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Modernization of Stores Depot at Carriage Repair Workshop,  Lower Parel, Western Railway through Implementation of  Intell...
The inconvenient Truth <ul><li>Warehousing did not get it’s due importance on the Indian Railways because; </li></ul><ul><...
Recent Examples on WR <ul><li>New Electric Locomotive workshop at Dhaboi with an area of  >2.5 Lakh  Sq.m  has a provision...
<ul><li>Is Materials Management department required in the railways ? </li></ul><ul><li>If the answer is yes, Why the abov...
<ul><li>The result: </li></ul><ul><li>Warehousing as well as the supply chain management still pertains to the era of Ston...
Modernization of Carriage Stores Depot at Carriage Repair Workshop, Lower Parel, Western Railway <ul><li>Carriage  Stores ...
Coach Holding of Parel Workshop TYPE ICF ICF-SHATABDI LHB Holding 3000 60 110
 
Major activity at Parel Workshop 36 62 LHB 15 5 0 1531 ICF POH 07-08 (estimate) 2006-07 Type Activity Refurbishment of toi...
Divisional  Feeding points of Parel Stores Depot Division Carriage Repair Depots BCT BCT, BDTS, BL, ST BRC ANND ADI ADI, K...
Feeding Points Stores Depot  Lower  Parel Carriage Repair Workshop WR Divisions CWS-ADI-BG (165) CWS-ADI-MG(150) CWS-RTM-P...
Annual issues & closing Balance YEAR ISSUES  ( in 10 Million) BALANCE ( in 10 Million) TOR ( %) 2004-05 42.33 10.22 24.14 ...
Annual usage value of various category of stores
Category of items at Parel depot
Modernization   of Carriage Repairs Depot at Carriage Repair Workshop <ul><li>Stores depots on the Indian Railways are hou...
Present Status
 
 
What does modernization involve ? <ul><li>Pragmatic mix of IW-ASRS, Drive in Pallet System, Selective Pallet System, conve...
Works Program May 2009 Railway Board > 50 Million June-July 09 Railway Board > Rs. 20 Million but < Rs 50 Million Pink Boo...
Machinery &  Plants Program May 2008 Railway Board >Rs. 10 Million Sept/Oct 08 Railway Board > Rs. 1 Million but < Rs 10 M...
Process Involved in creation of Infrastructure Facility  1 <ul><li>.  Preparation of detailed Proposal by the field unit s...
<ul><li>Approval of Concerned Member I.e Member Mechanical for Machinery & Plants as well as RSP and Member Engineering fo...
<ul><li>Receipt of Sanction from Railway Board </li></ul><ul><li>Approval of funds for the proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Prep...
Works Program <ul><li>Railway Board fixes the financial limits for various plan heads. </li></ul><ul><li>Field units send ...
<ul><li>PWP is initiated by field units in June/July and submitted for net year in September. </li></ul><ul><li>Railway Bo...
Summary of WP <ul><li>Identify requirement, detail, scope, worksite sketch, feasibility, manpower reduction, new technolog...
<ul><li>Works programme meeting chaired by G.M and attended by all phod for prioritizing and finalsing. </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Works above Rs 50 Lakhs are itemised. </li></ul><ul><li>Works less than Rs 50 Lakhs are given as lumpsum. </li></u...
Estimated cost of the project <ul><li>Sanctioned in M&P Program for the year 2007-08 under plan head 41. </li></ul><ul><li...
Preliminary Work involved-1 <ul><li>Find out the weight of individual  item to be kept in the ASRS </li></ul><ul><li>Find ...
Preliminary Work involved-2 <ul><li>Select the area for the ASRS. </li></ul><ul><li>If Greenfield project, decide the type...
<ul><li>Involve civil consultants for new or modification to existing building. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve ASRS vendors. </...
<ul><li>Approval  of Mech, Civil, Electrical ,Stores H.O.D. </li></ul><ul><li>HQ finance vetting and approval of GM. </li>...
Detailed Estimate <ul><li>Get civil estimate from the PEB vendors as well as the civil engineering department and convert ...
<ul><li>Decision regarding “Turn Key” implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Project to be dealt by Materials Management depart...
Other storage & retrieval systems Storage carousel   Push-back rack   Shelves/bins/drawers Flow-through rack Mezzanine Sta...
1.  Block Stacking  (No Equipment) <ul><li>Bulk storage using block stacking can result in the minimum cost of storage sin...
Selective Pallet Rack <ul><li>Pallets are supported between load-supporting beams </li></ul><ul><li>Special attachments an...
Drive-Through Rack   <ul><li>Loads are supported by rails attached to the upright beams </li></ul><ul><li>Lift trucks are ...
.  Drive-In Rack   <ul><li>Same as drive-through rack, except closed at one end, allowing entry from only one end (LIFO) <...
Flow-Through Rack   <ul><li>Loads are supported on an incline to enable gravity-based movement of the loads within the rac...
Push-Back Rack   <ul><li>Same as flow-through rack, except loaded and unloaded at the lower end and closed at the higher e...
Sliding Rack   <ul><li>Only one mobile aisle is used to access several rows of racks </li></ul><ul><li>Location of the ais...
Cantilever Rack   <ul><li>Loads are supported by cantilever &quot;arms&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Used to store long loads (e...
Shelves/Bins/Drawers
Storage Carousel   <ul><li>Carousel consists of a set of vertically or horizontally revolving storage baskets or bins </li...
Automatic Storage/Retrieval Systems (AS/RS)   <ul><li>Consists of an integrated computer-controlled system that combines t...
Unit Load AS/RS   <ul><li>Used to store/retrieve loads that are palletized or unitized and weigh over 500 lbs. </li></ul><...
Miniload AS/RS   <ul><li>Used to store/retrieve small parts and tools that can be stored in a storage bin or drawer </li><...
Man-On-Board AS/RS   <ul><li>Used for in-aisle picking; operator picks from shelves, bins, or drawers within the storage s...
<ul><li>•  Working Capacity: 1500 Kg. loads at 100% duty cycle </li></ul><ul><li>•  End-of-Aisle Run-out Required: 15 ft. ...
General Specifications of IW-ASRS <ul><li>S/R Machine: </li></ul><ul><li>Construction: Modular component design. All parts...
Crane Rail with V-H Drives <ul><li>Crane Rail: </li></ul><ul><li>•  Floor mounted , Rail mounted . </li></ul><ul><li>Verti...
Communication & Controls <ul><li>Communication: </li></ul><ul><li>•  Infrared Modem </li></ul><ul><li>S/R Machine Controls...
Rack & Pallets <ul><li>Safeguards: </li></ul><ul><li>Front and rear aisle-obstruction detectors. Onboard and off-board eme...
Loading/ Unloading Area RAIL RAIL RAIL
Vertical crane of IW-ASRS
Drive-in-Pallet System 1 2 3
Why use IW-ASRS at Parel Depot <ul><li>Parel workshop has one of the smallest  footprint to Coach POH ratio.  </li></ul><u...
Proposed site at Lower Parel <ul><li>Central ward of Parel Depot </li></ul><ul><li>Measures 50m * 45 m </li></ul><ul><li>5...
Constrains <ul><li>IW-ASRS requires a Greenfield area with free height of  15  to 20 m  </li></ul><ul><li>100 year old bui...
Solution <ul><li>Break Mezzanine floor with area of 25m*45m to obtain free height. </li></ul><ul><li>New foundation for th...
Activities involved in ASRS <ul><li>Civil Engineering work of site preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Leveled flooring with ade...
!
Modus Operandi of execution <ul><li>Prepare detailed sub estimate of electrical, civil & mechanical portion . </li></ul><u...
PLAN, ELEVATION & SECTION OF  PAREL STORES DEPOT
FRONT VIEW OF IW-ASRS AT PAREL STORES DEPOT
TOP VIEW OF PAREL STORES DEPOT WITH IW-ASRS
PALLET & SECTION AT “C”
What and where is the central ward ? <ul><li>The location of ASRS shall be the central ward. </li></ul><ul><li>Central war...
Layout of C ward Dy.CMM-PL  Chamber CA/TA to  Dy.CMM lift AMM, Ledger Section & computer cell NF Ward DMS Returned stores ...
LAYOUT  FOR THE PROPOSED ASRS AT THE CENTRAL WARD
Installation of IW-ASRS <ul><li>Transport the material to the prepared ASRS site. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Bill of Materi...
Existing Plan of Roof for  Central Ward Existing Elevation of Roof for  Central Ward Dy.CMM-PL  Chamber CA/TA to  Dy.CMM l...
Future elevation of Roof for  Central Ward Dy.CMM-PL  Chamber CA/TA to  Dy.CMM lift AMM, Ledger Section & computer cell NF...
Layout of C ward Dy.CMM-PL  Chamber CA/TA to  Dy.CMM lift AMM, Ledger Section & computer cell NF Ward DMS Returned stores ...
CIVIL CONSTRUCTION <ul><li>Remove the roof asbestos sheets. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport to BMC dumping ground. </li></ul><...
Civil Work (Cont.) <ul><li>Dismantle the south end wall of CW. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport the debris to BMC DG. </li></ul...
Civil Work (Cont.) <ul><li>Prepare the foundation  </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation for columns. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the...
S/ASRS/LPL/2008/01  DATED 07.07.2008  opening  ON 12.11.2008 AT 11.00 HRS  SCOPE: Design , fabrication, supply, commission...
Major work involved <ul><li>Dismantling of exiting central ward building  and construction </li></ul><ul><li>Provisioning ...
CIVIL WORK INVOLVES Demolishing /dismantling of existing structure/building and segregation of dismantled debris along wit...
Provision of cage and plain pallets for keeping material. Provision of High rise Fully Automated, Computer Controlled, Sta...
Two bid system <ul><li>TECHNICAL BID </li></ul><ul><li>Part I  for Civil Engineering Work </li></ul><ul><li>Part- II for  ...
PAYMENT   TERMS <ul><li>Mechanical and Electrical Work :  </li></ul><ul><li>50 per cent on proof of inspection and dispatc...
PAYMENT   TERMS Payment will be made for the actual work done at site on pro-rata basis. The tendered is free to submit it...
EMD & SD EMD. Deposit Receipt, Pay order,  Demand Draft, Guarantee Bonds. Performance Guarantee/Security Deposit To. Be de...
Technical Specification 1 One Single Mast Stacker Crane for 1000 mm (W) X 1200 mm (D) X 1200 mm (H) Pallets of one ton cap...
Electrical Aisle Equipments:  The Electrical aisle equipment shall consist of Power rail (fully enclosed Bus Bar), which i...
<ul><li>The Stacker Cranes should be linked to central computer control through WMS  </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse Managemen...
DESIGN STANDARDS 1 The design of the AS/RS should conform to Indian and International standards, ensuring that best of the...
DESIGN STANDARDS 2 IS 2074 – 1992 Ready Mixed Paint, Air Drying, Red Oxide Zinc Chrome, Priming –  Specification IS 513 : ...
