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# Metal forming 2

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### Transcript of "Metal forming 2"

1. 1. Amr Shehata Fayed, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering Materials Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering Zagazig University amrfayed@yahoo.comDr. Amr Shehata Fayed
2. 2. Material Properties in Metal Forming To be successfully formed, a metal must possess certain properties. Desirable material properties: • Low yield strength and high ductility These properties are affected by temperature: • Ductility increases and yield strength decreases when work temperature is raised. Strain rate and friction are additional factors.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 2
3. 3. Independent Variables in Metal Forming Independent variables are those aspects of the process over which the engineer has direct control, and they are generally selected or specified when setting up a process. Some of independent variables in a typical forming process:- Starting material Starting geometry of the workpiece Tool or die geometry Lubrication Starting temperature Speed of operation Amount of deformationDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 3
4. 4. Dependent Variables in Metal Forming Dependent variables are the consequences of the independent variable selection. Example of dependent variables include: Force or power requirements Material properties of the product Exit (or final) temperature Surface finish and dimensional precision Nature of the material flowDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 4
5. 5. Material Behavior in Metal Forming• The typical stress strain curve for most metals is divided into an elastic region and a plastic region• Plastic region of stress-strain curve is primary interest because material is plastically deformed Necking starts at maximum engineering stress or, equivalently, at maximum tensile load.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 5
6. 6. Material Behavior in Metal Forming • In plastic region, metals behavior is expressed by the flow curve:K = strength coefficient (MPa); and n = strain hardeningexponent. Stress and strain in flow curve are true stressand true strain.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 6
7. 7. Flow Stress For most metals at room temperature, strength increases when deformed due to strain hardening. The stress required to continue deformation must be increased to match this increase in strength. Flow stress is defined as the instantaneous value of stress required to continue deforming the material – to keep the metal “flowing”. Where: Yf = flow stress, that is, the yield strength as a function of strainDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 7
8. 8. Relevance of the Flow Curve The flow curve is used to determine the new yield strength after a plastic deformation process. The flow curve is used to judge the formability of metals. The flow curve describes the hardening behavior of metals during plastic deformation in terms of equivalent strain, equivalent strain rate and temperature. The flow curve is a property of each individual metal. various experiments with different stress and strain-rate states should yield the same flow curve for same strain- rate value and same temperature.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 8
9. 9. Ranges of Equivalent Strain & Strain Rates in Metal Forming Processes Therefore, the flow curves should be up to these strains and strain rates..Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 9
10. 10. Some Ugly Facts about the Determination of Flow Curves It is not possible to obtain flow curves up to the required plastic strains and strain rates practically. It is extremely difficult to have tests with homogeneous deformation. The flow curves obtained by different tests do not coincide for the same material.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 10
11. 11. Reasons for Deviations in the Flow Curves Obtained by Different Tests Effect of stress state, Effect of equivalent stress equation, Effect of anisotropy (Bauschinger effect), Effect of experimental inaccuracies (e. g. friction), Effect of temperature (heating of the specimens),Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 11
12. 12. Flow Curve: Mathematical Representation (1) (Cold Flow Curves) For cold flow curves the flow stress increases only 3 to 10 % for an increase of one order in the strain-rates.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 12
13. 13. Average Flow Stress The average flow stress (or mean flow stress) is the average value of stress over the stress-strain curve from the beginning of strain to the final (maximum) value that occurs during deformation. Where: Yf = average flow stress; and = maximum strain during deformationDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 13
14. 14. Typical Values of K and nDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 14
15. 15. Temperature in Metal Forming For any metal, the values of K and n in the flow curve depend on temperature. Both strength and strain hardening are reduced at higher temperatures. In addition, ductility is increased at higher temperatures. These property changes are important because; Any deformation operation can be accomplished with lower forces and power at elevated temperatureDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 15
