Substation Training presentation


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presentation on 220 kv substation training

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  • Soy ingeniero mecanico electricista necesito informacion para hacer curvas de coordinacion y proteccion de sistema electrico en media tension desde una subestacion de distribucion Electrica de la Empres que suministra energia y que alimenta electricamente varios usuarios en 22.9 kV y graficarlas en papel logaritmico sus curvas
    Saludos cordiales desde Lima Peru
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Substation Training presentation

  2. 2. DESCRIPTION OF 220KV SUBSTATION, MURADNAGAR The 220KV power substation has the capacity(2*160MVA+1*100MVA). It receives three 220kv lines from Sikandrabad, Loni and Dadri and two 400kv lines from Modipuram (circuit 1) and a newly installed circuit 2. It steps down this supply to 132kv, 66kv, 33kv and 11kv. 132kv line gives supply to Lalkuan, Morta, Newari, Modisteel, Hapur and Dasna, 33kv line to Rawli, Noorpur, Goelispat, and 11kv to New substation.
  4. 4. MAIN EQUIPMENTS AT MURADNAGAR SUBSTATION 220KV LIGHTINING ARRESTER Used for protecting the equipment from surge voltages CIRCUIT BREAKER used to protect the eqiupment by opening the circuit for over current and over voltages ISOLATORS Used for maintenance of the circuit in no load condition TRANSFORMERS Also known as the heart of substations. These are used to reduce the voltages at appropriate levels CURRENT VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS It is a used in power systems to step downextra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal, for measurement or to operate a protective relay WAVETRAP Traps the high frequency signals
  5. 5. LIGHTNING ARRESTER DEFINATION A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation on the system from the damaging effect of lightning.
  6. 6. L.A CIRCUIT DIAGRAM ALSO KNOWN AS SURGE ARRESTER USED IN THE POWER SYSTEMS TO PROTECT FROM LIGHTNING WHEN SUURGE TRAVELS ALONG THE LINE , THE ARRESTOR DIVERTS IT TO THE EARTH 1.Rod arrester 2.Horn gap arrester 3.Multi gap arrester 4.Expulsion type lightning arrester 5.Valve type lightning arrester 6. Silicon Carbide Arrestors 7. Metal Oxide Arrestors At MURAD NAGAR substation we use ZINC OXIDE ARRESTOR GAPLESS
  7. 7. CURRENT VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), or capacitance coupled voltage transformer (CCVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal, for measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the transmission line signal is split, an inductive element to tune the device to the line frequency, and a transformer to isolate and further step down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay.
  8. 8. CURRENT VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of wound primary voltage transformers would be uneconomical. In practice, capacitor C1 is often constructed as a stack of smaller capacitors connected in series. This provides a large voltage drop across C1 and a relatively small voltage drop across C2.
  9. 9. WAVE TRAP Reliable & fast communication is necessary for safe efficient & economical power supply . To reduce the power failure in extent & time, to maintain the interconnected grid system in optimum working condition to coordinate the operation of various generating unit communication network is indispensable for state electricity board.
  10. 10. CURRENT VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER Wave trap is an instrument using for trapping of the wave. The function of this trap is that it traps the unwanted waves. Its function is of trapping wave. Its shape is like a drum. It is connected to the main incoming feeder so that it can trap the waves which may be dangerous to the instruments here in the substation. Low pass filter when power frequency currents are passed to switch yard and high frequency signals are blocked. It is used for communication purpose.
  11. 11. ISOLATOR Isolator  Used to ensure that an electrical circuit is  completely de-energised for service or  maintenance. Such switches are often  found in electrical distribution   and industrial applications, where  machinery must have its source of driving  power removed for adjustment or repair.  High-voltage isolation switches are used in  electrical substations to allow isolation of  apparatus such as circuit  breakers, transformers, and transmission  lines, for maintenance. The disconnector is  usually not intended for normal control of  the circuit, but only for safety isolation.  Disconnector can be operated either  manually or automatically (motorized  disconnector)
