite and McDonald (2003) found that women often make career choices based on theirfamily responsibilities, sometimes choosing to curtail their career progress to accommodatefamily roles and expectations.A Strategic HRD Framework for Career Development.Most HRD practitioners and scholars would argue that HRD needs to be represented indetermining the strategic direction of organizations. Fewer would agree that HRD typically ispresent at the strategic planning table.However HRD‟s presence is critical in determining a company‟s role and responsibilityregarding employees‟ careers. It also is important so career development is not considered astand-alone program, but rather as a process that is integrated into the system such that itinfluences the strategic direction of the organization (Gilley et al., 2002). Gutteridge,Leibowitz, and Shore (1993) advocate for companies to incorporate career development intotheir strategic plans by recommending a systems approach. Specifically, they suggest thatcareer development be viewed as a way of achieving important business objectives and thatemployee and organizational needs be aligned when planning career-development processes.Hall (2002) reinforces the need for career development endeavors to be “managed andintegrated” to yield maximum benefits to individuals and the system (p. 284). Simonsen(1997) echoes the recommendation that career development be “driven by business needs”and proposes that organizations need to develop both a vision and a philosophy of careerdevelopment (p. 181).The overarching question at the strategic planning table is as follows:What should the organization‟s philosophy be regarding career development and how, giventoday‟s environment, should this be enacted? Doyle (2000) suggests that a strategy “based onformalized career structures and systems is unlikely to cope with the diversity and„messiness‟ that is likely to characterize career management in the future” (p. 239). Rather, astrategy is needed that is sensitive to the contextual elements that influence CD andrecognizes the need for innovative ways to learn and develop given the current nature ofwork and organizations.
  • HRD practitioners are well positioned to shape a system that is less paternalistic andcontrolling and that focuses more on the partnership approach that fosters employee self-development while still meeting organizational needs. As the planning evolves fromdeveloping a philosophy and determining goals, a framework may help guide professionals asthey work to implement and integrate career development into the organization (see Figure1).We suggest three critical elements to consider in this process: organizational supportmechanisms, learning activities, and evaluation processes.The arrows in the figure indicate that each component of the framework will influence and beinfluenced by the other. For example, the organizational support mechanisms will influencewhat learning activities are developed and nurtured in the organization. In turn, the learningactivities will affect organizational support mechanisms (e.g., networks and community-based learning may assist employees in dealing with work-family conflicts). Organizationalsupport mechanisms will influence what is evaluated regarding CD and how it is evaluated.The evaluation process also should determine if organizational support mechanisms assistemployees and the organization in achieving career-development objectives.Q4.Explain the need for human resource planning. Need for human resource planning Human resource planning system is a mandatory part of every organization‟sannual planning process. Every organization that plans for its business goals for the year alsoplan how it will go about achieving them, and therein the planning for the human resources:1. To carry on its work, each organization needs competent staff with the necessaryqualification, skills, knowledge, work experience and aptitude of work.2. Since employees exit and organization both naturally(As a result of superannuation) and unnaturally (as a result of resignation), there is an on-going need for hiring replacement staff to augment employee exit. Otherwise work would beimpacted.3. In order to meet for the more employees due to organizational growth and expansion, thisis turn call for large quantities of the same goods and services as well as new goods. Thisgrowth could be rapid or gradual depending on the nature of the business, its competitors, itsposition in the market and the general economy.