<ul><li>Civil Engineering Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Building - PEB </li></ul><ul><li>Standards- AISC  American Institute of...
<ul><li>Approval of Building Plan from Government Authorities/ BMC/ IIT ? </li></ul><ul><li>PEB Construction  : Which Spec...
Painting  <ul><li>Painting for the  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pallets : PU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racks : PU after </li></...
Roof  <ul><li>Type of Ventilators  : Graven type  or powerless ventilators ? Powerless turbo ventilators to be used   </li...
General  <ul><li>Supply of Steel & Cement : Contractor shall arrange his own steel and cement. </li></ul><ul><li>Water and...
<ul><li>R/R Masonry below plinth : Plaster or pointing to be done ? </li></ul><ul><li>IS 456 of 1978 or of 2000 ? M-25  is...
<ul><li>Integrity between old building and the new building ? </li></ul><ul><li>Chajja over only the window or over the en...
<ul><li>Aluminum wire mesh around the well of the ASRS ? </li></ul>
PEB Design
PEB BUILDING
Pre Engineered Metal Building ( Major Components) <ul><li>Main framing or vertical columns </li></ul><ul><li>Purlins, girt...
MAIN FRAMING <ul><li>Main framing  : It  includes the rigid steel frames of the building.  The PEB rigid frame comprises o...
PURLINS, GIRTS AND EAVE STRUTS <ul><li>Purlins, girts and eave struts are also known as secondary cold-formed members.  </...
PANELS AND INSULATION  <ul><li>Walls & Roof: Single skin profile or ribbed steel sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Material: Steel ...
Insulation <ul><li>Provide  fibrous insulation slabs / rolls of non- combustible Rockwool, </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum foil...
PANELS AND INSULATION <ul><li>Provide  pre-fabricated insulated panels, having  two single skin panels (plain steel sheets...
Erection of PEB Structure <ul><li>The roof is erected with trusses placed over the walls and profile sheet fixed to purlin...
PAINTS AND FINISHES <ul><li>Primary and secondary Members : Coated with one coat (35 microns) of redoxide paint without an...
DOORS AND WINDOWS <ul><li>HMPS Steel or aluminum framed doors and windows are fixed to the purlins or the supporting profi...
Design Codes <ul><li>Frame members (hot rolled or built-up) are in accordance with AISC (American Institute of Steel Const...
Design Codes 2 <ul><li>IS : 8750 - 1987  :  Code of practice for design loads of buildings & structures. </li></ul><ul><li...
Guidelines for PEB design  1 AISI viz a viz IS Spec. <ul><li>All designs shall be as per MBMA American standards unless  s...
Guidelines for PEB design 2 <ul><li>In American design , wind coefficients to be followed as given in MBMA. </li></ul><ul>...
PEB <ul><li>STRUCTURAL PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>FRAME CONFIGURATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF LOADS & ASSESSMENT </li>...
PEB TCCS = TAPERED COLUMN CLEAR SPAN
Steps in design of PEB <ul><li>Wind load calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Purline Design </li></ul><ul><li>Girt Design </li><...
Erection System 2 <ul><li>Preparation for Erection </li></ul><ul><li>Pre Erection checks </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving Mater...
Erection System 3 <ul><li>Sheeting & Trimming </li></ul><ul><li>Sheeting preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Sheeting the walls ...
Design Issues ? <ul><li>Welding : Single side welding or double side  welding for PEB Members ? </li></ul><ul><li>Thicknes...
Electrical Issues <ul><li>Power requirement of the entire ASRS system shall be broadly 100 KW. </li></ul><ul><li>70 KW for...
Fire Fighting-1 <ul><li>Comprehensive fire fighting  system including fire/ smoke detection, piping, fire hoses, water sum...
Fire Fighting-2 <ul><li>One Aisle to  be kept separate for paints ,chemicals or other fire prone material. </li></ul><ul><...
Bar-coding and RFID 1 <ul><li>Bar-coding is to be used for all the components stored in the ASRS i.e individual components...
Bar-coding and RFID- 2 <ul><li>Material received at CRD Parel shall have Bar code labels pasted on them. These labels shal...
Interfacing of WMS, LMS, ICMS & MMIS <ul><li>Contractor shall  integrate the Warehouse Management system, Location Managem...
Office area , Wash Rooms ,Change Rooms <ul><li>Office area :   </li></ul><ul><li>Offices presently available. </li></ul><u...
Location of Offices in the new setup <ul><li>Integrated offices shall be located at the  “  Non Dismantled Area ” on the g...
Layout of New Office Complex. Dy. CMM DMS CDMS Computer Center AMM Office Complex DMS DMS CA  Visitors Area <ul><li>Granam...
Soil test report
What is RFID? <ul><li>RFID is an ADC technology  (Automatic Data Collection )  that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer...
What Constitutes an RFID System? <ul><li>One or more RF tags </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more antennas </li></ul><ul><li>One ...
RFID API Software (Communicates with the RFID Reader) Customer-Specific Application Software  Host Computer Host Memory Sp...
Antenna Reader Firmware Customer’s MIS Host Application Software API TCP/IP Power ~ Asset Asset/Tag RFID System Components...
RESPONSES COMMANDS Tag Physical Memory APPLICATIONRESPONSES APPLICATION INTERROGATOR RF TAG APPLICATIONCOMMANDS Command / ...
RFID Operation <ul><li>Sequence of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Host Manages Reader(s) and Issues Commands </li></ul><u...
RFID Operations
What is RFID? -- The Tags <ul><li>Tags can be read-only or read-write </li></ul><ul><li>Tag memory can be factory or field...
<ul><li>Tag ID Only </li></ul><ul><li>Programmable Database Pointer  </li></ul><ul><li>Mission Critical Information </li><...
<ul><li>Tags can be attached to  almost anything: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pallets or cases of product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Are All Tags The Same? <ul><li>Basic Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag transmits ra...
<ul><li>Variations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size (16 bits - 512 kBytes +) </li></ul></...
RFID System Basics <ul><li>How far? </li></ul><ul><li>How fast? </li></ul><ul><li>How many? </li></ul><ul><li>How much? </...
What is RFID? -- The Readers <ul><li>Readers (interrogators) can be at a fixed point such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entranc...
<ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Uses normal CMOS processing — basic and ubiquitous  </li></ul><ul><li>Relative freedo...
<ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate or transmit around metals  (iron, steel) </li></ul><ul><li>Han...
<ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Tag construction:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is thicker (than 13.56 MHz) </li></ul></...
13.56 MHz  <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Uses normal CMOS processing--basic and ubiquitous  </li></ul><ul><li>Well ...
<ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Government regulated frequency  (U.S. and Europe recently harmonized) </li></ul><u...
RFID Primer…Frequencies <ul><li>Electromagnetic Field </li></ul><ul><li>Coupling: Lower Range UHF </li></ul><ul><li>> 300 ...
>300 MHz <1GHz   <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Effective around metals  </li></ul><ul><li>Best available frequency ...
<ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate water/tissue  </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory issues (differences ...
RFID Primer…Frequencies <ul><li>Electromagnetic  </li></ul><ul><li>Field Coupling:  </li></ul><ul><li>2.45 GHz   </li></ul...
2.45 GHz <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Tag size smaller than inductive or  lower range UHF (1&quot;x 1/4&quot;)  </...
<ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Good non-line-of-sight communication  (except for conductive, &quot;lossy&quot; mater...
<ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>More susceptible to electronic noise than lower UHF bands, e.g. 433 MHz, 860-930 M...
RFID Primer…Frequency <ul><li>>5.8 GHz  </li></ul><ul><li>(European Road Telematics Frequency) </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage...
Spectrum Regulation <ul><li>The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is a scarce and shared resource, used nationally and interna...
Regulations - ITU
Regulatory Differences <ul><li>Usage of channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary...
How far, how fast,  how much, how many, attached to what ?
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Applications
Portal Applications Bill of Lading Material Tracking
Portal Applications <ul><li>Limited number items at forklift speeds </li></ul><ul><li>8’ X 10’ doorways </li></ul><ul><li>...
Conveyor / Assembly Line Read / Write Operations Higher Accuracy than Bar Code
Conveyor / Assembly Line <ul><li>Up to 450 fpm </li></ul><ul><li>60+ items per container </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive tun...
Hand Held Application Categories Wireless   Batch   Fixed Station
Application Examples Material Handling Inspecting / Maintaining Where is it?  What is it? What is inside the box? Where is...
Shipping Validation Tote/Box/Unit Level Inventory
Intelligent Labels
The HazMat Label
HazMat Smart Label <ul><li>Low power > long range </li></ul><ul><li>1024 bit memory </li></ul><ul><li>Read/write/lock on 8...
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Standards
The Layers of Logistic Units   ( Optically Readable Media) Movement Vehicle (truck, airplane, ship, train) Layer 5 ISO TC ...
The Layers of Logistic Units  (Radio Frequency Identification - RFID) Container (e.g., 40 foot Sea Container) Movement Veh...
Application   Requirements <ul><li>Wal-Mart -  Suppliers will mark inbound cases and pallets with RFID  -  1 January 2005 ...
Lads, Dads, & Granddads                                                  ...
Overview <ul><li>Why is Marking and Tagging Important? </li></ul><ul><li>Why Use Computers? </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Marki...
Why is Marking and Tagging Important? <ul><li>Overall Process / Operational  Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Reductions ...
The Ideal Setup
Often --The Real World
Why Use Computers? <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Databases Provide  Traceability </li></ul><ul><li>Real Time Networks...
Marking Directly on Coils <ul><li>Paint / Chalk(Hot and Cold) </li></ul><ul><li>Ink Jet </li></ul><ul><li>Stamps / Dot Pee...
Tags <ul><li>High Contrast Black/White facilitates Bar Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Low Cost Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Variety ...
Hot Band with Resistance Welded Stainless Tag
Thermal Transfer Printed Metal Tags Slot for Band Wire On Holes
AIAG Label in Adhesive Pouch
Recommended Label in Adhesive Pouch
Typical Tag
ORDER # DATA IDENTIFIER
LPN # DATA IDENTIFIER
•  Bar Code Basics
SYMBOLOGIES: There are several ways that the Bars , Dots and Spaces can  encode information.  Each way is called a  SYMBOL...
Typical  Code 39 Tag
GOOD BARCODES INCLUDE: •  BLACK BARS •  WHITE SPACES •  GOOD CONTRAST ( PCS) •  PROPER RATIOS •  CLEAR ZONES  P rint C ont...
START  SEQUENCE Q U I E T 1 000 1 0 111 0 111 0 1 STOP SEQUENCE 1 000 1 0 111 0 111 0 1 Q U I E T
BAR CODE POINTERS   “X” DIMENSION •  USE LARGEST POSSIBLE “x” DIMENSION FOR THE AVAILABLE SPACE  BETTER THAN  •  BAR CODE ...
BAR CODE POINTERS   “X” DIMENSION •  LARGER X MEANS LONGER READ DISTANCE .048”= “x”  Reads at 12 to 15 ft. ( Long Range Re...
