WEP Primer

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WEP Primer

  1. 1. GaininG an EdGE GaininG an EdGEthrough Gender equality through Gender equality GaininG an EdGE GaininG an EdGEthrough Gender equality through Gender equality Gaining an Edge Through Gender Equality A Practical Guide to Making the Women’s Empowerment Principles Possible
  2. 2. ABOUT THE SUPPORTING ORGANISATIONS GLOBAL COMPACT NETWORK, INDIA The Global Compact Network (GCN), India (formerly known as Global Compact society), was formed in November 2003 and registered as a non-profit Society to function as the Indian Local Network of the Global Compact Programme. Today there are more than 80 Global Compact Local Networks in key markets across the world. The Networks provide an opportunity for members to share experiences, innovative practices and to collaborate for furtherance of responsible business values within country specific contexts. GCN India is the first Local Network in the world to be established with full legal recognition. Functioning within a globally recognised and established initiative, with a pan-India membership base, GCN provides an extremely relevant vehicle for Indian business, academic institutions and civil society organisations to join hands towards strengthening Responsible Business initiatives in India and internationally. CARE INDIA CARE is a leading development organisation with an extensive global network working to address poverty in India for more than 60 years. Through its programmes in the areas of health, education, livelihoods and disaster response, CARE has impacted on extreme poverty and social injustice in India by reaching out to more than 16 million women and girls from the most disadvantaged communities. Women and girls are at the heart of CARE’s community-based efforts because, equipped with the proper resources, women have the power to help families and entire communities escape poverty. CARE partners with public and private sector agencies, local partners and communities, designing and implementing models that help poor people to access their rights and entitlements. CARE also collaborates with national and state governments to ensure maximum effectiveness of programmes.2 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  3. 3. contents 4 Foreword 5 Acknowledgements 6 About the Guide 7 The Women’s Empowerment Principles – Equality Means Business 9 The Business Case for Gender Equality 15 Why Empower Women? 16 Making Individual Gender Aware Decisions 18 The Reality for Women in India 22 Integrating the WEPs into Business Practices 38 Conclusion 38 Abbreviations 39 Glossary and Terms 40 Bibliography Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 3
  4. 4. Foreword Global Compact Network, India CARE India dence gender equal. Yet, as the evi ree that our society should be Most readers are likely to ag not resonate well for our col lective clearly illustrates, the real situation in our country does case of many l economy. Our record, in the aspiration of becoming a powerhouse of the globa developed nations rse than, some of the least indices related to gender, is at par with, or wo boardrooms, offices, on nging for the better, in our in the world . Of course, things are cha dressing tly, in our families. While ad factory floors, in colleges, schools and most importan der no illusion as individuals should be un gender stereotypes, bia ses and discrimination, we er stereotyping gendered perceptions. Gend and acknowledg e that none of us are free of us and hence in all the varying degrees in each of is systemic in all societies. It is there in often are of is that our socialisation in. What we have to be aw institutions that we operate our gender biases. makes us blind to many of ility to get things tion, resourcefulness and ab As businesses, we are known for our innova empowerment. The game changer for women’s done.We can potentially be an important l Compact by the United Nations Globa Women’s Empowerment Principles (WEP) launched Day, is an , on International Women’s (UNGC) and UN for Women on 8th March, 2010 y a crucial role in o would like business to pla important point of departure for all of us wh se, we are committed to the cau soc iety. The task at hand, once ushering in a gender equal part of our leadership commit ment, ‘one size fits all’ solution. As is not easy, and there is no at how we – as individuals, companies and we need to take a ha rd and comprehensive look with internal and r spheres of influence, both sectors – impact the lives of women within ou lity s systems that foster equa need to then put in place consciou external stakeholders. We between men and wome n. f-interest and orts. They are driven by sel Such actions canno t be considered altruistic eff top. In a business ny’s effort to remain at the would be increa singly imperative in a compa of working are is and uncertainty, old ways environmen t steeped in a sense of cris the ways gender just society is one of increasingly being revalu ated. Actively promoting a . I hope that this sed stakeholder confidence for companies to ma ke a mark and have increa of the urgency, the ders and managers a sense Primer will instill in the minds of business lea taken work that has already been d als o the exciting nature of the extent of the challenge, an up by companies around the world. Vinita Bali CARE India Board member4 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  5. 