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Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
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Vibrio cholerae

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  • 1. VIBRIO CHOLERAEBYYASHWANT KUMARGROUP 8.
  • 2. HistoryFirst pandemic spreads from India to South, Central Asia, Middle East and RussiaSecond pandemic reaches EnglandPandemics in 1800’s deadlyAll pandemics reach AfricaFirst pandemic reaches Latin America in 1991
  • 3. Distribution
  • 4. Causative AgentDiscoveryJohnSnow (1813- 1858):Water borne transmission of Cholera (1855)
  • 5. Discovery Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) ◦ 1854: Cholera reaches Florence, Italy. Pacini discovers causative agent ◦ Publishes “Microscopical Observations and Pathological Deductions on Cholera” ◦ 1965: Bacterium named Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854
  • 6. DiscoveryRobert Koch (1843- 1910)1884: Rediscovers Vibrio cholerae
  • 7. Vibrio choleraeMorphology Gram negative Comma shaped Sheathed, polar flagellum 1.4-2.6µm x 0.5-3µm
  • 8. Physiology Facultative anaerobic Asporogenous Growth stimulated by NaCl pH 6 - 10, Acid labile Temperature 18 - 37ºC
  • 9. Virulence & Pathogenicity Ingestion of V. cholerae Resistant to gastric acid Colonize small intestineVirulence of Non-toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strain not wellunderstood
  • 10. ANTIGENIC STRUCTUREHeat-labile flagellar H antigen.O-lipopolysaccharides has 140 serogroups.Serogroup O1 and O139-classic cholera.Others cause cholera like diseases.Serotypes (inaba,ogawa,hikojima) and biotypes(classical,el tor)El tor- hemolysin.Serogroup O139- polysaccharide capsule.
  • 11. Toxigenic V. choleraePathogenicity Colonization factors (the TcpA pilus) Production of enterotoxin Associated outer membrane proteins on enterocytes e.g. adenylate cyclase
  • 12. Secrete enterotoxin Enterotoxin binds to intestinal cells Chloride channels activatedRelease Large quantities of electrolytes & bicarbonates Fluid hypersecretion Diarrhea Dehydration
  • 13. TransmissionFecal-oral routeEntry = oralDischarge = fecal
  • 14. Transmission  Humans only reservoirs  Bacterium transmitted via contaminated water, food  Carriers: houseflies and other insects  Person to person transmission?
  • 15. Symptoms 1-3 day Incubation Period Mild diarrhea Sudden severe diarrhea Mucus and intestinal tissue visible in feces Muscle cramps Scaphoid abdomen Vomiting Loss of skin turgor Weak pulse
  • 16. Diagnosis Clinical symptoms Isolation of V. cholerae from stool ◦ Live V. cholerae in stool (ca. 1.0 x 108 cells per ml) ◦ Identification via dark-field microscopy Measurement of serum antibodies using ELISA ◦ Antibacterial antibodies: vibriocidal assays ◦ Antitoxin antibodies
  • 17. Methods of CureChemotherapeuticAntibiotics (tetracycline)ImmunologicalLocal mucosal immune response to V. choleraeSerological antivibrio antibodiesAntitoxin antibodiesTo Ease SymptomsOral RehydrationIntraveneous Rehydration
  • 18. Prevention & Control Immunization ◦ Active Immunity induced by:  attenuated V. cholerae  Toxoid (not good antigen) Preventing contamination of food and water e.g. boiling water, covering food Education ◦ Personal and domestic hygiene Prevention of contamination of water supplies ◦ Improvement of sewage systems

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