16. 16. Temperature Ranges Metal Forming There are three temperature ranges in metal forming processes: where Tm is the melting point of the metalDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 16
17. 17. Cold Working Performed at room temperature or slightly above. Many cold forming processes are important mass production operations. Minimum or no machining usually required. These operations are near net shape or net shape processesDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 17
18. 18. Advantages of Cold Working Significant advantages of cold forming compared to hot working Better accuracy, meaning closer tolerances Better surface finish Strain hardening increases strength and hardness Contamination problems are minimized No heating of work requiredDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 18
19. 19. Disadvantages of Cold Working There are certain disadvantages or limitations associated with cold working Higher forces are required to initiate and complete the deformation. Heavier and more powerful equipment and stronger tooling are required. Surfaces of starting workpiece must be free of scale and dirt. Ductility and strain hardening limit the amount of forming that can be done. In some operations, metal must be annealed to allow further deformation. While, in other cases, metal is simply not ductile enough to be cold worked.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 19
20. 20. Warm Working Performed at temperatures above room temperature but below recrystallization temperature. Dividing line between cold working and warm working often expressed in terms of melting point: 0.3Tm, where Tm = melting point for metalDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 20
21. 21. Advantages of Warm Working The lower strength and strain hardening as well as higher ductility of the metal at the intermediate temperatures provide warm working the following advantages over cold working: Lower forces and power than in cold working. More intricate work geometries possible. Need for annealing may be reduced or eliminated. Finishing machining is reduced. Less scaling and steel decarburization compared to hot working.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 21
22. 22. Hot Working Deformation at temperatures above recrystallization temperature Recrystallization temperature = about one-half of melting point. In practice, hot working usually performed somewhat above 0.5Tm. Capability for substantial plastic deformation of the metal - far more than possible with cold working or warm working.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 22
23. 23. Advantages of Hot Working Workpart shape can be significantly altered. Lower forces and power than in cold working. Metals that usually fracture in cold working can be hot formed. Strength properties of product are generally isotropic No strengthening of part occurs from work hardening. Advantageous in cases when part is to be subsequently processed by cold forming.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 23
24. 24. Disadvantages of Hot Working Lower dimensional accuracy. Higher total energy required (due to the thermal energy to heat the workpiece). Work surface oxidation (scale), poorer surface finish. Shorter tool lifeDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 24
25. 25. Friction in Metal Forming Friction in metal forming arises because of the close contact between the tool and work surfaces and the high pressures that drive the surfaces together in these operations. In most metal forming processes, friction is undesirable for the following reasons: Metal flow in the work is retarded. The forces and power to perform the operation are increased. Rapid wear of the tool occurs. Friction and tool wear are more severe in hot workingDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 25
26. 26. Friction in Metal Forming If the coefficient of friction becomes large enough, a condition known as sticking occurs. Sticking in metal working is the tendency for the two surfaces in relative motion to adhere to each other rather than slide.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 26
27. 27. Lubrication in Metal Forming Metalworking lubricants are applied to tool-work interface in many forming operations to reduce harmful effects of friction. Benefits obtained from the application of lubricants are: Reduced sticking, forces, power, tool wear Better surface finish Removes heat from the toolingDr. Amr Shehata Fayed 27
28. 28. Homework (2) 1. If K = 600 MPa and n = 0.2 for certain metal. During a forming operation, the final true strain that the metal experienced = 0.73. Determine the flow stress at this strain and average flow stress that metal experienced during the operation. 2. A particular metal has a flow curve with parameters; strength coefficient = 35000 lb/in2 and strain hardening exponent = 0.26. A tensile specimen of the metal with gage length = 2 in is stretched to a length = 3.3 in. Determine the flow stress at this new length and the average flow stress that the metal was subjected to during deformation.Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 28
29. 29. Homework (2), cont. 3. Why is the term press working often used for sheet- metalworking processes? 4. Mention some of the advantages of cold working relative to warm and hot working. 5. Why is friction generally undesirable in metal forming operations? 6. What are the main differences between bulk deformation and sheet metalworking processes?Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed 29
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