Code 39 Code 128C I 2 of 5 All of these symbologies encode the same decimal digits but look at the much finer (delicate) b...
System Design Considerations <ul><li>Use Piece Identification  </li></ul><ul><li>Use License Plate Identifier  (LPN)  See ...
1. Start by Marking Bar Coded LPN with Check Digit(s) on each coil Verify! License Plate Check Digits
2. Create an LPN Indexed Database--- REAL TIME NETWORK  LPN  CK  HT  RCVD  THK  WT1 ANNEAL LAST 12345681  59  A12345  126@...
3. Create and Use a Network Mill Computer Scale S2 etc. LPN  CK  HT  RCVD  THK  WT1 ANNEAL LAST 12345681  59  A12345  126@...
Summary •  Identify Coils Uniquely (LPN + Check) •  Use Automatic Identification (Barcodes  Big as Possible) • Create and ...
<ul><li>This is only a beginning. </li></ul>
<ul><li>? </li></ul>
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Depot Modernisation Parel Wr

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  • Transcript of "Depot Modernisation Parel Wr"

    1. 1. Modernization of Stores Depot at Carriage Repair Workshop, Lower Parel, Western Railway through Implementation of Intelligent Warehousing with Automated Storage & Retrieval System (ASRS) <ul><li>Jogendra Yadvendu </li></ul><ul><li>Dy.CMM-PL, WR </li></ul>
    2. 2. The inconvenient Truth <ul><li>Warehousing did not get it’s due importance on the Indian Railways because; </li></ul><ul><li>Materials management was always considered an ancillary activity. </li></ul><ul><li>When ever a new Locomotive sheds or a carriage workshop was planned, provision for the warehousing was never given a thought. </li></ul><ul><li>It was always believed that once the workshop a locomotive shed comes up, warehousing for the material shall take care of itself. </li></ul><ul><li>In the name of a warehouse, a ramshackle godown or an old steam shed or an abandoned building was provided in the name of a stores depot. </li></ul><ul><li>This continues even today. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Recent Examples on WR <ul><li>New Electric Locomotive workshop at Dhaboi with an area of >2.5 Lakh Sq.m has a provision of only 15 m X 100 m for the materials management including warehousing. </li></ul><ul><li>New Coach POH workshop at BVP with an approximate area of 3 lakh sq. m has a provision for 15mX 100 m for the warehousing purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>New Mahim Scrap Depot in WR has a provision of 13000 sq.m consisting of 20 bins of 15m * 12 m each. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is all this happening and what is the solution ? </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Is Materials Management department required in the railways ? </li></ul><ul><li>If the answer is yes, Why the above scenario ? </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of will and vision in the departmental officers. </li></ul><ul><li>We want to be Goody Goody. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't want to raise inconvenient questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hum Santust Hain. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>The result: </li></ul><ul><li>Warehousing as well as the supply chain management still pertains to the era of Stone Age. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Archaic Procurement Rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Mismatched inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Spoilage and rusting of costly material </li></ul><ul><li>Block storage on the ground floor </li></ul><ul><li>Inundation of material during flooding, leaking roofs etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Presently Modernization means getting a forklift or a Truck from the Sr.DEE in a locomotive shed or Dy.CME in a workshop . </li></ul>
    6. 6. Modernization of Carriage Stores Depot at Carriage Repair Workshop, Lower Parel, Western Railway <ul><li>Carriage Stores Depot at Lower Parel is the biggest Stores Depot on Western Railway. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual material issues value of Rs. 600 Million. </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts for approximately 25 % of the annual issues on Western Railway. </li></ul><ul><li>Caters to Carriage Workshop & Divisional Consignees (29). </li></ul><ul><li>It stocks around 1200 stock items out of which 167 are safety, 257 are vital, 38 passenger amenity items . </li></ul><ul><li>LHB Coach is a new technology with many items being imported and limited indigenous vendors </li></ul>
    7. 7. Coach Holding of Parel Workshop TYPE ICF ICF-SHATABDI LHB Holding 3000 60 110
    8. 9. Major activity at Parel Workshop 36 62 LHB 15 5 0 1531 ICF POH 07-08 (estimate) 2006-07 Type Activity Refurbishment of toilets, changing the main door LHB Refurbishment of toilets, Laying of Stainless Steel Inlay, changing LP Sheet, Limpet Sheet ICF RSP
    9. 10. Divisional Feeding points of Parel Stores Depot Division Carriage Repair Depots BCT BCT, BDTS, BL, ST BRC ANND ADI ADI, KKF, NBVJ, GIM RJT RJT, OKA, HXP RTM RTM, IND, BVP BVP,VRL,PBR
    10. 11. Feeding Points Stores Depot Lower Parel Carriage Repair Workshop WR Divisions CWS-ADI-BG (165) CWS-ADI-MG(150) CWS-RTM-P (54) CWS-BCT (56) CWS-BDTS(121) CWS-TRS-BAMY(5) CWS-BL (114) CWS-ST (128) CWS-BRCP (20) CWS-ANND (73) CWS-SBI-MG(2) CWS-BVJ (122) CWS-GIM (125) CWS-IND (163) CWS-MHW (24) CWS-UJN (13) CWS-COR (13) CWS-BVC (117) CWS-PBR (123) Mumbai Baroda Ratlam Ahmedabad Bhavnagar Rajkot CWS-RJT (115)
    11. 12. Annual issues & closing Balance YEAR ISSUES ( in 10 Million) BALANCE ( in 10 Million) TOR ( %) 2004-05 42.33 10.22 24.14 2005-06 46.01 10.11 21.97 2006-07 58.71 10.97 19.34        
    12. 13. Annual usage value of various category of stores
    13. 14. Category of items at Parel depot
    14. 15. Modernization of Carriage Repairs Depot at Carriage Repair Workshop <ul><li>Stores depots on the Indian Railways are housed in a dilapidated structures released from the old steam loco sheds or abandoned carriage depots. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence the structural strength as well as mechanization is almost nil in the old stores depots. </li></ul><ul><li>In the estimate for new workshops or Diesel/Electric Loco Sheds, few godowns are provided in the name of stores depot without M&P & material handling equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>The entire gamut of activities in the workshops have been mechanized with the inclusion of new technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The material storage , handling and transportation in a stores depots needs to be modernized so that instead of just acting as a warehouse , the stores become a part of the supply chain management and the production process . </li></ul><ul><li>Presently, they work more as godowns rather than modern warehouses. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Present Status
    16. 19. What does modernization involve ? <ul><li>Pragmatic mix of IW-ASRS, Drive in Pallet System, Selective Pallet System, conveyor systems etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally strong building with adequate free height for vertical storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate material handling equipments and transportation facilities such as platform trucks, forklifts , LMV, HMV . </li></ul><ul><li>RDBMS based IT application for purchase & Inventory management with adequate Hardware resources. </li></ul>
    17. 20. Works Program May 2009 Railway Board > 50 Million June-July 09 Railway Board > Rs. 20 Million but < Rs 50 Million Pink Book June-July 09 Railway Board > Rs. 3 Million but < Rs. 20 Million Feb 2009 GM < Rs. 3 Million LAW BOOK Commencing Yaer Sanctioning Authority Value of Works Plan Head 42
    18. 21. Machinery & Plants Program May 2008 Railway Board >Rs. 10 Million Sept/Oct 08 Railway Board > Rs. 1 Million but < Rs 10 Million Pink Book Sept/Oct 08 Railway Board Any Vehicles Sept/Oct 08 GM < Rs. 1 Million LAW BOOK Commencing Year Sanctioning Authority Value of Works Plan Head 41
    19. 22. Process Involved in creation of Infrastructure Facility 1 <ul><li>. Preparation of detailed Proposal by the field unit suo moto or based on instruction of some senior officer </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrence by associate finance </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative approval of HOD </li></ul><ul><li>HQ finance concurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Sanction of AGM/GM up to 30 lakhs for normal items and up to 50 lakhs for safety works </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrence of Railway Board finance for works > 30 Lakhs </li></ul>
    20. 23. <ul><li>Approval of Concerned Member I.e Member Mechanical for Machinery & Plants as well as RSP and Member Engineering for Works Program. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals above 5 crorers requires the approval of Minister for Railways. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals above 50 crorers usually require the approval of Cabinet. </li></ul>
    21. 24. <ul><li>Receipt of Sanction from Railway Board </li></ul><ul><li>Approval of funds for the proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of detailed estimate for the proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Vetting of the estimate </li></ul><ul><li>Sanction of the estimate </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement of item or execution of work. </li></ul>
    22. 25. Works Program <ul><li>Railway Board fixes the financial limits for various plan heads. </li></ul><ul><li>Field units send vetted proposals to Hq. </li></ul><ul><li>Zonal HQ coordinates the proposals . </li></ul><ul><li>Major works costing > 5 crorers are submitted to Railway Board in advance for scrutiny and clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Works program is submitted 18 months in advance in respect of works chargeable to CAP, DRF, DF, OLWR, CF under demand No. 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Submitted as PWP & FWP. </li></ul>
    23. 26. <ul><li>PWP is initiated by field units in June/July and submitted for net year in September. </li></ul><ul><li>Railway Board takes a final decision after discussion with the GM </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament finally approves the same under various heads such as assets, acquitions, construction, replacement . </li></ul><ul><li>These are financed from CAP, CF, DRF,DF,OLWR </li></ul>
    24. 27. Summary of WP <ul><li>Identify requirement, detail, scope, worksite sketch, feasibility, manpower reduction, new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance by B.O and preparation of abstract estimate inclusive of sub estimate pertaining to different departments. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain administrative approval of DRM/HOD. </li></ul><ul><li>Get finance concurrence and sent it to CME/Planning. </li></ul><ul><li>HQ list proposals in 3 categories. </li></ul><ul><li>A. > 5 crorers, b. 30 lakhs to 5 crorers, c. < 30 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>The grouped proposals are put up to the concerned HOD & PHOD </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative approval of CME in consultation with other H.O.D </li></ul><ul><li>All the three lists put up to CE-Planning </li></ul>
    25. 28. <ul><li>Works programme meeting chaired by G.M and attended by all phod for prioritizing and finalsing. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate meetings for works above 5 crorers and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals approved by GM are putup to finance for concurrence. </li></ul><ul><li>After finance concurrence, all proposals are handed over to CE-P for inclusion in PWP of the Railway for onward submission to Railway Board. </li></ul><ul><li>Works Programme meeting is held in Railway Board attended by GM to finalise the works. </li></ul><ul><li>Railway Board conveys the approval of works through the pink Book </li></ul>
    26. 29. <ul><li>Works above Rs 50 Lakhs are itemised. </li></ul><ul><li>Works less than Rs 50 Lakhs are given as lumpsum. </li></ul><ul><li>At the Railway Level, works > Rs 50 Laks and having a major portion of civil work are executed by CAO-C </li></ul><ul><li>works > Rs 50 Laks and having a major portion of mechanical l work are to be executed by person nominated by CME </li></ul><ul><li>Works costing < Rs 50 Laks are executed by the division </li></ul>
    27. 30. Estimated cost of the project <ul><li>Sanctioned in M&P Program for the year 2007-08 under plan head 41. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost: Rs. 138 Million. </li></ul><ul><li>Components involved; </li></ul><ul><li>IW-ASRS; </li></ul><ul><li>Drive in Pallet & Selective Pallet System. </li></ul><ul><li>3 & 5 Ton Forklift </li></ul><ul><li>5 Ton Road Crane </li></ul><ul><li>Truck 9 & 16 Ton </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-utility Vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Platform Trucks & Others. </li></ul><ul><li>3 Ton EOT Crane. </li></ul>Rs. 115 Million Rs. 10 Million
    28. 31. Preliminary Work involved-1 <ul><li>Find out the weight of individual item to be kept in the ASRS </li></ul><ul><li>Find out the dimensions of each item. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out the weight and dimension of items traditionally being received in the existing packaging conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Work out the number of pallets required. </li></ul><ul><li>Work out the No of aisle, height and width. </li></ul>
    29. 32. Preliminary Work involved-2 <ul><li>Select the area for the ASRS. </li></ul><ul><li>If Greenfield project, decide the type of building to be constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete or PEB ? </li></ul><ul><li>For old workshops , land is a constrain. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of demolishing the existing structure. </li></ul><ul><li>New storage area during the construction activity to be planned. </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop shall normally be reluctant to provide new area during the interim construction period. </li></ul><ul><li>Fight for new Space during construction period. </li></ul><ul><li>Try concept of sub stores </li></ul>
