WHAT IS ACTIVE POLLUTION?• Radioactive pollution can bedefined as the emission of highenergy particles or radioactivesubstance into air, water or landdue to human activities in theform of radioactive waste.
CAUSES OF RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION• Production of nuclear fuel• Nuclear power reactors• Use of Radio nuclides in industries forvarious applications• Nuclear tests carried out by DefensePersonnel• Disposal of nuclear waste• Uranium Mining
NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENTSAlmost 99 such nuclearaccidents have beenoccur through outworldwide.56 of 99,have beenoccurred only in USA.
Kyshtym, Russia (former Soviet Union) –29,september,1957 (INES Level 6)200 people died on direct radiation and almost 8000 people died in 32years of this nuclear accidents
MAJAR NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS.• Three MileIsland, United States– 28 March, 1979(INES Level 5)• one of the elementsof the power plant’ssystem malfunctioned.
Chernobyl, Ukraine (former Soviet Union) –26,april,1986 (INES Level 7)a series of events led to the explosion of the reactor number four at theChernobyl Nuclear Power Plant
Fukushima, Japan –11,march 2011 (INES Level 7)9.0 magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Japan. The resultingtsunami (49 feet tall) hit the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant 51 andexperienced meltdown.
NUCLEAR BOMBS• Radioactive pollution that is spreadthrough the earth’s atmosphere is called“Fallout”• The best example of fallout is the nuclearbomb attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki,Japan in 1945 by United States of Americaduring world war 2.
August 6, 1945, Hiroshimadirectly killing an estimated 80,000 people. By the end of the year, injuryand radiation brought total casualties to 90,000–140,000
On August 9, 1945, NagasakiAlmost 75,000 people died and more affected by radiation.
Effects of Radiation Exposure on Human Health• Although a dose of just 25 rems causes somedetectable changes in blood, doses to near100 rems usually have no immediate harmfuleffects. Doses above 100 rems cause the firstsigns of radiation sickness including:– nausea– vomiting– headache– some loss of white blood cells
Effects of Radiation Exposure on Human Health• Doses of 300 rems or more cause temporaryhair loss, but also more significant internalharm, including damage to nerve cells andthe cells that line the digestive tract. Severeloss of white blood cells, which are the bodysmain defense against infection, makesradiation victims highly vulnerable to disease.Radiation also reduces production of bloodplatelets, which aid blood clotting, so victimsof radiation sickness are also vulnerable tohemorrhaging.
Effects of Radiation Exposure on Human Health• Half of all people exposed to 450 remsdie, and doses of 800 rems or more arealways fatal. Besides the symptomsmentioned above, these people also sufferfrom fever and diarrhea. As of yet, there is noeffective treatment--so death occurs withintwo to fourteen days.• In time, for survivors, diseases such asleukemia (cancer of the blood), lungcancer, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, andcancers of other organs can appear due tothe radiation received. Even geneticdisorders.