5. Acknowledgements tation ‘Women’s by CARE India for the consulThis Practical Guide was commissioned nk the ber 2011. I would like to tha esses Should Care’, DecemEmpowerment – Why Busin on this work, including Alka Pathak,core advisory team fro m CARE for their facilitation rcy Manoranjini, mar, Meera Sundarajan, MeAmelia Andrews, George Kurien, G Senthil Ku aki Roy and Victoria p, as well as consultants Pin Namit Agarw al, Smita Singh, Tim Bisho ve on Love. from Global Business Initiati A special thanks to Ma rk Hodge and Kathryn Dovey Burden from d Young and Allison Claire Human Rights, Ka therine Miles from Ernst an on for copy editing the and Phaedra Engel- Harris CARE for the ir critical review and inputs document. act, New la from the UN Global Comp The support from Ursula Wynhoven and Lauren Gu from UN Women of gratitude to Larraine Mills York, must be ack nowledged. Special words Hawk, Advisor on the ns from ILO and Joan Libby for her help with networking, Githa Rolea Senior GC, and Dr. Govind Kelkar, nciples, UN Women and UN Women Empowerment Pri inputs into the document as well. I would Advisor, UN Women So uth Asia, for their valuable s on the issue. for her insightful perspective also like to thank Dr. Alka Mittal from ONGC Corporation (ONGC), to the Oil and Natural Gas CARE India also extends its appreciation r. the production of this Prime India, for its full support in Sayantoni Datta Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 5
  6. 6. ABOUT The Primer is an easy The Primer, as is the case to understand document with any such document, has highlighting issues specific its limitations. It just touches to India that can be used the tip of the proverbial THE by professionals at diverse iceberg and provides a levels of a company simplified introduction to (Managers, HR Managers, the complex issue at hand. Team Leaders, Senior It gives the reader a heads PRACTICAL Leaders, and Corporate up on the issues, debates Social Responsibility [CSR] and leads that s/he can professionals). follow. Any effort towards Stakeholders utilising the addressing dilemmas and GUIDE Primer would primarily be dimensions associated with looking at: women’s empowerment, • Starting a dialogue on as well as for ensuring women’s empowerment positive corporate roles within a company and accountability on the • Self assessment of ability same, would need sustained This Primer is an introductory to create empowering leadership commitment resource providing examples environments within the and dedicated resources. of translating the Women’s company Since the guide initiates a Empowerment Principles • Points of departure to begin beginning to the dialogue (WEPs) within the business working towards women’s on the WEPs in India for the context in India. It pools in empowerment first time, it is assumed that some initial self assessment as more minds get together, tools, examples and As a preliminary learning many more perspectives and practical cases of initiatives document the Primer aims to: ideas would enrich what is and strategies on diverse • Introduce the WEPs discussed herein in future. aspects that would support • Establishes why women’s your company in initiating empowerment is important the implementation of the • Discusses the business Women Empowerment case for women’s Principles with WEPs, empowerment marketplace and the • Provides some examples of community. how to integrate the WEPs into business practices6 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  7. 7. Women’s Empowerment Principles in Brief 1. Establish high-level corporate leadership for gender equality 2. Treat all women and men fairly at work–respect and support WOMEN’S human rights and nondiscrimination 3. Ensure the health, safety and well-being of all women and men workers EMPOWERMENT 4. Promote education, training and professional development for women 5. Implement enterprise development, supply chain and marketing practices that empower women PRINCIPLES 6. Promote equality through community initiatives and advocacy 7. Measure and publicly report on progress to achieve gender Equality Means Business equality A joint initiative of UN Women and UN Global CompactThe Women’s Empowerment priority.The principles were a gender roadmap for companies andPrinciples – Equality Means launched on 8th March, can be considered to be closely relatedBusiness is a partnership 2010, by UN Women and to the first UNGC principle which statesinitiative of UN Women and UNGC, to help companies that ‘Businesses should support andthe UN Global Compact make tangible commitments; respect the potentials of internationally(UNGC) that encourages champion the issues related proclaimed human rights’, the secondengagement with business, to gender equality; and make which states that ‘Businesses need tocivil society, the United gender transformation a make sure that they are not complicitNations and Governments reality in their context. in human rights abuses’ and theto advance and empower sixth principle which calls for