    30. 33. <ul><li>Involve civil consultants for new or modification to existing building. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve ASRS vendors. </li></ul><ul><li>Get the estimates. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to get the soil test report for an existing nearby area or hire a consultant for the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Get abstract estimates. </li></ul><ul><li>Convince the HOD </li></ul><ul><li>Vetting by associate finance. </li></ul>
    31. 34. <ul><li>Approval of Mech, Civil, Electrical ,Stores H.O.D. </li></ul><ul><li>HQ finance vetting and approval of GM. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion in PWP of the Railway for submission to Railway Board. </li></ul><ul><li>Convince AM(PU),EDME(W), EDF(X), EDF(S), DME(P-II), DF(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Tajmahal. </li></ul>
    32. 35. Detailed Estimate <ul><li>Get civil estimate from the PEB vendors as well as the civil engineering department and convert the sane into civil sub estimate. </li></ul><ul><li>Get estimate of ASRS from ASRS vendors and convert that into mechanical Sub estimate. </li></ul><ul><li>Get electrical estimate from ASRS vendor & convert the same into electrical sub estimate. </li></ul><ul><li>Approval of sub estimates from respective H.O.D. </li></ul>
    33. 36. <ul><li>Decision regarding “Turn Key” implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Project to be dealt by Materials Management department only including the civil and other works. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare single tender document . </li></ul><ul><li>Decide qualifying criterion. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide payment conditions separately for civil and ASRS work. </li></ul><ul><li>The payment terms must be conducive to the vendors so that working capital is not blocked and contractors are not in distress. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision regarding MB. </li></ul>
    34. 37. Other storage & retrieval systems Storage carousel Push-back rack Shelves/bins/drawers Flow-through rack Mezzanine Stacking frame Drive-in rack Split case order picking system Cantilever rack Selective pallet rack Automatic storage/retrieval systems (AS/RS Unit load AS/RS Miniload AS/RS Man-on-board AS/RS Sliding rack Block stacking (no equipment)
    35. 38. 1. Block Stacking (No Equipment) <ul><li>Bulk storage using block stacking can result in the minimum cost of storage since cube utilization is high and no storage medium is required, but material accessibility is low since only the top of the front stack is accessible and loads at bottom of a stack must not require support </li></ul><ul><li>Storage racks are used when support and/or material accessibility is required </li></ul>
    36. 39. Selective Pallet Rack <ul><li>Pallets are supported between load-supporting beams </li></ul><ul><li>Special attachments and decking can be used to make the racks capable of supporting other types of unit loads besides pallets (e.g., coils, drums, skids) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for: </li></ul><ul><li>Standard —single-deep storage using a counterbalanced lift truck </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow-Aisle —storage using a narrow-aisle lift truck </li></ul><ul><li>Deep-Reach —greater than single-deep storage (typically double-deep storage </li></ul>
    37. 40. Drive-Through Rack <ul><li>Loads are supported by rails attached to the upright beams </li></ul><ul><li>Lift trucks are driven between the uprights beams </li></ul><ul><li>Requires similar-width loads </li></ul><ul><li>Open at both ends, allowing access from both ends (FIFO) </li></ul>
    38. 41. . Drive-In Rack <ul><li>Same as drive-through rack, except closed at one end, allowing entry from only one end (LIFO) </li></ul>
    39. 42. Flow-Through Rack <ul><li>Loads are supported on an incline to enable gravity-based movement of the loads within the rack (via, e.g., a gravity roller conveyor) </li></ul><ul><li>Loaded at the higher end and unloaded at the lower end (FIFO) </li></ul>
    40. 43. Push-Back Rack <ul><li>Same as flow-through rack, except loaded and unloaded at the lower end and closed at the higher end (LIFO) </li></ul>
    41. 44. Sliding Rack <ul><li>Only one mobile aisle is used to access several rows of racks </li></ul><ul><li>Location of the aisle is changed by sliding the rows of racks along guide rails in the floor </li></ul><ul><li>Typically found in library stacks </li></ul>
    42. 45. Cantilever Rack <ul><li>Loads are supported by cantilever &quot;arms&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Used to store long loads (e.g., bar stock, pipes, lumber) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to pallet racks, except the front upright beams and the front supporting beams are eliminated </li></ul>
    43. 46. Shelves/Bins/Drawers
    44. 47. Storage Carousel <ul><li>Carousel consists of a set of vertically or horizontally revolving storage baskets or bins </li></ul><ul><li>Materials (and the storage medium) move to the operator, &quot;part-to-man,&quot; for end-of-aisle picking </li></ul><ul><li>Each level of the carousel can rotate independently in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction </li></ul><ul><li>Control ranges from manually activated push buttons to automated computer controlled systems </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an alternative to typical &quot;man-to-part&quot; AS/RS, where the S/R machine moves to the part </li></ul>
    45. 48. Automatic Storage/Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) <ul><li>Consists of an integrated computer-controlled system that combines the storage medium, transport mechanism, and controls with various levels of automation for fast and accurate random storage of products and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Storage/retrieval (S/R) machine in an AS/RS operates in narrow aisle, serving rack slots on both sides of aisle; can travel in horizontal (along the aisle) and vertical (up and down a rack) directions at same time </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: fewer material handlers, better material control (including security), and more efficient use of storage space </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: high capital Investment. </li></ul>
    46. 49. Unit Load AS/RS <ul><li>Used to store/retrieve loads that are palletized or unitized and weigh over 500 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Stacking heights up to 130 ft. high, with most ranging from 60 to 85 ft. high; 5 to 6 ft. wide aisles; single- or double-deep storage racks </li></ul>
    47. 50. Miniload AS/RS <ul><li>Used to store/retrieve small parts and tools that can be stored in a storage bin or drawer </li></ul><ul><li>End-of-aisle order picking and replenishment </li></ul><ul><li>Stacking heights range from 12 to 20 ft.; bin capacities range from 200 to 750 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Termed a &quot;microload AS/RS&quot; when used in assembly, kitting, and testing operations to deliver small containers of parts to individual workstations, where workstations are typically located on the sides of a pair of racks and the S/R machine operates between the racks to move containers to openings in the racks (storage lanes) located next to each station </li></ul>
    48. 51. Man-On-Board AS/RS <ul><li>Used for in-aisle picking; operator picks from shelves, bins, or drawers within the storage structure </li></ul><ul><li>Manual or automatic control </li></ul><ul><li>S/R machine is similar to an order picker or turret truck and can sometimes operate as an industrial truck when outside an aisle, except the S/R is guided along a rail when operating in an aisle </li></ul>
    49. 52. <ul><li>• Working Capacity: 1500 Kg. loads at 100% duty cycle </li></ul><ul><li>• End-of-Aisle Run-out Required: 15 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>• Height Requirements: 12 ft. to 100 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>• S/R Machine Length: 15 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>• Aisle Width: 80&quot; Pallet to Pallet </li></ul><ul><li>• Vertical Speed: 90 FPM </li></ul><ul><li>• Horizontal Speed: 700 FPM </li></ul><ul><li>• Forks Rotation: 180 deg. </li></ul>General Specifications of IW-ASRS
    50. 53. General Specifications of IW-ASRS <ul><li>S/R Machine: </li></ul><ul><li>Construction: Modular component design. All parts designed for 100% duty cycle. Welded steel frame. Single mast tube, strut braced. Structural steel base. </li></ul><ul><li>Drive and Idler Wheels: Flanged forged alloy steel. Case Hardened to 55 Rockwell C. Reground for concentricity. Heavy-duty pillow block bearing support. </li></ul><ul><li>Fork Extractor Mechanism: </li></ul><ul><li>• Construction: Precession fabricated steel </li></ul><ul><li>• Load Capacity: 1500 Kg. </li></ul><ul><li>• Load Support: Industrial Standard Forks </li></ul><ul><li>• Extractor Drive: Patented ball screw and rotator with variable frequency drives, industrial gear reducers, and    brake. </li></ul>
    51. 54. Crane Rail with V-H Drives <ul><li>Crane Rail: </li></ul><ul><li>• Floor mounted , Rail mounted . </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical & Horizontal Drives: </li></ul><ul><li>High performance sine-coded, pulse width modulated AC vector motor drives which generates an adjustable voltage/ frequency three phase output for complete speed control. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic stall prevention and voltage boost prevents nuisance tripping during load or line side transient conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>The drives will not induce any voltage or distortion back into the utility line and maintains a displacement power factor of not less than 0.98 throughout its speed range. </li></ul>
    52. 55. Communication & Controls <ul><li>Communication: </li></ul><ul><li>• Infrared Modem </li></ul><ul><li>S/R Machine Controls: </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Components : IEEE code compliance throughout. IEEE rated enclosure, sensors, and wiring. Panel-mounted diagnostic indicator lights. Panel-mounted maintenance controls. </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics and Positioning : Onboard programmable controller A-B SLC-500® communication by infrared modem. Steel code bar, optical address readers. Fine positioning, motor-mounted resolvers with 1/16'' accuracy or 1 deg. Accurate positioning on start-up. </li></ul>
    53. 56. Rack & Pallets <ul><li>Safeguards: </li></ul><ul><li>Front and rear aisle-obstruction detectors. Onboard and off-board emergency stops. Load and centering sensors and interlocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Rack Structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually any post and beam (conventional) existing or new racks capable of safely bearing the pallet loads (pushback and flow rack). Continuity of vertical shelf distance from floor not required. Common depth dimension recommended, but differing depths can often be accommodated. Racks must be attached to the floor but no shimming is needed except with extreme floor conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Height: 100 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Pallets: </li></ul><ul><li>Any two or four way pallet capable of being used. </li></ul>
    54. 57. Loading/ Unloading Area RAIL RAIL RAIL
    55. 58. Vertical crane of IW-ASRS
    56. 59. Drive-in-Pallet System 1 2 3
    57. 60. Why use IW-ASRS at Parel Depot <ul><li>Parel workshop has one of the smallest footprint to Coach POH ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>Located in the heart of Metropolitan city-Mumbai with costly land where lateral expansion is not a n option. </li></ul><ul><li>POH target of ICF, LHB increasing. </li></ul><ul><li>Area can be released for workshop modernization & expansion activities only by releasing the dead space being occupied by multifarious stores godowns. </li></ul><ul><li>This is where IW-ASRS comes into play. </li></ul><ul><li>IW-ASRS utilizes vertical storage capacity leading to efficient storage & retrieval </li></ul>
    58. 61. Proposed site at Lower Parel <ul><li>Central ward of Parel Depot </li></ul><ul><li>Measures 50m * 45 m </li></ul><ul><li>50% area with mezzanine floor </li></ul><ul><li>Max. free height available 6 m. </li></ul><ul><li>Free height available in mezzanine area is 3 m. </li></ul><ul><li>Cemented flooring. </li></ul>
    59. 62. Constrains <ul><li>IW-ASRS requires a Greenfield area with free height of 15 to 20 m </li></ul><ul><li>100 year old building. </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse Rubble masonry wall . </li></ul><ul><li>Roof truss supported on 100 year old Cast Iron columns of 6m height. </li></ul><ul><li>Flooring is uneven with a limited bearing capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual flooding of ground floor during monsoon. </li></ul><ul><li>IW-ASRS requires a free height of minimum 15-20 m . </li></ul><ul><li>Average load per 1.2m*1m pallet is one ton . Each pallet column can go up to 15 bays . </li></ul><ul><li>Hence bearing capacity of the flooring should be 12 MT per 1.2 sq.m </li></ul>
    60. 63. Solution <ul><li>Break Mezzanine floor with area of 25m*45m to obtain free height. </li></ul><ul><li>New foundation for the columns. </li></ul><ul><li>New Columns of 20m height. </li></ul><ul><li>New hardonite flooring with leveled ground for movement of sophisticated machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Raise wall height by using prefab light weight material </li></ul><ul><li>Use light weight roofing material having energy saving features </li></ul>
    61. 64. Activities involved in ASRS <ul><li>Civil Engineering work of site preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Leveled flooring with adequate bearing capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate free height for 15-20 m for vertical storage & movement of vertical crane. </li></ul><ul><li>New light weigh roof </li></ul><ul><li>Power requirements </li></ul>
    62. 65. !