  • 4. Often organization might need to replace the nature of the present workforce as a result ofits changing needs, therefore the need to hire new set of employees. To meet the challengesof the changed needs of technology/product/service innovation the existing employees needto be trained or new skills sets induced into the organization.5. Manpower planning is also needed in order to identify an organizations need to reduce itsworkforce. In situation where the organization is faced with severe revenue and growthlimitation it might need to plan well to manage how it will workforce. Options such asredeployment and outplacement can be planned for and executed properly.Q5.What are the factors that impact recruitment in organizations? The sources of employee‘s recruitment can be classified into two types: Internal and external Filing a job opening from within the firm has advantages of stimulating preparation forpossible transfer of promotion, increasing the general level of morale, and providing moreinformation about job candidates through analysis of work histories within the organization.A job posting has number of advantages. From the view point of employee, it providesflexibility and greater control over career progress. The jobs posted on notice boards, groupemails and publishing in internal news papers. Internal applications often restricted to certainemployees, the guidelines for companies include:-Good or better in most recent performancereview-Dependable attendance record-Not under probationary sanction-Having been inpresent position for at least one year. The personnel department acts as a clearing house inscreening applications that are unrealistic, preventing an excess number of bids by asingle employee and counseling unsuccessful employees in their constant attempt to changetheir jobs. Similarly the firm may go to external sources for recruitment of lower entry jobs,for expansion, and positions whose specifications cannot be met by the present personnel.The following external resources are available for firms: a) Advertising:There is a trend toward more selective recruitment in advertising. This can be affected in atleast two ways. First advertisements can be placed in media read only by particular groups.
  • Secondly, more information about the company, the job, and the job specification canbe included in the ad to permit some self-screening. b) Employment Agencies:Additional screening can be affected through the utilization of employment agencies, bothpublic and private. Today, in contrast to their former unsavory reputation, the publicemployment agencies in several states are well-regarded, particularly in the fieldsof unskilled semi-skilled and skilled operative jobs. In the technical and professional areas,however, the private agencies tend to specialize in a particular engineer. c) Employee Referrals:Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees maybe drawn. When the labour market is very tight, large employers frequently offer theiremployees bonus or prizes for any referrals that are hired and stay with the company for aspecific length of time. Some companies maintain a register of former employees whoserecord was good to contact them when there are new job openings for which they arequalified. This method of recruitment, however, suffers from a serious defect that itencouragesnepotism, i.e. Persons of one„s community or caste are employed, who may or mayNot be fit for the job. d) Schools, colleges and professional institutions:These offer opportunities for recruiting their students. They will also have separate placementcell where the bio data and other particulars of the students are available. The prospectiveemployers can review credentials and interview candidates for management trainees orprobationers. This is an excellent source of potential employees for entry-level positions inthe organizations. e) Labour Unions:Firms which closed or union shops must look to the union in their recruitment efforts.This has disadvantage of monopolistic workforce. f) Casual applicants:Unsolicited applications, both at the gate and through the mail, constitute a much-used sourceof personnel. These can be developed through attractive employment office facilities, promptand courteous reply to unsolicited letters. g) Professional organizations or recruiting firms or executive recruiters:Maintain complete records about employed executives. These firms are looked upon asheadhunters, raiders and pirates by organizations may employ―executive search firms‖ to
  • help them find talent. These consulting firms recommend persons of high calibre formanagerial, marketing and production engineers„ posts. h) Indoctrination seminars for collegesAre arranged to discuss the problem of companies and employees. Professors are invited totake part of these seminars. Visits to plants are arranged so that professors may be favourablyimpressed. They may speak well of a company and help it in getting the required personnel. i) Unconsolidated applications:For positions in which large numbers of candidates are not available from other sources, thecompanies may gain keeping files of applications received from candidates who make directenquiries about the possible vacancies on their own, or may send unsolicited applications.This would be helpful to firms for future vacancies. j) Nepotism:The hiring of relatives will be an inevitable component of recruitment programmes in family-owned firms, such a policy does not necessarily coincide with hiring on the basis of merit, butinterest and loyalty to the enterprise are offsetting advantages. k) Leasing:To adjust to short term fluctuations in personnel needs, the possibility of leasing personnel bythe hour or day should be considered. This principle has been particularly well developed inthe office administration field because they can avoid any obligation in pensions, insuranceand any other fringe benefits. l) Voluntary Organizations:Such as private clubs, social organizations might also provide employees – handicaps,widowed or married women, old persons, retired hands etc. In response to advertisements. m) Computer Data Banks:When a company desires a particular type of employees, job specifications and requirementsare fed to computers, where they are matched against data stored in. This method is veryuseful in identifying candidates for hard-t-fit positions which calls for unusual combinationsof skills.
