Leptospira interrogans
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Leptospira interrogans






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Leptospira interrogans Leptospira interrogans Presentation Transcript

  • Microbes 2
  • Phylum: SpirochaetesClass: SpirochaetesOrder: SpirochaetalesSpecies: LeptospiraFamily: Leptospiraceae
  • Tightly Coiled Spirochete OS = outer sheath AF = axial fibrils AF Leptospira interrogans
  • Thin, coiled spirochetes (.1 ×6 to 20 µm)that grow slowly in culture.Temperature(28˚C to 30˚C) Gram-negative spirochetesObligate aerobes and Characteristic hooked ends .Pathogenic strains: Leptospira interrogans.Non pathogenic strains: Leptospira biflexa.
  • •A microscopic view ofLeptospiraI bacteria stainedapple green with a fluorescentdye (from the CDC’s PublicHealth Image Library)
  • EPIDERMIOLOGY Mainly a zoonotic disease • Transmitted to humans from a variety of wild and domesticated animal hosts • Most common reservoirs rodents (rats), dogs, farm animals and wild animals Organism can penetrate the skin through minor breaks in the epidermis or with intact mucus membranes Indirect contact (soil, water, feed) with infected urine from an animal with leptospiruria Occupational disease of animal handling and more common during warm months
  • Direct invasion and replication in tissues (i.e.) virulence unknown.Immune complex produces renal disease.
  • CLINICAL DISEASES Mild virus-like syndrome (Anicteric leptospirosis) Systemic with aseptic meningitis (Icteric leptospirosis) Overwhelming disease (Weil’s disease) Vascular collapse Thrombocytopenia Hemorrhage Hepatic and renal dysfunctionNOTE: Icteric refers to jaundice (yellowing of skin and mucus membranes by deposition of bile) and liver involvement
  • PATHOGENESIS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS Leptospirosis, also called Weil’s disease in humans Its directly invaded and replicated in tissues Characterized by an acute febrile jaundice and glumerulonephritis Incubation period usually 10-12 days with flu-like illness usually progressing through two clinical stages: i. Leptospiremia develops rapidly after infection (usually lasts about 7 days) without local lesion ii.Infects the kidneys and organisms are shed in the urine (leptospiruria) with renal failure and death not uncommon Hepatic injury & meningeal irritation is common
  • Clinical Progression of Icteric (Weil’sDisease) and Anicteric Leptospirosis (pigmented part of eye)
  • Microscopy not useful because too few organism are generally present in fluids or tissues.Culture blood or CSF in the first 7 to 10 days of illness.Urine after first week.Serology using the MAT is relatively sensitive and specific but are not widely available.ELISA tests are less accurate but can be used to screen patients.
  • Comparison of Diagnostic Tests for Leptospirosis
  • Penicillin (10-14 days) intravenously for severe infections.Amoxicillin, Erythromycin, & Doxycycline (orally)Patients with MOF(Multi organ failure) to be observed and treated in intensive care unit.
  • Rats should be controlled.Herds and domestic pets should properly vaccinated.providing proper protective clothing, shoes, gloves, etc. to high-risk Occupational groups.(farming and cattle industries)Proper collection, transport, treatment and secured disposal of garbage.(drinking boiled water)Leptospira species can be inactivated by 1%sodium hypochlorite,70%ethanol,glutaraldehyde,for maldehyde,detergents and acid.This organism is sensitive to moist heat
  • Thank you !! For Listening