    63. 66. Modus Operandi of execution <ul><li>Prepare detailed sub estimate of electrical, civil & mechanical portion . </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain sanction of respective HOD. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare STR & DPR. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain sanction of GM. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare material schedules for purchase components . </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare tender schedule for works portion. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain dispensation from COFMOW. </li></ul><ul><li>Float only one works tender to take care of mechanical, civil as well as electrical work to be carried out by a single agency on a turn key basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Have provision for operation for 2 years by the contracting agency along with training to be followed by five years comprehensive AMC. </li></ul>
    64. 67. PLAN, ELEVATION & SECTION OF PAREL STORES DEPOT
    65. 68. FRONT VIEW OF IW-ASRS AT PAREL STORES DEPOT
    66. 69. TOP VIEW OF PAREL STORES DEPOT WITH IW-ASRS
    67. 70. PALLET & SECTION AT “C”
    68. 71. What and where is the central ward ? <ul><li>The location of ASRS shall be the central ward. </li></ul><ul><li>Central ward measures 60m X 45 m ETE. </li></ul><ul><li>On the north end of CW is CR2 Shop. </li></ul><ul><li>On the South of CW is macadam road. </li></ul><ul><li>On the east of CW is fitting shop </li></ul><ul><li>On the south of CW is rail line </li></ul>
    69. 72. Layout of C ward Dy.CMM-PL Chamber CA/TA to Dy.CMM lift AMM, Ledger Section & computer cell NF Ward DMS Returned stores & platform Survey Plot & Loading platform
    70. 73. LAYOUT FOR THE PROPOSED ASRS AT THE CENTRAL WARD
    71. 74. Installation of IW-ASRS <ul><li>Transport the material to the prepared ASRS site. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Bill of Material along with WTC. </li></ul><ul><li>Get Payment for 80% of material cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Install the racks. </li></ul><ul><li>Cranes, Transfer Car, Pallets etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated with Warehouse Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate with Depot Module of MMIS </li></ul>
    72. 75. Existing Plan of Roof for Central Ward Existing Elevation of Roof for Central Ward Dy.CMM-PL Chamber CA/TA to Dy.CMM lift AMM, Ledger Section & computer cell NF Ward DMS Returned stores & platform Survey Plot & Loading platform
    73. 76. Future elevation of Roof for Central Ward Dy.CMM-PL Chamber CA/TA to Dy.CMM lift AMM, Ledger Section & computer cell NF Ward DMS Returned stores & platform Survey Plot & Loading platform
    74. 77. Layout of C ward Dy.CMM-PL Chamber CA/TA to Dy.CMM lift AMM, Ledger Section & computer cell NF Ward DMS Returned stores & platform Survey Plot & Loading platform
    75. 78. CIVIL CONSTRUCTION <ul><li>Remove the roof asbestos sheets. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport to BMC dumping ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide additional colums to take the load of columns to be removed at 4,1 to 4,6. </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantle truss and purlins. </li></ul><ul><li>Weigh them and transport to W. R Scrap Yard at Mahim. </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantle west end wall of CW. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport the debris to BMC Dumping Ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantle the Ledger and computer center </li></ul><ul><li>Transport the debris to BMC DG. </li></ul>
    76. 79. Civil Work (Cont.) <ul><li>Dismantle the south end wall of CW. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport the debris to BMC DG. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide roof for the non-dismantled area. </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantle the columns. </li></ul><ul><li>Weigh the columns. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport them to WR Scrap Yard at Mahim. </li></ul>
    77. 80. Civil Work (Cont.) <ul><li>Prepare the foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation for columns. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the ASRS working area. </li></ul><ul><li>Construct the platform. </li></ul><ul><li>Construct superstructure to house ASRS </li></ul>
    78. 81. S/ASRS/LPL/2008/01 DATED 07.07.2008 opening ON 12.11.2008 AT 11.00 HRS SCOPE: Design , fabrication, supply, commissioning and testing of automated storage and retrieval system at carriage repair stores depot, lower Parel, Mumbai EMD: 7.70 Lakhs. Expected time of completion: 12 TO 15 Months from the date of issue of signing of contract Tender Details
    79. 82. Major work involved <ul><li>Dismantling of exiting central ward building and construction </li></ul><ul><li>Provisioning of ASRS with crane, racks, pallets, electrical controls etc. </li></ul>
    80. 83. CIVIL WORK INVOLVES Demolishing /dismantling of existing structure/building and segregation of dismantled debris along with their transportation to nominated Scrap Yards . Construction of concrete platform of approximate height 1 Mtr For supporting entire ASRS structure. Erection of pre-engineered modular steel structure/building for housing the ASRS . Provision of High Rise Racking System with minimum 3840 racking Locations  
    81. 84. Provision of cage and plain pallets for keeping material. Provision of High rise Fully Automated, Computer Controlled, Stacker Crane and Transfer Car system along with necessary Aisle Equipment0. Provision of comprehensive Warehouse Management System. Provision of Electricals, screened partition and fire protection system for complete ASRS system. CIVIL WORK . CONT.
    82. 85. Two bid system <ul><li>TECHNICAL BID </li></ul><ul><li>Part I for Civil Engineering Work </li></ul><ul><li>Part- II for Mechanical and Electrical Work </li></ul><ul><li>COMMERCIAL BID </li></ul><ul><li>In prescribed format as given in Annexure B of tender Document </li></ul>
    83. 86. PAYMENT TERMS <ul><li>Mechanical and Electrical Work : </li></ul><ul><li>50 per cent on proof of inspection and dispatch of documents . For dispatches by Road, 50% payment will be made on receipt of material duly pre-inspected and receipted at site by the consignee in good condition </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Balance 40 % payment shall be made after successful installation & </li></ul><ul><li>commissioning of the ASRS i.e. Cranes , Transfer cars ,racks, pallets etc. </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Balance 10 per cent payment within 90 days of commissioning of the entire project on furnishing a Bank Guarantee . If a Tenderer requests a variation in the payment terms and if such variation is acceptable to the Purchaser, the same would be evaluated at an interest rate of 12 percent per annum for purposes of comparison with other tenders. </li></ul>
    84. 87. PAYMENT TERMS Payment will be made for the actual work done at site on pro-rata basis. The tendered is free to submit its stage payment schedule based on the activities involved such as dismantling of building, removal of debris, construction of ASRS platform, erection of columns, construction of roof etc. Advance payment of accepted rate/structural steel of bars, HTS wires, neoprene bearings, anchorages, sheathing etc. shall be made after bringing to the site of work and on production of necessary purchase voucher/Test certificates, an insurance policy covering losses due to thefts & floods and against indemnity bond submitted by the contractors and accepted by competent authority. This advance is recoverable from running bills to the extant quantity of above material are consumed up to the running bills stage. Sr.No Work Payment to be made Remarks. (a) Supply of reinforced steel 70% (b) Supply of material other than reinforced steel 60% (c) Fabrication & Erection 90% (d) On commissioning 100%
    85. 88. EMD & SD EMD. Deposit Receipt, Pay order, Demand Draft, Guarantee Bonds. Performance Guarantee/Security Deposit To. Be deposited Excise Duty & Modvat
    86. 89. Technical Specification 1 One Single Mast Stacker Crane for 1000 mm (W) X 1200 mm (D) X 1200 mm (H) Pallets of one ton capacity and capable of serving a height of 18 meters or more Transfer Car – Racking System Plain Steel Pallets -: Qty 1920 Numbers of Four way entry Plain Steel pallets of size – 1000 mm (W) X 1200 mm(D) X 1200 mm (H) Cage Steel Pallets : Qty. 1920 Numbers of Four way entry four side wire mesh cage steel pallets of size – 1000 mm (W) X 1200 mm(D) X 1200 mm Mechanical Aisle Equipments: Railway railwith adjustable clamps for holding the rails inposition & to ensure alignment. Top rail shall be mounted on the racking system through clamps
    87. 90. Electrical Aisle Equipments: The Electrical aisle equipment shall consist of Power rail (fully enclosed Bus Bar), which is mounted on the racking system below the first loading level with necessary protection as feature as per Indian Electricity Act. Controls & Hardware – All necessary controls, PLC, Hardware etc. Software – Warehouse Management System and inverter control system OPERATION CYCLE Technical Specification 2
    88. 91. <ul><li>The Stacker Cranes should be linked to central computer control through WMS </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse Management System(WMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory Control Software (ICS) </li></ul><ul><li>Location Management Software Module (LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Control Software Module (HCS) </li></ul>Automated Controls and Software
    89. 92. DESIGN STANDARDS 1 The design of the AS/RS should conform to Indian and International standards, ensuring that best of the System is supplied. Following Indian and International Standards should be followed. IS 800 – 1984 General Construction on steel IS 801 – 1975 Code of practice for use of cold formed light gauge steel structural members in general building construction IS 10748 – 1984 Hot-rolled Steel Strip for Welded Tubes and Pipes – Specification IS 3655 – 1966 Recommended practice for electroplating IS 101 – 1964 Methods of Sampling and test for paints, varnishes and related Products
    90. 93. DESIGN STANDARDS 2 IS 2074 – 1992 Ready Mixed Paint, Air Drying, Red Oxide Zinc Chrome, Priming – Specification IS 513 : Cold Rolled Low Carbon Steel Sheets & Strips IS 325 : 3-Phase induction motor – specifications. IS 1363 : Hexagon Head Bolts, Screws and Nuts IS 2062 : 1999 Steel for General Structural Purposes – Specification IS 4923 : 1997 Hollow Steel Sections for structural use IS 2266 : Steel Wire Rope for engineering purpose. IS 4923 : Hollow steel section for structural use. FEM 9.311 – 1978: Rules for Design of Storage & retrieval Machines – Structures. 5.1.15 FEM 9.831 – 1995 : Basis of calculation for Storage & retrieval Machines – Tolerances & Clearances within warehouse. 5.1.16 FEM 9.851 – 2003 : Performance Data of S/R Machines – Cycle Time.