  • Q6. Assume yourself as an HR Manager. You have been given the responsibility ofpromoting the rightful employees. For this, performance appraisal of the employees must becarried out. What appraisal method would you choose? Justify.A performance appraisal, employee appraisal, performance review, or (career)development discussion is a method by which the job performance ofan employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost, and time) typically bythe corresponding manager or supervisor. A performance appraisal is a part of guiding andmanaging career development. It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recordinginformation about the relative worth of an employee to the organization. Performanceappraisal is an analysis of an employees recent successes and failures, personal strengths andweaknesses, and suitability for promotion or further training. It is also the judgement of anemployees performance in a job based on considerations other than productivity alone.AimsGenerally, the aims of a performance appraisal are to: Give employees feedback on performance Identify employee training needs Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases, promotions, disciplinary actions, bonuses, etc. Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development Facilitate communication between employee and employer Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements. To improve performance through counseling, coaching and development.MethodsA common approach to assessing performance is to use a numerical or scalar rating systemwhereby managers are asked to score an individual against a number of objectives/attributes.In some companies, employees receive assessments from their manager, peers, subordinates,and customers, while also performing a self assessment. This is known as a 360-degreeappraisal and forms good communication patterns.The most popular methods used in the performance appraisal process include the following: Management by objectives
  •  360-degree appraisal Behavioral observation scale Behaviorally anchored rating scalesTrait-based systems, which rely on factors such as integrity and conscientiousness, are alsoused by businesses but have been replaced primarily by more objective and results-orientedmethods. The scientific literature on the subject provides evidence that assessing employeeson factors such as these should be avoided. The reasons for this are twofold:1) Trait-based systems are by definition based on personality traits and as such may not berelated directly to successful job performance. In addition, personality dimensions tend tobe static, and while an employee can change a behavior they cannot change their personality.For example, a person who lacks integrity may stop lying to a manager because they havebeen caught, but they still have low integrity and are likely to lie again when the threat ofbeing caught is gone.2) Trait-based systems, because they are vague, are more easily influenced by office politics,causing them to be less reliable as a source of information on an employees trueperformance. The vagueness of these instruments allows managers to assess the employeebased upon subjective feelings instead of objective observations about how the employee hasperformed his or her specific duties. These systems are also more likely to leave a companyopen to discrimination claims because a manager can make biased decisions without havingto back them up with specific behavioral information. People differ in their abilities and their aptitudes. There is always some difference between the quality and quantity of the same work on the same job being done by two different people. Performance appraisals of Employees are necessary to understand each employee‟s abilities, competencies and relative merit and worth for the organization. Performance appraisal rates the employees in terms of their performance. Performance appraisals are widely used in the society. The history can be dated back to the 20th century and then to the second world war when the merit rating was used for the first time. An employer evaluating their employees is a very old concept.It is an indispensable part of performance measurement. Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims. The latest mantra being followed by organizations across the world being – "get paid according to what you contribute" – the focus of the organizations is turning to performance management and specifically to individual performance. Performance appraisal helps to rate the performance of the employees and evaluate their contribution towards the organizational goals. If the process of performance appraisals is formal and properly structured, it helps the employees to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and give direction to the individual‟s performance. It helps to align the individual performances with the organizational goals and also review their performance. Performance appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and
