Brand Positioning

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Brand Positioning

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 BRAND POSITIONING AND VALUES
  2. 2. Strategic Brand Management <ul><li>Strategic brand management involves the design and implementation of marketing programs and activities to build, measure, and manage brand equity. </li></ul><ul><li>The strategic brand management process is defined as involving four main steps . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Strategic Brand Management Process Mental maps Competitive frame of reference Points-of-parity and points-of-difference Core brand values Brand mantra Mixing and matching of brand elements Integrating brand marketing activities Leveraging of secondary associations Brand Value Chain Brand audits Brand tracking Brand equity management system Brand-product matrix Brand portfolios and hierarchies Brand expansion strategies Brand reinforcement and revitalization KEY CONCEPTS STEPS Grow and Sustain Brand Equity Identify and Establish Brand Positioning and Values Plan and Implement Brand Marketing Programs Measure and Interpret Brand Performance
  4. 4. CUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY <ul><li>CBBE = f (Brand Knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Knowledge = f (Brand Awareness + Strength, Favorability, and Uniqueness of Brand Associations) </li></ul><ul><li>Determining the desired brand knowledge structures involves… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Brand Positioning <ul><li>Define competitive frame of reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target market (There is a trade-off) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define desired brand knowledge structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Points-of-parity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>category </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>competitive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Points-of-difference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong, favorable, and unique brand associations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Issues in Implementing Brand Positioning <ul><li>Establishing Category Membership </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying & Choosing POP’s & POD’s </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating & Establishing POP’s & POD’s </li></ul><ul><li>Updating Positioning over Time </li></ul>
  7. 7. Establishing Category Membership <ul><li>Category Benefits (performance and imagery associations) </li></ul><ul><li>Product descriptor, e.g., USAirways </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplar comparisons (Tommy Hilfiger vs. Calvin Klein) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Identifying & Choosing POP’s & POD’s <ul><li>POP: Category membership and negating competitors’ POD’s </li></ul><ul><li>POD: Desirability criteria (consumer perspective) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personally relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive & superior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believable & credible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POD: Deliverability criteria (firm perspective) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable: Pre-emptive, defensible & difficult to attack </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Communicating & Establishing POP’s & POD’s <ul><li>Create POP’s and POD’s in the face of attribute & benefit trade-offs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price & quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience & quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste & low calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficacy & mildness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power & safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubiquity & prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness (variety) & simplicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength & refinement </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Strategies to Reconcile Attribute & Benefit Trade-Offs <ul><li>Establish separate marketing programs </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage secondary association (e.g., co-brand) </li></ul><ul><li>Re-define the relationship from negative to positive </li></ul>
  11. 11. Updating Positioning over Time <ul><li>Laddering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Means-End Chain Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reacting: Three Options </li></ul><ul><li>Core Brand Values & Brand Mantra </li></ul>
  12. 12. Core Brand Values <ul><li>Set of abstract concepts or phrases that characterize the 5-10 most important dimensions of the mental map of a brand. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Map  Core Brand Values  Brand Mantra </li></ul>
  13. 13. Brand Mantra <ul><li>A brand mantra is an articulation of the “heart and soul” of the brand. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand mantras are short three to five word phrases that capture the irrefutable essence or spirit of the brand positioning and brand values . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should be developed at the same time as brand positioning. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Designing the Brand Mantra <ul><li>The term brand functions describes the nature of the product or service or the type of experiences or benefits the brand provides. </li></ul><ul><li>The descriptive modifier further clarifies its nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The emotional modifier provides another qualifier — how exactly does the brand provide benefits, and in what way? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Designing the Brand Mantra Food Folks Fun Entertainment Family Fun Disney Performance Athletic Authentic Nike Brand Functions Descriptive Modifier Emotional Modifier
  16. 16. Major Challenges in Positioning <ul><li>Find compelling & impactful points-of-difference (MacMillan & McGrath, HBR , ‘97) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do people become aware of their need for your product and service? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do consumers find your offering? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do consumers make their final selection? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do consumers order and purchase your product or service? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens when your product or service is delivered? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your product installed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your product or service paid for? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Major Challenges in Positioning <ul><li>Find compelling & impactful points-of-difference (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your product stored? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your product moved around? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the consumer really using your product for? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do consumers need help with when they use your product? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about returns or exchanges? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is your product repaired or serviced? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens when your product is disposed of or no longer used? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. A Useful Method… <ul><li>Brand Audit (Brand Focus 3.0) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand Exploratory </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Brand Inventory <ul><li>A current comprehensive profile of how all the products and services sold by a company are branded and marketed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting marketing programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profile of competitive brands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POPs and PODs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand mantra </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Brand Inventory <ul><li>Suggests the bases for positioning the brand </li></ul><ul><li>Offers insights to how brand equity may be better managed </li></ul><ul><li>Assesses consistency in message among activities, brand extensions, and sub-brands in order to avoid redundancies, overlaps, and consumer confusion </li></ul>
  21. 21. Brand Exploratory <ul><li>Provides detailed information as to how consumers perceive the brand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps identify sources of customer-based brand equity </li></ul><ul><li>Uncovers knowledge structures for the core brand as well as its competitors </li></ul>
  22. 22. Brand Audit Outline <ul><li>Brand audit objectives, scope, and approach </li></ul><ul><li>Background about the brand (self-analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Background about the industries </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer analysis (trends, motivation, perceptions, needs, segmentation, behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Brand inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements, current marketing programs, POPs, PODs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branding strategies (extensions, sub-brands, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand portfolio analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitors’ brand inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths and weaknesses </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Brand exploratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand positioning analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer perceptions analysis (vs. competition) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summary of competitor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Brand equity evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic brand management recommendations </li></ul>Brand Audit Outline

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