thewomen in the workplace, The WEPs seek ways ‘Elimination in discrimination in respectmarketplace and community. in which best practices of employment and occupation’.1While designed as a tool for may be adopted by thebusiness to strengthen and business community and a Implementing the WEPs meanscreate company policies gender dimension may be internalising them at various levelsand programmes to achieve incorporated into corporate within the company. In order to bringgender equality, these citizenship. They are guided about a transformation, the principlesseven Principles provide a by international instruments need to be integrated with the variousplatform for all stakeholders such as the Convention on systems and structures that governto move their commitments Elimination of Discrimination business practices and policies. Allto gender equality closer Against Women, the of the principles depend on bothto implementation. The Universal Declaration individual business decisions andPrinciples emphasise the on Human Rights, the broader shifts in culture and policy.business case for corporate International Convention onaction to promote gender the Elimination of All Formsequality and women’s of Racial Discrimination, andempowerment and are the International Covenantinformed by real-life business on Economic and Socialpractices and input gathered Cultural Rights. They alsofrom across the globe.The provide more clarity toGlobal Compact Network, a number of the UNGCIndia and CARE India Principles.While all the tensupport the WEPs and have UNGC principles need tomade their promotion and have a gender perspectiverealisation an organisational incorporated, the WEPs offer1 Maureen Kilgour, The UN Global Compact and Substantive Equality for Women Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 7
  8. 8. THE WEPs ARE APPLIcABLE TO INDIVIDUAL BUSINESS DEcISIONSAND BROADER SHIFTS IN cULTURE AND POLIcY FOR cOMPANIES/ORGANISATIONS Dignity of women in all marketing Promotion Upgrading skills and company of women’s and encouraging materials enterprises women to enter into non- Spheres of Influence Equal access traditional fields to all company supported training programmes Health and Safety Applying WEps: of workers and community individuAl dEcisions And policiEs Establish benchmarks to quantify inclusion Inner spaces Gender sensitive recruitment and promotions Safe working conditions Flexible work Workplace policies options, leave and re- and practices entry opportunities discrimination freeWhat are the core background documents for the WEPs partnership?1. Women Empowerment Principles (detailed version) 4. Companies Leading the Way: Putting Principles http://www.unifem.org/attachments/stories/ into Practice (updated July 2011) http://www. WomensEmpowermentPrinciples.pdf unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/human_rights/2. Women’s Empowerment Principles Booklet, 2nd Edition Resources/Companies_Leading_the_Way.pdf (July 2011) http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_ 5. Meeting Report – Equality Means Business: Putting doc/human_rights/Resources/WEP_EMB_Booklet.pdf Principles into Practice (9-10 March 2011) http://www.3. Current List of Signatories to the CEO Statement of Support unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/human_rights/ (updated regularly) http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/ WEPs/2011/Meeting_Report_Mar11.pdf issues_doc/human_rights/WEPs_CEO_Statement_of_ Support_Signatories.pdf8 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  9. 9. Thebusiness casefor women’sempowerment andgender equalityIt is well known that Many companies have already begun to recognise that ensuring women’s empowermentdiversity in company and gender equality is not a philanthropic initiative, but integral to organisational culture,boards bring dramatic good economics and accountability. The evidence for this includes Mckinsey’s Womenresults in comparison Matter Series (2007 onwards); reports by Catalyst (a research group that has studiedto homogenous boards. companies in India and internationally); regular debates on establishing the need toBesides the fact that recognise gender equality and women’s leadership in business forums; and the process ofwomen are a growing tracking progress in bridging the gender gap by the World Economic Forum; all instancesconsumer force, there is of how powerful arguments have emerged making the business case for gender equality.also serious competitionfor talent in the labourmarket. We have had to The following points give a summarised version of these key arguments. They provide anchange our gender biases idea of why business has begun to take women’s empowerment seriously.so more talented womencan be brought within Women consumers are an important marketthe fold of the company. 1. Women are an emerging market and an important consumer segment particularlyJaspal Bindra, Standard in the post-crisis economy. Some studies have predicted that targeting womenchartered. consumers would mean larger markets than reaching out to India and China2 2. A study by the Global Markets Institute, Goldman Sachs looks at spending patterns as key drivers of growth in the post crisis economy. It predicts that closing the gender gap also means shifts in spending patterns and the choices of women in these spending patterns 3. Some management experts predict that women above the age of 65 in Europe and the US comprise a large number of potential investors 2 Silverstein and Sayre, The Female Economy, Harvard Business Review http://news.curves.com/images/20003/ HBR%20The%20Female%20Economy.pdf Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 9