  • focuses on the improvement of the future performance of the employees. Here at naukri hub, we attempt to provide an insight into the concept of performance appraisal, the methods and approaches of performance appraisal, sample performance appraisal forms and the appraisal softwares available etc. An attempt has been made to study the current global trends in performance appraisal.Summer/ May 2012Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 1MB0043 –Human Resource Management - 4 Credits(Book ID:B1132)Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.Q1.What are the objectives of human relations?Ans : Objectives of Human Relations:A human Relations Programme thereby attempts at enhancing employee motivation andworkplace morale through an improved three-way communications and through employeeparticipation in the decision making processes. Human relations seek to emphasise employeeaspects of work rather than technical or economic aspects. For example while it might be inthe best interest of an organization to have a employee skilled and completely proficient in
  • one job/ set or responsibilities, today‟ s organization provides‟ opportunities for employeesto multi-skill and acquire knowledge of new yet related jobs/responsibilities. These acts as amotivator for employees as they benefit by learning new skills / jobs and given anopportunity can perform and excel in another job. It also seeks to make employment andworking conditions less impersonal. The human relations approach emphasises policies andtechniques designed to improve employee morale and job satisfaction. For example it iscommon place in organizations to provide for / encourage employee empowerment where-inthe team brings about creative measures to reduce cost/ improve customer satisfaction. Suchteams design and implement self-driven initiatives to bring about the business result. It isbelieved that this is accompanied by increased employee efficiency and reduction inemployee dissatisfaction.An understanding of emerging workplace human behaviour can be summarised as:i) Assist the manager to develop a better realization of how his own attitudes and behaviourplay a part in everyday affairs of the team and its morale;ii) Assist the manager to develop a keener sensitivity towards the team members andinterpersonal dynamicsiii) Partner with the managers in helping him drive the business goals and take part ownershipof work challenges and how best to resolve themiv) Enable him to anticipate and prevent problems, or at least to resolve more effectivelythose that he cannot avoid; andv) Network with other teams with related dependencies and help resolve inter-team businessimpacting challengesThis Scope of Human Relations springs up from the problems which have many differentcauses and perspectives. Halloran has stated these as:• Every person brings a unique set of talents, ambitions and work experience to a job.These personal attributes change over time, often as a result of the degree of success orfailure the person experiences in the work world. Matching so many unique sets of personalqualities to a standardized technology can create problems.
  • • The organizational aspects of a company, such as its size, geographic location,economic health, and degree of automation, define the scope of work and the activity in eachwork division. These frequently arbitrary, structural definitions often cause difficulties inhuman relations.• Innovations in technology and production methods generally require the restructuringof job roles and responsibilities. Radical changes in basic organizational structure can causesevere strains between employees and management and create intense problems in humanrelations.• Promotion of individuals to positions of greater responsibility and authority generallycreates a need for changed behaviour patterns between the new supervisors and their formerpeers, which in time, can create human relations problems.• Inexperienced employees may not be able to perform their roles or tasks in workgroups in a competent manner. The time they take to adjust can not only create problems withproduction schedules, but can also create particular kinds of human relations problemsbetween them and their co-employees and supervisors.The variety of causes of human relations problems lead to the conclusion that no oneprogramme or single approach can create conditions for good human relations. Therefore, asshared earlier it in common for organizations and individuals in organization to constantlyinnovate and resolve challenges that will benefit both the organization as well as theemployee.This helps understand the key HR objectives which can be best illustrated by understandingthe functions that HR attempts to fulfil in any organization:i) Human Resource Planning – estimating the need for resources in order achieve the desiredbusiness results. HR plans can be both short term/immediate as well as long term / strategic.
  • The HR team partners with the line managers to understand the business goals and targets forthe year and then together plan the HR needs in order to meet the goals.ii) Acquisition of human resources – staffing the organizations with the right mix of skillsand competencies at the right time. It also includes HR initiatives like promotions andinternal job posting to fulfil this requirement for human resources. Staffing teams inorganizations are usually a separate group of specialists who work closely with the linemanagers to understand the skills and competencies needed for the job and engage together toselect the best talent for the open positions.iii) Training and employee development – focuses on managing training activities to upgradeskills and knowledge as well as soft skills like team building and leadership. The trainingteam is again a group of HR specialists who propose the training program and consult withthe