    91. 94. <ul><li>Civil Engineering Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Building - PEB </li></ul><ul><li>Standards- AISC American Institute of Steel Construction (Hot Rolled ,Built Sec.), </li></ul><ul><li>AISI (American Iron and steel institute) (Light Gauge Cold worked) </li></ul><ul><li>IS:8750- 1987(Design Load) </li></ul><ul><li>IS: 800-1984 Construction in Steel </li></ul><ul><li>IS: 801-1975 Cold Formed Light gauge steel </li></ul><ul><li>steel structural members </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighting </li></ul><ul><li>Lightening Protection </li></ul><ul><li>General Issues </li></ul>
    92. 95. <ul><li>Approval of Building Plan from Government Authorities/ BMC/ IIT ? </li></ul><ul><li>PEB Construction : Which Specification is to be followed ? IS or AES ? </li></ul><ul><li>Canopy and it’s location ? </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Finish for the structural Members- Weather Shot Blasting or wire brush ? </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Paint to be used : Polyurethane or Enamel ? </li></ul>
    93. 96. Painting <ul><li>Painting for the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pallets : PU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racks : PU after </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shot blasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crane, Transfer Car :Poly Urethane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural members :Poly Urethane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall cladding :Poly urethane </li></ul></ul>
    94. 97. Roof <ul><li>Type of Ventilators : Graven type or powerless ventilators ? Powerless turbo ventilators to be used </li></ul><ul><li>Safety on the roof approach </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Net / fall protection requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance code ? </li></ul><ul><li>Stiffeners for columns ? </li></ul>
    95. 98. General <ul><li>Supply of Steel & Cement : Contractor shall arrange his own steel and cement. </li></ul><ul><li>Water and Electricity : Shall be provided by Railways but charged from the contractor at actual based on standard railway tariff. </li></ul><ul><li>Approval of Building Plan : The approval may be obtained from government authorities/ BMC/ IIT or BMC Licensed engineers or Chartered engineers of repute. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete: RMC or Site Mixed Concrete ? </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Structure: Works Contract or Supply ? </li></ul><ul><li>Provisioning of Lightening arrestor </li></ul>
    96. 99. <ul><li>R/R Masonry below plinth : Plaster or pointing to be done ? </li></ul><ul><li>IS 456 of 1978 or of 2000 ? M-25 is specified 2000 edition . </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Door – HMPS- Aluminium ? </li></ul><ul><li>Approved makes of welding electrode, anti termite chemical, Hardonite ? </li></ul><ul><li>No of Windows per bay ? </li></ul>
    97. 100. <ul><li>Integrity between old building and the new building ? </li></ul><ul><li>Chajja over only the window or over the entire course ? </li></ul><ul><li>Roads and drains around the building ? </li></ul><ul><li>Office area details </li></ul><ul><li>Lightening above the racking area? </li></ul><ul><li>Toilet/Change Rooms ? </li></ul>
    98. 101. <ul><li>Aluminum wire mesh around the well of the ASRS ? </li></ul>
    99. 102. PEB Design
    100. 103. PEB BUILDING
    101. 104. Pre Engineered Metal Building ( Major Components) <ul><li>Main framing or vertical columns </li></ul><ul><li>Purlins, girts and eave struts </li></ul><ul><li>Sheeting and insulation or prefab panels </li></ul><ul><li>Brick & Cement Board Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Flooring </li></ul><ul><li>Paints and finishes </li></ul><ul><li>False Ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous services </li></ul>
    102. 105. MAIN FRAMING <ul><li>Main framing : It includes the rigid steel frames of the building. The PEB rigid frame comprises of tapered columns and tapered rafters. The tapered sections are fabricated wherein the flanges are welded to the web. Splice plates are welded to the ends of the tapered sections. The frame is erected by bolting the splice plates of connecting sections together . </li></ul>
    103. 106. PURLINS, GIRTS AND EAVE STRUTS <ul><li>Purlins, girts and eave struts are also known as secondary cold-formed members. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no welding involved in their preparation. They are prepared by just bending the steel coil giving it the desired shape (Z-shape for purlins and girts, and C-shape for eave struts). </li></ul><ul><li>Purlins : Purlins are the secondary members are for supporting the roof panels & wall cladding . </li></ul>
    104. 107. PANELS AND INSULATION <ul><li>Walls & Roof: Single skin profile or ribbed steel sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Material: Steel sheets made from steel coils. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum thickness 0.5mm high tensile steel. </li></ul><ul><li>Use zincalume or galvanized bare and permanently colour coated or plain </li></ul><ul><li>Provision for coating at site after installation. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
    105. 108. Insulation <ul><li>Provide fibrous insulation slabs / rolls of non- combustible Rockwool, </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum foil laminated, placed over a metal mesh bed created between the purlins, and then the roofing steel sheet fixed over it. </li></ul><ul><li>The siding walls can also be insulated by providing a double skin profile or ribbed steel sheet or cement board sheets on inner side wall cladding having Rockwool. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation slab sandwiched in between and held in position with the help of ‘Z’ spacers in between the two steel sheets. </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, a double skin insulated roofing system can also be erected. The cement boards will give a conventional white finish after paining </li></ul>
    106. 109. PANELS AND INSULATION <ul><li>Provide pre-fabricated insulated panels, having two single skin panels (plain steel sheets galvanized / zincalume colour coated) with polyurethane foam insulation in between. </li></ul><ul><li>These panels can be used as thermally efficient roof and wall claddings for buildings . </li></ul><ul><li>Roof is of profile steel sheet with or without insulation fixed underneath. </li></ul>
    107. 110. Erection of PEB Structure <ul><li>The roof is erected with trusses placed over the walls and profile sheet fixed to purlins and bolted to the trusses. </li></ul><ul><li>The corners of the walls are provided with steel flashings fixed to the profiled GI sheet on both sides before fixing of the cement particle boards </li></ul>
    108. 111. PAINTS AND FINISHES <ul><li>Primary and secondary Members : Coated with one coat (35 microns) of redoxide paint without any special treatment to steel. </li></ul><ul><li>Shotblasting prior to painting in order to give better anti-corrosion properties. </li></ul>
    109. 112. DOORS AND WINDOWS <ul><li>HMPS Steel or aluminum framed doors and windows are fixed to the purlins or the supporting profiled steel either by bolting to the flanges already fixed to the purlins.. </li></ul>
    110. 113. Design Codes <ul><li>Frame members (hot rolled or built-up) are in accordance with AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) Specifications for the design, fabrication and erection of structural steel. </li></ul><ul><li>Light gauge cold-formed members are designed in accordance with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) Specification for the design of light gauge cold formed steel structural members. </li></ul>
    111. 114. Design Codes 2 <ul><li>IS : 8750 - 1987 : Code of practice for design loads of buildings & structures. </li></ul><ul><li>IS : 800 -1984 : Code of practice for general construction in steel. </li></ul><ul><li>IS : 801- 1975 : Code of practice for use of Cold formed light gauge Steel Structural Members in general building Construction </li></ul>
    112. 115. Guidelines for PEB design 1 AISI viz a viz IS Spec. <ul><li>All designs shall be as per MBMA American standards unless specified as per IS code </li></ul><ul><li>Live load as per American code = 0.57 kn/m^2  and as per IS code = 0.75 kn/m^2. </li></ul><ul><li>As per American code :horizontal deflection = l/180 & vertical deflection=eh/100 for main frames. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind terrain category 3 is to be selected unless more data is available. </li></ul>
    113. 116. Guidelines for PEB design 2 <ul><li>In American design , wind coefficients to be followed as given in MBMA. </li></ul><ul><li>In is design, internal & external building wind coefficients as per IS -875 (part-3). </li></ul><ul><li>Generally buildings are to be designed as pinned except for building span >30m or crane capacity of more than 5 tons or height greater than 9 m. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard purlin laps shall be 385 mm </li></ul>
    114. 117. PEB <ul><li>STRUCTURAL PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>FRAME CONFIGURATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF LOADS & ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>END CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>CRANES </li></ul><ul><li>MEZANINES </li></ul><ul><li>LOAD COMBINATIONS </li></ul>
    115. 118. PEB TCCS = TAPERED COLUMN CLEAR SPAN
    116. 119. Steps in design of PEB <ul><li>Wind load calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Purline Design </li></ul><ul><li>Girt Design </li></ul><ul><li>Design of Main Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Base Plate </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor Bolt design for Moment Condition </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor Bolt design for Shear Condition </li></ul><ul><li>Gable column design </li></ul><ul><li>Design of connection plate </li></ul><ul><li>Cranes Design </li></ul>
    117. 120. Erection System 2 <ul><li>Preparation for Erection </li></ul><ul><li>Pre Erection checks </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving Materials at site </li></ul><ul><li>Unloading Containers </li></ul><ul><li>Erection of the Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of the First Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Main frames </li></ul><ul><li>Mezzanine floors </li></ul><ul><li>Crane Beams </li></ul>
    118. 121. Erection System 3 <ul><li>Sheeting & Trimming </li></ul><ul><li>Sheeting preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Sheeting the walls </li></ul><ul><li>Sheeting the roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous trimmings </li></ul><ul><li>Fascia </li></ul>
    119. 122. Design Issues ? <ul><li>Welding : Single side welding or double side welding for PEB Members ? </li></ul><ul><li>Thickness of hot rolled and cold rolled sections ? </li></ul><ul><li>4 mm or 6mm ? </li></ul><ul><li>Support condition to be considered in design as fixed based or Pin based ? </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Analysis – 2 or 3 dimensional ? </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul>
    120. 123. Electrical Issues <ul><li>Power requirement of the entire ASRS system shall be broadly 100 KW. </li></ul><ul><li>70 KW for the ASRS and balance 30 KW for the office requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>440 AC supply is to be arranged. </li></ul><ul><li>Underground cable (LT) to be laid from wheel shop to ASRS location and another LT Cable from timber ward SS to ASRS arena. </li></ul>
    121. 124. Fire Fighting-1 <ul><li>Comprehensive fire fighting system including fire/ smoke detection, piping, fire hoses, water sump to be provided by the contractor. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of material in the ASRS . </li></ul><ul><li>Steel components : Steel pins, hangers, nuts and bolts, bearings etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber components : water and air hose pipes, rubber pads, rubber washers, </li></ul><ul><li>Paints: Approx. 300 Tons </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals : H2SO4 , trichloroethylene, bleaching powder, soda ash, HCL </li></ul><ul><li>Cloth : Duster cotton, dungri cloth, waste cotton, </li></ul><ul><li>Leather : Safety Boots, Hand gloves </li></ul>
    122. 125. Fire Fighting-2 <ul><li>One Aisle to be kept separate for paints ,chemicals or other fire prone material. </li></ul><ul><li>Underground sump to be created with adequate capacity by contractor. </li></ul><ul><li>Pumps and motors of adequate capacity to be provided by the contractor for water pumping. </li></ul><ul><li>Water point shall be provided by the Railways near the sump. </li></ul><ul><li>Provisioning of traditional fire extinguishers along with two number high powered pressurized water mist system . </li></ul>
    123. 126. Bar-coding and RFID 1 <ul><li>Bar-coding is to be used for all the components stored in the ASRS i.e individual components for bigger items such as BSS Hanger, buffer plunger etc. and also packets for smaller items such as nuts, screws , bolts etc. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID is to be used for each pallet which shall help in tracking the pallets within the workshop. </li></ul>
    124. 127. Bar-coding and RFID- 2 <ul><li>Material received at CRD Parel shall have Bar code labels pasted on them. These labels shall be printed by the vendor supplying material to railways. </li></ul><ul><li>In case Bar codes are not available on the received material, provision of printing the bar codes and pasting on the consignment should be incorporated in the system. </li></ul>
    125. 128. Interfacing of WMS, LMS, ICMS & MMIS <ul><li>Contractor shall integrate the Warehouse Management system, Location Management system, Inventory control system with that of the Western Railways Materials Management System( MMIS). </li></ul>
