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How to do a Scientific research ?Presentation Transcript
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH..AND REBUILDING OUR NATION Prepared By : Yahia Mohamed Reda Benha university Faculty of science Chemistry department
Index Introduction How to do scientific research? Scientific ethics How to make a scientific proposal
Why isn’t there any real scientificresearch in the Arab world…?!
Clear strategy and policyInformation industryCoordination (industry VS research)FundAcademic freedom
1 2 34 5 6
How to do Research?
1- Ask a Question2- Perform Background Research3- Form a Hypothesis4- Perform an Experiment and Collect Data5- Analyze Results and Draw Conclusions6- Report Results
Research ProcessResearch is an extremely cyclic process.
Step 1: A Question Is RaisedA question occurs to or is posedto the researcher for which thatresearcher has no answer.This doesn’t mean that someone else doesn’t already have ananswer.The question needs to be converted to an appropriateproblem statement like that documented in a researchproposal.
Step 2: Suggest HypothesesThe researcher generates intermediate hypotheses to describe asolution to the problem.This is at best a temporary solution since there is as yet noevidence to support either the acceptance or rejection of thesehypotheses.
Step 3: Literature ReviewThe available literature is reviewed to determine if there isalready a solution to the problem.Existing solutions do not always explain new observations.The existing solution might require some revision or even bediscarded.
Step 4: Experiment and Collect DataThe researcher now begins to gather data relatingto the research problem.The means of data acquisition will often changebased on the type of the research problem.This might entail only data gathering, but it couldalso require the creation of new measurementinstruments.
Step 5: Data AnalysisThe data that were gathered in the previous step areanalyzed as a first step in ascertaining their meaning.As before, the analysis of the data does not constituteresearch.This is basic number crunching.
Step 6: conclusionThe researcher interprets the newly analyzed data andsuggests a conclusion.The data will either support the hypotheses or they won’t
I will welcome constructive criticism of my personal scientific research andoffer the same to my colleagues in a manner that fosters mutual respect amid objective scientific debate.
Research ProposalThe Research Proposal is a complete description of theintended research, developed under the supervision ofthe assigned supervisor
Research proposal structure1. Project TitleThe title should be short but descriptive enough sothat anyone reading it would know what toexpect
2. IntroductionThe Introduction supplies sufficient backgroundinformation to allow the reader to understand andevaluate the proposal of your work without needingto refer to previous publications on the topic
Choose references carefully to provide the most important backgroundinformationWhat is the general technical/application area in which you will be working?What is the general problem that you are trying to solve, and how did theproblem arise?Why is its solution interesting or worthwhile? What benefits would there be tosolving this problem?What will be the contribution or significance of your research if it is successful?
3.Review of LiteratureThis will give the reader an idea whether you have done your “homework” and know enoughabout the topic to start with the research project.The more references you can find that relate tothe given problem statement, the more credibilityit will have
4. Project DescriptionProblem statementIt is very important that a real-world problem must exists for which there is currently noeffective solution.b. Project scopeWhy are you doing it?What will the research deliver, for example a model, framework, method, prototypeHow do you know the research was successful? What will you use as a measure?Assumptions – Do you start the research project using any assumptions due to a lack of facts?
C. Project objectivesThe project scope statement is broken down intoseveral project objectives that each relate to theproject scope.(SMART) If all the objectives have been met then theresearch would have been successful
D. Research approachThe approach refers to the research method that youwill useGive a brief summary of what this method entails(the process or steps)and motivate why it is suitableto your research problem?What equipment or other resources will you need?
E. Project deliverablesWhat do you aim to deliver at the end of theproject
5. LayoutThis section should give a brief outline and short description of thechapters of the research .Each chapter should be linked to a research objective.
Suggested layoutChapter 1 – Introduction (based on the content of this proposal)Chapter 2 – Background / Overview (summary of literature review) Chapter 3 – Research methodology (explanation and motivation of research method tobe used)Chapters [n] – The body of the researchChapter [last chapter – Conclusion (Show how the objectives were achieved)For each chapter, a brief description should be given to explain the intended content.
6. Project planMaking a schedule of the principalactivities and events is a good way ofshowing the readers that you are takinga systematic approach to planning yourwork
7. Limitations or constraintsDocument the limitations that could prevent you from successfully completing this project
8. List of references / sourcesA List of resources and links you will use and why they will benefit your research.
AssignmentEach team will provide a proposal for their scientificresearch by the next lecture … deadline must betaken seriouslyIf you do not hand in your proposal on time you willbe eliminated
Dr.email@example.com www.facebook.com/yahia.redaWe believe … We will achieve