line managers to ensure that the program achieves the desired outcomes.iv) Building performance management systems – focuses on the right processes to set goalsfor performance as individuals/teams and related measurement methods. This is a core HRactivity and is supported by the HR generalistv) Reward systems – establishing appropriate compensation systems and reward mechanismsthat would reward the desired outcome and results in accordance with the corporate values.This again forms a part of the HR generalist‟ s tasks. How employees progress in aorganization how they are paid w.r.t. internal and external market factors, what employeebenefits are offered, are some aspect that this function redresses.vi) Human Resources Information Systems that would take care of the operationaltransactions from the time an employee joins till the time the employee exits, like personnelfiles, compensation administration, payroll, benefits administration and issuing letters andtestimonials. This task is supported by as separate HR operations team who act as a HRhelpdesk and provide information to the employees/managers.Q2.Why is it important to handle grievances carefully?Ans : Importance of Grievance Handling: Handling a grievance
  • When dealing with a grievance: ensure youre familiar with the procedure and apply it correctly hold any grievance hearing in private without interruptions where a grievance relates to the persons line manager, ensure that the employee can raise the grievance with someone else listen carefully to the persons explanation of the problem and consider whether there is a deeper issue which might be the root cause of the grievance listen to any conflicting points of view weigh up all evidence to see whether there is an issue you need to address decide what action to take, trying to balance fairness to the person without compromising the business or other workers inform all concerned parties of your decision and the appeal process ensure you resolve any problems relating to policies, procedures or conduct where the grievance procedure highlights these keep the process as confidential as possible Deal with grievances sensitively, particularly where they concern
  • Other workersYou may wish to develop specific procedures for very sensitive matters involving unfairtreatment e.g., discrimination, bullying or harassment. . Consider also having a separate"whistle blowing" procedure, so that workers are encouraged to raise any complaints aboutwrongdoing eg fraud, internally rather than disclosing them outside the business. If a workerraises a separate grievance during a disciplinary hearing, its good practice to adjourn thehearing until the grievance is dealt with. By dealing with problems in a fair and reasonablemanner, youre much less likely to lose valued and skilled staff through resignation. It willalso help you successfully defend a constructive dismissal claim.Q3.How can we evaluate the effectiveness of training programs conducted in organizations? Training Evaluation and Organizational Performance (Level Four) The foremost strengths of a particular T&D evaluation model are especially those thatemphasize the role of T&D on organisation performance and show a ROI from T&D. Theseperceptions are found in the Kirkpatrick evaluation model, which introduces the relationship between T&D evaluation and organisation performance. Assessing level four of the Kirkpatrick evaluation model demonstrates these important features. Valued results are connected to the organisational performance measurements, such as ROI,changes in productivity, quality improvement, customer satisfaction and market share (Miller2002). Continuous training programmes are essential for achieving higher productivity, better on the job performance and improved quality (Tennant, Boonkrong & Roberts 2002). These social scientists also pointed out that Japanese organisations emphasise the roles of training more than USA and European manufacturing organisations. This is revealed in the automotive sector with 380.3 training hours per year for Japanese workers, compared with 46.4 for USA workers and 173.3 for European workers. This heavy investment in T&D has led to dramatic performance improvement, in terms of cost, quality and delivery in Japanese organisations. Horwitz (1999) contends that T&D contributes to the organisations performance, success and competitiveness through providing the capacity to enhance individual abilities and competencies as necessary requirements for effective organisational performance. Armstrong (1989) also refers to performance related training designed to develop competencies that impact directly on the bottom line by promoting flexibility and supporting innovation. He also argues, that if the learning that is derived from training is not associated with enhanced job performance or raised capability, then the credibility of both HRD specialist and the process are at risk.
