Current scenario of cold supply chain• Currently, the Indian cold chain market is worth $3 billion.• The market is expected to grow to $12.4 billion by the end of 2015.• Cumulative capacity of India is nearly 25 million tonnes, resulting in loss of about 40% of the agri-produce post- harvest.• Uttar Pradesh has the maximum 1,579 numbers of cold chains followed by West Bengal at the second place with 531 cold storages, Maharashtra 460 and Punjab 420.• The current market demand is 10 times more than what we have today.
DefinitionDefinition: Cold chain is a logistic system that provides a series of facilities for maintaining ideal storage conditions for perishables from the point of origin to the point of consumption.• It extend and ensure the shelf life of products such as fresh agricultural produce, seafood, frozen food, chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs.• Cold chain retains the longevity of product characteristics, active ingredients, freshness, nutritive value.
Segments of cold supply chain• Storage surface Refrigerated warehouses for storage of temperature sensitive products.• Refrigerated Transportation Reefer trucks, containers, ships and trains for transport of temperature sensitive products.
Key activities• Procurement Involves activities such as aggregation, grading , sorting , pre‐cooling, packaging farms or manufacturers.• Transportation It includes all activities related to transportation of produce to the market from farms or manufacturing location.
Objective of cold supply chain• Reduce costs• Improve product integrity• Increase customer satisfaction• Reduce wastage and returns of expired stock
Cold supply chain logistic process (continue...)• Pre-cooling facilities• Cold Storages• Refrigerated Carriers• Packaging• Warehousing• Information Management systems (Traceability and Tracking etc.)
Players of cold chainSnowman R.K. FoodlandCarriers Trans cold chainCrystal SensitechRefcon Fresh &Bulkani deep freeze Healthy(Concor)Glacio cold chain Weber distributionGATI (Kausar) Apollo Everest Kool Solutions, And Many more
Drivers of cold supply chain• Growth in organized retail• Shift towards horticultural crops• Growth in processed food sector• Demand from pharmaceutical sector• Changing consumption pattern
The most common Temperature Standards• Banana (13 °C)• Chill (2 °C)• Frozen (-18 °C)• Deep Frozen (-29 °C)
The major cold chain technologies1. Dry ice • Solid carbon dioxide, is about -80°C and is capable of keeping a shipment frozen for an extended period of time. • It’s used for the shipping of pharmaceuticals, dangerous goods and foodstuffs. • Dry ice does not melt, instead it sublimates when it comes in contact with air.2. Gel packs • Gel packs are used to Chilled products like Pharmaceutical and Medicinal product shipments. • Gel packs contain phase changing substances that can go from solid to liquid and vice versa to control an environment at a temperature range between 2°C and 8°C.3. Eutectic plates • The principle is similar to gel packs. Instead, plates are filled with a liquid and can be reused many times.
The major cold chain technologies (continue...)4. Liquid nitrogen • Liquid nitrogen is an especially cold substance, of about -196°C. • It is used to keep packages frozen over a long period of time. • Its mainly used to transport biological cargo such as tissues and organs.5. Quilts • It’s an insulated pieces that are placed over or around freight to act as buffer in temperature variations and to maintain the temperature relatively constant. • Its used to keep Freight frozen for a longer time period. • Quilts can also be used to keep temperature sensitive freight at room temperature while outside conditions can substantially vary (e.g. during the summer or the winter)6. Reefers • It’s a Generic name for a temperature controlled container, which can be a van, small truck, a semi or a standard ISO container. • Perishable or temperature sensitive items are carried in refrigerated containers (called "reefers").
Challenges in cold supply chain• Rising Real Estate Cost• Location for Cold Storage• Lack of Proper Infrastructure• High Energy Cost• Uneven Distribution of Capacity• The cold storages present in India can cater to single commodities only• FDI Restrictions in Retail
Phases for cold chain shipment and logistics• Shipment preparation• Modal Choice• Custom procedures• The “Last Mile”• Integrity and Quality assurance