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Water Treatement Presentation


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Not free from errors, as student contributions

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  • 1. Isaure de Zélicourt
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • little organic molecules
    • Highly poisonous
    • Teratogens: deform unborn foetus
    • S mall quantities: wood burned
    • Large quantities: waste incineration plants
    • Chemically stable = remain for a long time in the environment
  • 4.
    • 2 benzene rings joined by two ether links
    Cl Cl Cl Cl O O
  • 5.
    • Hard to degrade in the environment
    • Found in polluted water
    • Find their way into the food chain
    • Effect on nervous system
    • Accumulate in the liver
    • Used for transformers
  • 6. Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl
  • 7.
    • Uncontrolled use of pesticides
    • Infiltrates the ground water
    • Herbicides and insecticides
    • Enters the food chain
    • DDT: on type of pesticides that attacks the nervous system of insects and kills them right away
  • 8. Despite consequences on the environment, it saved millions of lives as it is sprayed over areas suffering of malaria CCl 3 Cl H C Cl
  • 9.
    • Copper, Cadmium, Mercury, Zinc, Chromium.
    • Either compound or elemental form
  • 10.
    • toxic at high levels, especially to babies because they have less stomach acid than adults, can cause blue baby syndrome
    • Blue baby syndrome: decreased oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin  in babies leading to death
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    •  Bar screens remove large objects and debris from the surface of the water and remove floating solids.
    •  Grit chambers are used to settle out sand, grit, and small objects from the water; these particles are then sent to landfills.
    •  Sedimentation tanks : Alum Ca(OH) 2 and Al2(SO4) 3 precipitates out and carry with them solid suspended particles
  • 13.
    • Activated sludge process:
    •  Air is bubbled into sewage which has been mixed with bacteria-laden sludge.
    •  Aerobic bacteria oxidize organic material in the sewage.
    •  Water-containing decomposed suspended particles are passed through the sedimentation tanks where the activated sludge is collected.
    •  Some of the sludge is recycled, and some is sent to landfills.
    •  Removes 90% of organic oxygen-demanding waste, 50% of nitrogen, and 30% of phosphates
  • 14.
    • Charcoal filtering:
    • - removes organic pollutants through absorption.
    • - Filter can be regenerated by using heat to drive off organics
    • Precipitation :
    • - get rid of heavy metal ions or phosphate ions
    • - ions are added
    • - forms insoluble precipitates with phosphate anions or metal cations
    • - solids can then be filtered out
  • 15.  
  • 16.
    • Desalination is not easy and is expensive
    • Can be done by reverse osmosis
    • Osmosis is found in biological systems
    • Osmosis: if two solutions are separated by a semi permeable membrane, then any solvent will move across that membrane towards the side of higher solute concentration
  • 17.
    • if two solutions are separated by a semi permeable membrane, then any solvent will move across that membrane towards the side of higher solute concentration
    • Hence, water will move to dilute a salty solution
  • 18.
    • This is the last thing you want if your aim is fresh water!
    Seawater Fresh water Diluted Seawater
  • 19. Sea water Fresh water Concentrated sea water More fresh water
    • Salty solution put under high pressure
    • pressure pushes the water molecules into the fresh water
    • initial solution is left more concentrated
  • 20.
    • Distillation: the process that allows the sepatation of a volatile liquid (ex. water) from a non-volatile material (ex. Salt)
  • 21.
    • Grit Chamber: Tank in which the flow of wastewater is slowed, allowing heavy solid materials such as pebbles, sand, coffee grounds and eggshells to sink to the bottom.
    • Sedimentation: a physical water treatment process used to settle out suspended solids in water under the influence of gravity.
  • 22.
    • IB chemistry course companion
    • IB chemistry Option E study guide