  • The effectiveness of T&D programmes on organisational performance improvement is a difficult, vexatious and problematic task. Thus, training professionals have been challenged to document or demonstrate the results of training on organisational performanceimprovement (level four) by using organisational performance impact measures, such as ROI, changes in productivity, customer satisfaction, and quality and market share. In this regard, Muhlemeyer and Clarke (1997) argue that it is difficult to measure the correlation betweenthe implementation of T&D and the overall success of the organisation, especially in the case where the organisations success is measured in financial terms, because there is a little evidence to suggest that training per se can improve the financial performance. Arguably, evaluation should focus on all organisational stakeholders, comprehensively, and on the long-term results, and should also use the most suitable information to make judgments about training effectiveness (Russ & Preskill 2001, Burrow & Berardinelli 2003). It is also suggested that evaluation could be very focused and short term or quitecomprehensive with a focus on the long term results depending on the type of training and its objectives (Russ & Preskill 2001, Collins 2002, Burrow & Berardinelli 2003). Evaluation should be based on a clear identification of the purpose and results expected from theprogramme. Thus, if the programme is designed to respond to a particular problem, or meet a specific requirement, evaluation should be used to determine if that specific goal was successfully achieved and not focus on broader expectations. According to Brinkerhoff(1988), good evaluation is likely to provide convincing evidence that the programme is aimed at important organisational benefits. Specifically, robust evaluations are likely to lead to participants reporting greater job satisfaction, the achievement of important job reverentskills, a gaining of knowledge and improved work attitude as well as effective transference to the job of learned skills acquired from the T&D programme. However, much of the training efforts in organisations are not specifically related to organisational final outcomes.Training Evaluation ModelsIn order to understand how the T&D evaluation stage should be conducted successfully, itneeds to be based on a particular T&D evaluation model. There are many training evaluationapproaches and techniques. However, there are four main complementary evaluationframeworks: (a) Kirkpatrick, (b) the Bell system, (c) Parker, and (d) CIRO. However,Kirkpatricks evaluation model is the one most commonly used by many organisations (Hale2003).According to Kirkpatrick (1996), there are four stages to be considered when evaluatingtraining effectiveness: reaction, learning, behaviour and results level. The reaction levelanswers whether people are happy with the training inputs (Hall 2003). It evaluatesparticipants reactions, opinions, impressions and attitudes toward the programme. Thelearning level answers, "what do people remember from the training session?" (Hale 2003).To what extent have the participants learned the material and the particular skills or know
  • how that are contained in the programme? This measurement is made through specialstandardised tests at the end of the programme, such as pre, post, paper and pencil tests, skillpractice, workshops and job simulation. The behaviour level addresses the issue of "whetherpeople use what they know at work?" (Hale 2003), and the changes in the participantsbehaviour, skills, patterns of work, relationships and abilities that are necessary to undertakethe task at hand. These indications could be collected through observations, survey, interviewand comments of supervisors, and colleagues and from performance appraisal reviews.Finally, the results level determines "what are the outcomes of applications on the job over aperiod of time?" (Hale 2003). This level of evaluation focuses on the impact of behaviourchange on the organisations performance. Because changing an employees behaviour andattitudes is not the final objective of T&D, the end results should include important elementssuch as, improved productivity, better quality, lower costs, more speed, fewer accidents,improved morale, lower turnover, and ultimately, more profit and better service. Todetermine the cost efficiency of training, recent ROI is used to establish whether themonetary values of the results exceed the cost of the programme. In this regard, Mann (1996)cited two empirical studies that reviewed the most popular evaluation levels used by USAorganisations when evaluating their training programmes. Both of the studies found that mostof the surveyed organisations (over half) use assessment of their participants reaction andsatisfaction with the programme as the key methods of evaluating training.All of the evaluation models focus on the following important criteria for determiningtraining effectiveness.* Stakeholder perceptions (level one: reaction)* Learning gain (level two: learning)* On the job performance improvement (level three: behaviour)* Organisational improvement and ROI (level four: results).Stakeholder reaction provides insight into trainees motivation and satisfaction, but does notdirectly measure training results. Historically, training was conducted through measuring thenumber of trainees, as well as their perceptions and attitude towards the programme.Nevertheless, while trainees attendances, perceptions, motivation and attitude towards theprogramme are important outcomes of any training programme, there has yet to be reported asignificant relationship between these outcomes and achieving the programme objectives,including improving an organisations performance (Combs & Falletta 2000, Green 2001).Assessing training effectiveness based on trainees perceptions is described by James andRoffe (2000), and Acton and Gloden (2003) as ad hoc, unsystematic, informal andunstructured evaluations of training programmes, which tends to be post training appraisalsrather than approaching the evaluation of training programmes from their design stages.Training effectiveness no longer focuses on trainees perceptions, but is directed at other