    126. 129. Office area , Wash Rooms ,Change Rooms <ul><li>Office area : </li></ul><ul><li>Offices presently available. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ledger Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress, receipt, Cash Purchase, Dispatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chambers of Dy.CMM & AMM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chambers of CDMS & DMS </li></ul></ul>
    127. 130. Location of Offices in the new setup <ul><li>Integrated offices shall be located at the “ Non Dismantled Area ” on the ground floor. </li></ul><ul><li>This complex shall have all the offices mentioned in the previous slide. </li></ul><ul><li>The layout plan of the offices shall be as under. </li></ul>
    128. 131. Layout of New Office Complex. Dy. CMM DMS CDMS Computer Center AMM Office Complex DMS DMS CA Visitors Area <ul><li>Granamite Tile flooring with 2’X2’ tiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Walls with polished veneer 6 mm. </li></ul><ul><li>False ceiling. </li></ul><ul><li>Modular doors. </li></ul><ul><li>CFL Lightening. </li></ul><ul><li>Particle board partition for office </li></ul>
    129. 132. Soil test report
    130. 133. What is RFID? <ul><li>RFID is an ADC technology (Automatic Data Collection ) that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track... </li></ul><ul><li>RFID is fast, reliable, and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item </li></ul>
    131. 134. What Constitutes an RFID System? <ul><li>One or more RF tags </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more antennas </li></ul><ul><li>One or more interrogators </li></ul><ul><li>One or more host computers </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate software </li></ul>
    132. 135. RFID API Software (Communicates with the RFID Reader) Customer-Specific Application Software Host Computer Host Memory Space Reader Antenna Application Program Interface (API) Application Program Interface (API) Components of an RFID System
    133. 136. Antenna Reader Firmware Customer’s MIS Host Application Software API TCP/IP Power ~ Asset Asset/Tag RFID System Components (block diagram) Tag Insert
    134. 137. RESPONSES COMMANDS Tag Physical Memory APPLICATIONRESPONSES APPLICATION INTERROGATOR RF TAG APPLICATIONCOMMANDS Command / Response Unit PHYSICAL INTERROGATOR DATA PROTOCOL PROCESSOR ISO/IEC 15961 ISO/IEC 18000 Encoder Logical Memory AIR INTERFACE ISO/IEC 15962 ISO/IEC 15962 Annexes Logical Memory Map Note: The Logical Memory Map in the Tag Physical Memory is given by the Tag architecture and the mapping rules in the Tag Driver. All the information in the Logical Memory is represented in the Logical Memory Map Decoder Tag Driver and Mapping Rules Application Program Interface DEVICE COMMANDS DEVICE RESPONSES
    135. 138. RFID Operation <ul><li>Sequence of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Host Manages Reader(s) and Issues Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Reader and tag communicate via RF signal </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier signal generated by the reader (upon request from the host application) </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier signal sent out through the antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier signal hits tag(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Tag receives and modifies carrier signal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ sends back” modulated signal (Passive Backscatter - FCC and ITU refer to as “field disturbance device”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antennas receive the modulated signal and send them to the Reader </li></ul><ul><li>Reader decodes the data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results returned to the host application </li></ul></ul>
    136. 139. RFID Operations
    137. 140. What is RFID? -- The Tags <ul><li>Tags can be read-only or read-write </li></ul><ul><li>Tag memory can be factory or field programmed, partitionable, and optionally permanently locked </li></ul><ul><li>Bytes left unlocked can be rewritten over more than 100,000 times </li></ul>
    138. 141. <ul><li>Tag ID Only </li></ul><ul><li>Programmable Database Pointer </li></ul><ul><li>Mission Critical Information </li></ul><ul><li>Portable Database </li></ul><ul><li>Read Only (Factory Programmed) </li></ul><ul><li>WORM - Write Once, Read Many times </li></ul><ul><li>Reprogrammable (Field Programmable) </li></ul><ul><li>Read/Write (In-Use Programmable) </li></ul>RFID System Basics
    139. 142. <ul><li>Tags can be attached to almost anything: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pallets or cases of product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>company assets or personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>items such as apparel, luggage, laundry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people, livestock, or pets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high value electronics such as computers, TVs, camcorders </li></ul></ul>What is RFID? -- The Tags
    140. 143. Are All Tags The Same? <ul><li>Basic Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag transmits radio signal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High Read Range (300 feet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag reflects radio signal from reader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reader powered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    141. 144. <ul><li>Variations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size (16 bits - 512 kBytes +) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read-Only, Read/Write or WORM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type: EEProm, Antifuse, FeRam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitration (Anti-collision) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to read/write one or many tags at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>125KHz - 5.8 GHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbnail to Brick sizes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price ($0.50 to $250) </li></ul></ul>Are All Tags The Same?
    142. 145. RFID System Basics <ul><li>How far? </li></ul><ul><li>How fast? </li></ul><ul><li>How many? </li></ul><ul><li>How much? </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to and surround by what? </li></ul>
    143. 146. What is RFID? -- The Readers <ul><li>Readers (interrogators) can be at a fixed point such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrance/exit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point of sale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warehouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Readers can also be mobile -- tethered, hand-held, or wireless </li></ul>
    144. 147. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Uses normal CMOS processing — basic and ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Relative freedom from regulatory limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Well suited for applications requiring reading small amounts of data at slow speeds and minimal distances </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrates materials well (water, tissue, wood, aluminum) </li></ul><150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )
    145. 148. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate or transmit around metals (iron, steel) </li></ul><ul><li>Handles only small amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>Slow read speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Large Antennas -- compared to higher frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Range </li></ul><150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )
    146. 149. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Tag construction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is thicker (than 13.56 MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is more expensive (than 13.56 MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more complex (requires more turns of the induction coil) </li></ul></ul><150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )
    147. 150. 13.56 MHz <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Uses normal CMOS processing--basic and ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Well suited for applications requiring reading small amounts of data and minimal distances </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrates water/tissue well </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler antenna design (fewer turns of the coil); lower costs to build </li></ul><ul><li>Higher data rate (than 125 kHz--but slower than higher MHz systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinner tag construction (than 125 kHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Smart Card frequency </li></ul>
    148. 151. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Government regulated frequency (U.S. and Europe recently harmonized) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate or transmit around metals </li></ul><ul><li>Large Antennas (compared to higher frequencies) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger tag size than higher frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Tag construction: requires more than one surface to complete a circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Range of ≈ 0.7 m </li></ul>13.56 MHz
    149. 152. RFID Primer…Frequencies <ul><li>Electromagnetic Field </li></ul><ul><li>Coupling: Lower Range UHF </li></ul><ul><li>> 300 MHz <3 (<1) GHz </li></ul><ul><li>(862-928 MHz ANSI MH10.8.4, ISO 18185, B-11 & GTAG) </li></ul><ul><li>(433.92 MHz ISO 18185) </li></ul>1000 MHz Cell Phone RFID: Toll Roads Data Terminal
    150. 153. >300 MHz <1GHz <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Effective around metals </li></ul><ul><li>Best available frequency for distances of >1m </li></ul><ul><li>Tag size smaller than 13.56 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Range: licensed to 20-40' with reasonable sized tag (stamp to eraser size). Unlicensed 3-5 m. </li></ul><ul><li>Good non-line-of-sight communication (except for conductive, &quot;lossy&quot; materials) </li></ul><ul><li>High data rate; Large amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled read zone (through antenna directionality) </li></ul>
    151. 154. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate water/tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory issues (differences in frequency, channels, power, and duty cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory issues in Europe (similar band 869 MHz requires frequency agile chip) </li></ul><ul><li>950 - 956 MHz under study in Japan </li></ul>>300 MHz <1GHz
    152. 155. RFID Primer…Frequencies <ul><li>Electromagnetic </li></ul><ul><li>Field Coupling: </li></ul><ul><li>2.45 GHz </li></ul>RFID: Item Management EAS 2.45 GHz
    153. 156. 2.45 GHz <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Tag size smaller than inductive or lower range UHF (1&quot;x 1/4&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Range: greater range than inductive w/o battery </li></ul><ul><li>More bandwidth than lower range UHF (more frequencies to hop) </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller antennas than lower range UHF or inductive </li></ul><ul><li>High data rate </li></ul>
    154. 157. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Good non-line-of-sight communication (except for conductive, &quot;lossy&quot; materials) </li></ul><ul><li>Can transmit large amounts of data more quickly than lower frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled read zone (through antenna directionality) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective around metals with tuning/design adaptations </li></ul>2.45 GHz
    155. 158. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>More susceptible to electronic noise than lower UHF bands, e.g. 433 MHz, 860-930 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Shared spectrum with other technologies-- </li></ul><ul><li>microwave ovens, RLANS, TV devices, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires non-interfering, &quot;good neighbor&quot; tactics like FHSS </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive requirement: single chip--highly technical; limited number of vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory approvals still &quot;in process&quot; </li></ul>2.45 GHz
    156. 159. RFID Primer…Frequency <ul><li>>5.8 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>(European Road Telematics Frequency) </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Less congested band/less interference </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages : </li></ul><ul><li>Not available in U.S. or many other countries (5.9 now in FCC review) </li></ul><ul><li>Must orient antennas carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Range limited (due to scaling issues/wavelengths) </li></ul><ul><li>Chip difficult to build </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul>RFID: European Tolls 300 GHz
    157. 160. Spectrum Regulation <ul><li>The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is a scarce and shared resource, used nationally and internationally, and subject to a wide range of regulatory oversight. In the U.S., the Federal Communications Commission is a key regulatory body that allocates spectrum use and resolves spectrum conflicts. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is a specialized agency of the United Nations which plays the same role internationally. </li></ul>
    158. 161. Regulations - ITU
    159. 162. Regulatory Differences <ul><li>Usage of channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot interfere with primary service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot claim protection of interference from primary service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can claim protection of interference from other secondary users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial, Scientific, & Medical (ISM) Bands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrowband or Spread Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Power level </li></ul><ul><li>Duty cycle </li></ul>
    160. 163. How far, how fast, how much, how many, attached to what ?
