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Water Treatement Presentation
 

Water Treatement Presentation

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    Water Treatement Presentation Water Treatement Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Isaure de Zélicourt
    •  
      • little organic molecules
      • Highly poisonous
      • Teratogens: deform unborn foetus
      • S mall quantities: wood burned
      • Large quantities: waste incineration plants
      • Chemically stable = remain for a long time in the environment
      • 2 benzene rings joined by two ether links
      Cl Cl Cl Cl O O
      • Hard to degrade in the environment
      • Found in polluted water
      • Find their way into the food chain
      • Effect on nervous system
      • Accumulate in the liver
      • Used for transformers
    • Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl
      • Uncontrolled use of pesticides
      • Infiltrates the ground water
      • Herbicides and insecticides
      • Enters the food chain
      • DDT: on type of pesticides that attacks the nervous system of insects and kills them right away
    • Despite consequences on the environment, it saved millions of lives as it is sprayed over areas suffering of malaria CCl 3 Cl H C Cl
      • Copper, Cadmium, Mercury, Zinc, Chromium.
      • Either compound or elemental form
      • toxic at high levels, especially to babies because they have less stomach acid than adults, can cause blue baby syndrome
      • Blue baby syndrome: decreased oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin  in babies leading to death
    •  
      •  Bar screens remove large objects and debris from the surface of the water and remove floating solids.
      •  Grit chambers are used to settle out sand, grit, and small objects from the water; these particles are then sent to landfills.
      •  Sedimentation tanks : Alum Ca(OH) 2 and Al2(SO4) 3 precipitates out and carry with them solid suspended particles
      • Activated sludge process:
      •  Air is bubbled into sewage which has been mixed with bacteria-laden sludge.
      •  Aerobic bacteria oxidize organic material in the sewage.
      •  Water-containing decomposed suspended particles are passed through the sedimentation tanks where the activated sludge is collected.
      •  Some of the sludge is recycled, and some is sent to landfills.
      •  Removes 90% of organic oxygen-demanding waste, 50% of nitrogen, and 30% of phosphates
      • Charcoal filtering:
      • - removes organic pollutants through absorption.
      • - Filter can be regenerated by using heat to drive off organics
      • Precipitation :
      • - get rid of heavy metal ions or phosphate ions
      • - ions are added
      • - forms insoluble precipitates with phosphate anions or metal cations
      • - solids can then be filtered out
    •  
      • Desalination is not easy and is expensive
      • Can be done by reverse osmosis
      • Osmosis is found in biological systems
      • Osmosis: if two solutions are separated by a semi permeable membrane, then any solvent will move across that membrane towards the side of higher solute concentration
      • if two solutions are separated by a semi permeable membrane, then any solvent will move across that membrane towards the side of higher solute concentration
      • Hence, water will move to dilute a salty solution
      • This is the last thing you want if your aim is fresh water!
      Seawater Fresh water Diluted Seawater
    • Sea water Fresh water Concentrated sea water More fresh water
      • Salty solution put under high pressure
      • pressure pushes the water molecules into the fresh water
      • initial solution is left more concentrated
      • Distillation: the process that allows the sepatation of a volatile liquid (ex. water) from a non-volatile material (ex. Salt)
      • Grit Chamber: Tank in which the flow of wastewater is slowed, allowing heavy solid materials such as pebbles, sand, coffee grounds and eggshells to sink to the bottom.
      • Sedimentation: a physical water treatment process used to settle out suspended solids in water under the influence of gravity.
      • http://images.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ryanprocess.com/images/bar_screen.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.ryanprocess.com/bar_screens.html&usg=__ZHdRLWCrIY9TBO4K8Vvpq9ugn14=&h=271&w=195&sz=4&hl=de&start=3&um=1&tbnid=m9RTWonwdDs0RM:&tbnh=113&tbnw=81&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbar%2Bscreens%26hl%3Dde%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1
      • http://images.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sandiego.gov/mwwd/kids/graphics/grit.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.sandiego.gov/mwwd/kids/learnit/dirtywords.shtml&usg=__ThSJbCWnDPaHA6VWnYYKerGHOQo=&h=105&w=140&sz=8&hl=de&start=9&um=1&tbnid=evqdd0r1E7O_yM:&tbnh=70&tbnw=93&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgrit%2Bchamber%26hl%3Dde%26um%3D1
      • IB chemistry course companion
      • IB chemistry Option E study guide