  • important factors. These factors incorporate such questions as: Did employee performanceimprove as a result of training? How did training contribute to achieving the organisationscritical goals? (Burrow & Berardinelli 2003). Now there is a stronger acknowledgement forT&D results to be connected to the organisational performance measurements, such as ROI,changes in productivity, quality improvement, customer satisfaction and market share (Miller2002). Alternative outcomes are less valued and valuable. Therefore, of the identifiedevaluation criteria there are two critical and essential levels that affect other evaluation levels,and they are (a) learning gain (acquired skills, competencies, attitudes and capabilities); and(b) on the job performance improvement achieved through changing trainees behaviour andwork patterns, which is often called training transfer. Bramley and Kitson (1994) contend thatthe appropriate training evaluation model is the model that facilitates evaluating the third andfourth levels of the Kirkpatrick evaluation model (behaviour change and results). Thesetraining needs and objectives are defined in terms of the changed behaviour and increasedeffectiveness, rather than just increasing knowledge, skills and abilities. Also, topmanagement and line managers are involved in the whole training process and are able toevaluate the changes in behaviour and effectiveness, which are occurring as a result oftraining.Q4.Explain the general procedures followed in the case of a disciplinary action. Disciplinary ActionThere are varying penalties for first, second, and third offences of the same rule. Amongthe penalties available in business are:1. Oral reprimand2. Written reprimand3. Loss of privileges4. Fines5. Lay off6. Demotion7. DischargeThe penalties are listed in the general order of severity, from mild to severe for most cases,amoral reprimand is sufficient to achieve the desired result. The supervisor must know his orher personnel in determining how to give a reprimand. For one person, a severe “chewingout” may be necessary in order to get attention and co-operation; another person may requireonly a casual mention of a deficiency. If the offence is more serious, the reprimand may beput in written form. Since a written reprimand is more permanent than an oral one, it is
  • considered a more severe penalty. For such offences as tardiness or leaving work withoutpermission, fines or loss of various privileges can be used. The loss of privileges includessuch items as good job assignments, right to select machine or other equipment, and freedomof movement about the workplace or company. The more severe penalties of layoff,demotion, and discharge are usually outside the grant of authority to the immediatesupervisor. Disciplinary layoffs can vary in severity from onetoseveral days‟ loss of work without pay. The use of demotions as a penalty is highlyquestionable. If the employee is properly qualified for the present assignment, he or she will beimproperly placed on a lower job. Discharge is the most severe penalty that a businessorganization can give and constitutes “industrial capital punishment”.Q5.Trace out the growth of Human Resource Management in India. Growth of Human Resource Management in India.Contrary to these forces, in INDIA the owner manager/ government/public sector managerwas an industry icon and a national hero of sorts. The personnel management practices weredominant of the brick- and-motor‟ industry. Though the approach it was largely welfareoriented and reactive in nature it served effectively for the large PSU organizations that builtthe country‟s foundation.A large part of the workforce was migrant from the rural parts of the country and armed witheducational qualifications that served as their passport to a secure future. Many left thecountry to study and pursue career overseas. This phenomenon was called „brain drain‟ andhappened during1990 through 2005. The best of the Indian talent left the country. Per present statistics thereare close to 1.7 million people of Indian origin in AMERICA according to the US censusbureau. The INDIAN AMERICAN median family is $60,093 as against the national medianfamily income of $38,885 left the country, the estimated buying power of the INDIANAMERICANS in the United States is around US $20 billion, the high income clearly reflectsthe advanced educational levels achieved by Indian abroad. Its only in the past 10-12 yearswith the immense growth on account of the IT industry that winds of change began to blow.It was largely the advent of the information technology era in INDIA that brought with it thewestern management practices.MNC‟S started up their operations in INDIA the FDI (FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT)went up steeply as the world saw the potential in the country human resources. In INDIAbecame a preferred location for MNC‟s primarily from the USA followed by othersdeveloped countries. It was natural for the MNC‟s setting up operations in INDIA to establishtheir existing and proven management practices that were successfully working in theorganization back home. It also helped them manage their business similarly.
