1895: Discovery of the x-ray technique by Roentgen – because of the basic level of technology it’s use was limited then.
With the development of computerized technology more sophisticated techniques have come about (CAT, PET, MRI), all assessing different aspects of brain activity. Even Echography (ultrasound) to scan newborns.
Such scanning technology contributed to the development of cognitive science by combining artificial intelligance (AI) with computer simulation (CS).
Computer science takes the view that human beings are information processors and aims to build simulation models of cognitive and neurological processes in order to understand how we process information.
With the emphasis being on an experimental method (and with the use of computer modelling and solving socially important problmes – such as how to help fighter pilots to be more effective), cognitive psychology was quickly embraced in western cultures.
Using computers as a model from which to understand human functioning is also appealing to those from cultures that seek to explain human experience scientifically rather than spiritually, and focus on the individual rather than the collective experience.
With the developmnet of technology in the later 1950s and 1960s, psychologists became interested in how computers might be used to understand human mental processes.
Cognitive psychologists increasingly understood mental events in terms of models of information processing, with the brain corresponding to the hardware (the computer) and mental processes, such as thinking and memory, to the software (the programs).