What Goodwins theory
Goodwins theory talks about approximately seven
key aspects that all interlink to make a successful
music video. These include:
- Links between lyrics and visual,
- Link between music and visual,
- Genre characteristics,
- Intertextual reference,
- Notions of looking, Voyeurism,
- Performance, Narrative and concept based
- Demands of the record label.
Link between lyrics and music
Goodwin suggests that lyrics of a song
will make a constant reference to
the visuals on screen. The visual of a
music video magnify what the artist
is saying. This allows the listeners to
engage with the song and
understand the message they are
giving off through, mis-en-scene,
themes, camerawork and themes.
Beyonce’s song – ‘move your body’ is an example of where
the visuals on the screen match the lyrics, she performs all
the lyrics e.g. ‘put your knees up in the sky cuz we just
begun’…‘do the running man then you turn around like
this’ this allows the audience to interact with her
performance and engage well with her music showing the
audience how its done and making it fun and appealing to
anyone, giving it an energetic and colourful vibe.
Dance for you Is another song performed by Beyoncé which again matches the visuals on
the screen ‘tonight I wanna dace for you’ are sung in comparison with women dancing this
allows the audience to engage with the mood, tone and atmosphere of the song.
Link between music and
Another element Goodwin looked at was the
relationship between music and the visuals.
This could be under the following effects:
• Cutting visuals in time to music.
‘Talk dirty to me’ is an example where
the music and the visuals go well. The
choreographed routine is in sync with the
music, making it more catchy and
memorable as the dance moves would
be recognised for that song.
‘Walks like Rihanna’ by The
Wanted supports Goodwins
theory as at a certain point the
strobe lights and beat of the
music coordinate , giving it more
of a dramatic effect
• Goodwin said another feature of a music
video that was important is the genre
characteristics that demonstrate music
videos. For example rock music videos
would usually be live performances.
Genres can include:
• Narrative built
• Studio performances
• Stadium performances
• Concept built
Characteristics of rap songs would be
big jewellery, many half dressed
women, hoods, gangs etc. this is
shown in 50 cents song ‘hands up’
where he is in an environment where
there are plenty of show room cars,
he's wearing big heavy jewellery,
women etc. these traits would allow
an audience to identify the genre
characteristics very easily.
Some characteristics of grime songs is to
distinguish the artist as if he is writing
the music, the song is being read out like
a story alongside the narrative coming
to life as shown in Eminem – ‘Stan’
Goodwin noted that music videos are
commonly intertextual this is when
there are references to other music
videos, stories, films or another form of
media. it can be done in memory of
someone, parody, or just simply
because it fits well with their storyline.
Love story is an example of intertextuality
as Taylor Swift uses the story of ‘Romeo &
Juliet is her music video this would be an
example of intertextuality as a story from
another media text has been added within
Star Trek is a well known tv series,
Eminem had intertwined it with his
parody song ‘we made you’ this is
another example of intertextuality as he
has referred to start trek
Eminem also used Michael
Jackson in another song,
referring to his thriller music
video as it fits well with his
Notions of looking/
Goodwin also identified that within
music videos there is a concept of
voyeurism. This could be in many
different forms i.e nudity, an intimate
scene. It attracts a lot of male gaze,
this allows the artist to appeal to many
different audiences, whether that be
males, boys or females, as girls may
aspire to have bodies like theirs and
men for their own gratification.
Performance, narrative and concept based
• Goodwin suggested that music videos all have a
structure to them; whether they be performance live
on stage or a narrative of their life or something
they’ve seen. For example Katy Perry ‘The one that
got away’ tells a narrative of how the man she loved
died but she never fell out of love with him.
Beyoncé's song ‘End of time’ is a live performance
she did during a concert. This appeals to many
different audiences and allows the audience to
engage to the artist in different ways i.e. showing
empathy, hate, love etc.
Demand of record label
• Demand of record label is to portray a certain image to
a target audience. Rappers; Dr. Dre, 50 Cent, Eminem
are all examples of artists appealing to the young adult
target audience (16-25). They will use many close ups
to the cars they are driving, the jewellery they are
wearing, their tattos etc. this is so that the artist
becomes recognised and established with wealth,
money and power. Even after they die their trade mark
still carries on i.e. TuPac, Michael Jackson etc.
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