  • This gave birth to a new generation of management as well as HRMpractices. New hiringmethods new ways of paying salaries, new employment terms and most importantlyincreased focus on individual performance and outcome. There was emphasis on deliverablesand linking individual and team performance to business results and success. Given thehighly educated workforce there was a de-emphasis in the role of the trade unions, the era ofthe trade unions dominance give way to the new order of individual negotiated salaries andterms and clearly performance linked assessment system. Another transformation that theIndian workplace witnessed was focused on the ethics and ethical practices in doing businessit was only fair to except that with the weak legal system, it needed the support of thegovernment policies and the corporate policies to beat the corruption that existed .This hassignificantly contributed to INDIA emerging as a preferred destination for doing business.All of this yielded to give the way to the birth of the „professional manager‟.Professional manager today are a critical and essential part of the INDIAN corporate. Theprofessional manager brought about a shift in the culture from a highly author it Arianapproach of getting work done to more collaborative and participative approach. In thetraditional Indian culture where the child is brought up to dependents on parents andsuperiors these shift was break through and took it time to manifest. The entrepreneurs whoearlier operated in a secure, sheltered market and hardly face challenges , were challenged bythe globalization that swept in with the liberalization policies and measure brought in by theIndian employee and his manager evolved. Together they stopped up to face the challengeshead- on and to win not only in INDIA but also globally. The levers of a) low cost b)highly skilled c) English as the medium of education and it being the corporate language thatenabled the flow of global business to INDIA? Hence human relations movement in INDIAhas evolved very differently as compared to the developed economies of the USA and theUK. What is currently acting as a limitation is the enhanced awareness on the need forresearch based HRM practices. While there is a lot of work happening in education system topromote this.Q6.Assume yourself as an HR Manager of a publishing house. You find that the morale ofthe employees is generally low. What steps would you take to improve employee morale? The motivation techniques may be divided into two parts[a] that is to be done; and[b] how and why what is done.The former are steps in motivation and the later are rules governing the steps. Bothare performed simultaneously.These are listed below: a) Size up situation requiring motivation:
  • The first step of motivation is to make sure of motivational needs. Every employeeneeds motivation; however, all people do not react exactly as the same way to the samestimuli. Keeping this in mind executive shall size up how much and what kindof motivation is needed. b) Prepare a set of motivational tools:An executive from his personnel experience should prepare a list of what devices are likely towork with what type of people and under what circumstances. c) Selecting and applying motivator:Proper application of motivational plan is important. This involves selection of theappropriate technique, method of application and the timing and location ofapplications. d) Follow up the results of applications:The last stage of motivation is to follow-upther e s u l t s o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n . T h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e i s to a s c e r t a i n i f a n employee has been motivated or not. If not some other techniqueshould be tried.Rules of motivating:The motivation manager must be guided with some fundamental rules which should be basedon the following principles. a. Self interest and motivation:Motivation is mainly built on selfishness. Psychologically speaking, selfishness is a part andparcel of life. To deny this is to build the theory on unrealistic foundation. To seek someother basis of motivation would be to ignore the real nature of man. The aim should be tolearn more about selfishness. b. Attainability:Motivation must be establish attainable goals. This does not mean that the goal is realized atonce. This may take years to attain. But it must be within reach.Eight ways to motivate plant employees:Th e fol l o wi n g r e co m m e nd at i ons ar e f o r improving the motivation of employees inthe routine jobs.
  • a. Provide assembly line employees with more than minimum training. This would result ingreater personnel involvement in the job. b. Crate sub goals to measure accomplishment. A sense of completion is importantfor motivation. They are likely to be more interested in the work which will reduce monotonyand mental fatigue.c. Provide regular feedback on performance. Studies show that people work better when theyreceive positive feedback.d. Maintain a neat and orderly work area. If the foreman does not care abouthousekeepingthen employees may feel that they also need not care about it and this attitude may affectquality of work.e . A r r a n g e work situations so that conversation between employees is either easy or possible. Experience workers may to their job with little attention to the task.Conversation myreduce monotony and thus fatigue.f. In c r e as e t h e num be r o f o p er at i on s pe rf o rm ed b y o ne em p l o ye e . Th i s c anbe do n e b y simplification of manual operations. It offers several advantages: The risk of errors reduced; Management can hire employees at lower wages; Training costs are minimized.g . S t r uc t u r e j obs , so t h at w or ke r s c an at l e a st oc c as i on al l y m ov e a bou t t hewo rk a r e a. B esi d e s j ob rotation, there are other ways to provide for physical movementlike stetting employees secure their own tools etc.h. Explore ways to assign greater personnel responsibility.Increased responsibility means greater self esteem and greater job meaningfulness. Oneway to enlarge responsibility is to let the employee inspect his own work.