  12. 12. STEPS OF OPERATION OF ISOLATOR  SEQUENCE OF STEPS FOR ATTENDING MAINTENANCE: 1.Open CB on no load or full load 2.Open the isolator on no load 3.Close the earth switch SEQUENCE OF STEPS FOR KEPT IN SERVICE 1.Open the earth switch 2.Close the isolator 3.Close the CB
  13. 13. CIRCUIT BREAKER A circuit breaker is equipment, which can open or close a circuit under normal as well as fault condition. These circuit breaker breaks for a fault which can damage other instrument in the station. It is so designed that it can be operated manually (or by remote control) under normal conditions and automatically under fault condition. Whenever a fault occurs trip coil gets energized, the moving contacts are pulled by some mechanism & therefore the circuit is opened or circuit breaks.
  14. 14. CIRCUIT BREAKER 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Actuator mechanism - forces the  contacts together or apart  Contacts - Allow current when  touching and break the current  when moved apart Terminals  Bimetallic strip.  Calibration screw - allows the  manufacturer to precisely adjust  the trip current of the device after  assembly.  Solenoid  Arc divider/extinguisher
  15. 15. DIFFERENT CIRCUIT BREAKERS Oil circuit breaker A high-voltage circuit  breaker in which the  arc is drawn in oil to  dissipate the heat and  extinguish the arc; the  intense heat of the arc  decomposes the oil . Air-blast circuit breaker Fast operations ,suitability for repeated  operation , auto reclosure  , unit type  multi break  constructions ,simple  assembly ,  modest maintenance are  some of the main features of  air blast   circuit breakers. A compressors plant  necessary to maintain high air pressure in  the air receiver. Sulpar hexafluoride circuit breaker (SF6) Sulphar hexa fluoride (SF6) gas is used as the arc quenching medium . The SF6 is an electronegative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. Circuit breakers have been developed for voltage 115KV to 230KV , power rating10 MVA Vacuum circuit breakers Vacuum circuit breakers are  circuit breakers which are  used to protect medium and  high voltage circuits from  dangerous electrical   situations
  16. 16. 2OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS Air-blast circuit breaker Vacuum circuit breakers CIRCUIT BREAKER Oil circuit breaker Sulpar hexafluoride circuit breaker (SF6)
  17. 17. TRANSFORMERS POWER TRANSFORMERS Transformer is a static machine, which transforms the potential of alternating current at same frequency. It means the transformer transforms the low voltage into high voltage & high voltage to low voltage at same frequency. It works on the principle of mutual inductance. When the energy is transformed to a higher voltage, the transformer is called step up transformer and then it is transmitted at lower voltage it is called step down transformer. There are 3 transformers in the substation: 160MVA, 220/132 KV (2nos.) 100 MVA TRANSFORMER(1)
  18. 18. Power Transformer feeding 160 MVA transformers are manufactured by ADITYA and by TRM. These are the power transformers and , there efficiency is high. Primary side is star connected while secondary is delta connected. There are seventeen tapping in it. Every transformer has OLTC to change the tap for controlling voltage. TYPES OF COOLING: AIR NATURAL COOLING AIR BLAST COOLING OIL NATURAL COOLING OIL BLAST COOLING etc.
  19. 19. SOME IMPORTANT COMPONENTS Earth switch: It is a switch normally kept open and connected between earth and conductor. If the switch is closed it discharges the electric charge to ground, available on the uncharged line. Bus-bar: When number of lines operating at the same voltage levels needs to be connected electrically, bus-bars are used. Bus-bars are conductors made of copper or aluminum, with very low impedance and high current carrying capacity. Current transformers (CT): The lines in substations carry currents in the order of thousands of amperes. The measuring instruments are designed for low value of currents. Current transformers are connected in lines to supply measuring instruments and protective relays. Insulators They support the conductor (or bus bar) and confine the current to the conductor. The most commonly used material for the manufactures of insulators is porcelain. There are several type of insulator (i.e. pine type, suspension type , strain type ,shackle types etc.) and there used in Sub-Station will depend upon the service requirement Potential transformers (PT): The lines in substations operate at high voltages. The measuring instruments are designed for low value of voltages. Potential transformers are connected in lines to supply measuring instruments and protective relays. These transformers make the low voltage instruments suitable for measurement of high voltages.
  20. 20. THANKS