    161. 164. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Applications
    162. 165. Portal Applications Bill of Lading Material Tracking
    163. 166. Portal Applications <ul><li>Limited number items at forklift speeds </li></ul><ul><li>8’ X 10’ doorways </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic receipt & dispatch </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong destination alert </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic marking </li></ul><ul><li>Pallet/container item tracking </li></ul>
    164. 167. Conveyor / Assembly Line Read / Write Operations Higher Accuracy than Bar Code
    165. 168. Conveyor / Assembly Line <ul><li>Up to 450 fpm </li></ul><ul><li>60+ items per container </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>Longer tunnel more items </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic receipt </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic marking </li></ul>
    166. 169. Hand Held Application Categories Wireless Batch Fixed Station
    167. 170. Application Examples Material Handling Inspecting / Maintaining Where is it? What is it? What is inside the box? Where is it going? Where has it been? Should it be here? What have I assembled or disassembled? How many do I have? Do I have enough? Has this been repaired? Is this under warrantee? Has this been inspected? Is this complete? What is the asset’s status or state? Wireless / Batch Inventory Management Material Handling By Destination Material Handling Aggregate / De-aggregate
    168. 171. Shipping Validation Tote/Box/Unit Level Inventory
    169. 172. Intelligent Labels
    170. 173. The HazMat Label
    171. 174. HazMat Smart Label <ul><li>Low power > long range </li></ul><ul><li>1024 bit memory </li></ul><ul><li>Read/write/lock on 8 bits </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient multi-id  Lock data permanently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 ms/8 byte read  25ms/byte write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group select  Broadcast write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 tags/second  Anti-collision </li></ul></ul>
    172. 175. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Standards
    173. 176. The Layers of Logistic Units ( Optically Readable Media) Movement Vehicle (truck, airplane, ship, train) Layer 5 ISO TC 204 (None) AIAG B-15 Container (e.g., 40 foot Sea Container) Layer 4 ISO TC 104 (None) Layer 3 ISO TC 122/WG 4 (15394) ANSI MH10.8.1 AIAG B-10/14 EIA 556-B UCC 6 Layer 2 ISO TC 122/WG 4 (15394) ANSI MH10.8.1 AIAG B-10/14 EIA 556-B UCC 6/EAN Genl Spec Layer 1 ISO TC 122/WG 7 (22742) ANSI MH10.8.6 AIAG B-4 (TBD) EIA 621/624 & IEC TC 91 UCC 1 /EAN Genl Spec Layer 0 ISO TC 122 (TBD) ANSI MH10.8.7 AIAG B-4 EIA SP-3497 UCC 1 /EAN Genl Spec Unit Load “ Pallet” Unit Load “ Pallet” Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item
    174. 177. The Layers of Logistic Units (Radio Frequency Identification - RFID) Container (e.g., 40 foot Sea Container) Movement Vehicle (truck, airplane, ship, train) Layer 5 ISO TC 104 ISO TC 204 (ISO 14816) IATA ISO TC 8 AAR Layer 4 (433 MHz, 860-930 MHz) ISO 122/104 JWG (ISO 10374) ISO TC 104 (ISO 18185) ISO TC 104 (Beyond 18185) ISO 17363 (122/104 JWG) Layer 3 (433 MHz, 860-930 MHz) ISO 17364 (122/104 JWG) ANSI MH10.8.4 AIAG (TBD) EIA (TBD) EAN.UCC GTAG Layer 2 (860-930 MHz) ISO 17365 (122/104 JWG) ANSI MH10.8.8 AIAG (TBD) TCIF (TBD) Layer 1 (860-930 MHz) ISO 17366 (122/104 JWG) Layer 0 (860-930 MHz) ISO 17367 (122/104 JWG) AIAG B-11 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Unit Load “ Pallet” Unit Load “ Pallet”
    175. 178. Application Requirements <ul><li>Wal-Mart - Suppliers will mark inbound cases and pallets with RFID - 1 January 2005 - May, 2003 specification calls for ≈256 bit read/write tag </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Defense - Draft RFID policy to be completed by 18 September 2003 - To issue final policy in July of 2004 that will require suppliers to put passive RFID tags on selected case/pallet packaging by January of 2005. Draft policy calls for passive tags (est. 256 byte) and active tags </li></ul>
    176. 179. Lads, Dads, & Granddads                                                          
    177. 180. Overview <ul><li>Why is Marking and Tagging Important? </li></ul><ul><li>Why Use Computers? </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Marking Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Bar Code Basics </li></ul><ul><li>System Design (Codes and Networks) </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
    178. 181. Why is Marking and Tagging Important? <ul><li>Overall Process / Operational Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Reductions </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory Management </li></ul><ul><li>Liability Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Satisfaction ( Keep em!) </li></ul>
    179. 182. The Ideal Setup
    180. 183. Often --The Real World
    181. 184. Why Use Computers? <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Databases Provide Traceability </li></ul><ul><li>Real Time Networks now Enable Low Cost Data Flow To/From the Finishing Floor , Inventory , and Shipping </li></ul>
    182. 185. Marking Directly on Coils <ul><li>Paint / Chalk(Hot and Cold) </li></ul><ul><li>Ink Jet </li></ul><ul><li>Stamps / Dot Peen </li></ul><ul><li>Laser (with/without paint patch) </li></ul>maintenance small marks OK for Hot Coils expensive Other than Laser Direct Marking does NOT support Standard Automatic Identification
    183. 186. Tags <ul><li>High Contrast Black/White facilitates Bar Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Low Cost Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of Attachment Techniques </li></ul>
    184. 187. Hot Band with Resistance Welded Stainless Tag
    185. 188. Thermal Transfer Printed Metal Tags Slot for Band Wire On Holes
    186. 189. AIAG Label in Adhesive Pouch
    187. 190. Recommended Label in Adhesive Pouch
    188. 191. Typical Tag
    189. 192. ORDER # DATA IDENTIFIER
    190. 193. LPN # DATA IDENTIFIER
    191. 194. • Bar Code Basics
    192. 195. SYMBOLOGIES: There are several ways that the Bars , Dots and Spaces can encode information. Each way is called a SYMBOLOGY 2 D Codes 1 D (Linear)Codes
    193. 196. Typical Code 39 Tag
    194. 197. GOOD BARCODES INCLUDE: • BLACK BARS • WHITE SPACES • GOOD CONTRAST ( PCS) • PROPER RATIOS • CLEAR ZONES P rint C ontrast S ignal
    195. 198. START SEQUENCE Q U I E T 1 000 1 0 111 0 111 0 1 STOP SEQUENCE 1 000 1 0 111 0 111 0 1 Q U I E T
    196. 199. BAR CODE POINTERS “X” DIMENSION • USE LARGEST POSSIBLE “x” DIMENSION FOR THE AVAILABLE SPACE BETTER THAN • BAR CODE CALCULATORS AVAILABLE AT
    197. 200. BAR CODE POINTERS “X” DIMENSION • LARGER X MEANS LONGER READ DISTANCE .048”= “x” Reads at 12 to 15 ft. ( Long Range Reader) .012”= “x” Reads at 2 to 3 ft. • LARGER “x” WORKS BETTER DIRTY/ SCUFFED
    198. 201. Code 39 Code 128C I 2 of 5 All of these symbologies encode the same decimal digits but look at the much finer (delicate) bars in Code 39 POINTER !! For all decimal digits , use 128 or I 2 of 5 (even # digits)
    199. 202. System Design Considerations <ul><li>Use Piece Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Use License Plate Identifier (LPN) See White Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Use Check Digits (for manual backup) </li></ul><ul><li>Mark / Read Auto Identification ---then Use Real Time Network </li></ul>
    200. 203. 1. Start by Marking Bar Coded LPN with Check Digit(s) on each coil Verify! License Plate Check Digits
    201. 204. 2. Create an LPN Indexed Database--- REAL TIME NETWORK LPN CK HT RCVD THK WT1 ANNEAL LAST 12345681 59 A12345 126@12:30 .0625 IPS7 12345682 63 A12345 126@12:33 .0825 20,200 P1@128@04:58 P28 12345683 67 123467 126@12:38 .0375 14,357 P3@128@05:10 P27
    202. 205. 3. Create and Use a Network Mill Computer Scale S2 etc. LPN CK HT RCVD THK WT1 ANNEAL LAST 12345681 59 A12345 126@12:30 .0625 17,425 S2 12345682 63 A12345 126@12:33 .0825 20,200 P1@128@04:58 P28 12345683 67 123467 126@12:38 .0375 14,357 P3@128@05:10 P27
    203. 206. Summary • Identify Coils Uniquely (LPN + Check) • Use Automatic Identification (Barcodes Big as Possible) • Create and Use a Networked Database with the coil LPN’s used as a index pointer • Update and USE the Database wherever possible (up to shipping)
    204. 207. <ul><li>This is only a beginning. </li></ul>
    205. 208. <ul><li>? </li></ul>
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