  10. 10. Equality in the workplace can make businesses moreprofitable4. Inclusion of women in boards of companies and leadership Hindustan Unilever: positions, have improved company performance and Focus on Rural Women finances3 With a long record of market leadership in5. Companies with highest representation of women on India, Hindustan Unilever has market shares of their top management teams experienced better financial nearly 60 percent in categories including soap, performance than companies with the lowest women’s detergent, and shampoos. But the liberalisation representation4 of India’s economy and the opening of markets to foreign multinationals such as Procter &Women’s equality on a national level can help build wealth Gamble increased the pressure to improvefor society, and thus business revenues and profits. By the late 1990s,6. High growth sectors, such as the information technology the company was looking for the next big sector, have had a huge number of women workers enabling opportunity: to reach the really small villages their performance levels. Inclusion of diversity perspectives that were not part of their distribution network. and gender perspectives into the organisational culture The business case for focusing on rural Indian and practices helped with bringing on board innovation and markets was clear. India has the world’s phased work on diversity by IBM. IBM now employs the most second-largest population after China, and skilled women in technology more than 70 percent of its 1.2 billion people7. Investing in women creates virtuous cycles of progress. living in rural areas. This belief has encouraged corporate philanthropic activity focused on women which would lead to a wider impact of While the business reason was clear, setting poverty reduction termed the ‘economic case for gender up a distribution channel to reach remote parts equality’. The World Development Report 2012 by the World of India was less straightforward. Hindustan Bank traces out these virtuous cycles of progress Unilever had been tapping into some of the8. Studies on women cultivators and producers state that rural populations through such tools as van productivity in agriculture can increase manifold if women road shows, but a large share remained were given more ownership of resources and there was an outside its reach. It came up with an interesting elimination of barriers to the same5 solution: build a distribution system through a network of women micro entrepreneurs to get the product directly to consumers. Other Findings It designed Shakti, a direct-to-consumer sales distribution network that relies on 45,000 • Nine Indian companies run by the most prominent women female micro entrepreneurs and has tapped managers outperformed the 30 leading listed firms on the into 3 million homes across 135,000 villages Bombay Stock Exchange. (Economic Times Report, 2009) in remote rural markets. The programme has • Companies with the highest representation of women brought a new competitive advantage and on their top management teams experienced better increased profits while increasing women’s financial performance than companies with the lowest incomes. representation of women. This finding holds for both financial measures analysed: Return on Equity (ROE), which was 35 percent higher, and Total Return to Shareholders (TRS), which was 34 percent higher. (The Bottomline Line: Connecting Corporate Performance and Gender Diversity, Catalyst, January 2004) Source: World Development Report 2011, World Bank3 Mckinsey and Company, Gender Diversity: A Corporate Performance Driver, http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/swiss/news_publications/pdf/women_matter_english.pdfhttp://www.fao.org/docrep/X0198E/x0198e03.htm4 Catalyst, The Bottom Line: Connecting Corporate Performance and Gender Diversity, January 2004http://www.catalyst.org/publication/82/the-bottom-line-connecting-corporate-performance-and-gender-diversity5 Food and Agricultural Organisation, Factors And Constraints Affecting Women’s Roles In Food Security,http://www.fao.org/docrep/X0198E/x0198e03.htm10 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  11. 11. How have different companies established the business case for women’s empowerment and gender equality so far?1. Promoting Women’s Economic Empowerment :The Learning Journey of Standard Chartered Bank http://pslforum. worldbankgroup.org/casestudies/standardchartered/casestudy_standardchartered.pdf2. Mckinsey and Company. Gender Diversity: A Corporate Performance Driver http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/swiss/ news_publications/pdf/women_matter_english.pdf3. Mckinsey and Company . WOMEN MATTER 2007. http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/paris/home/womenmatter/pdfs/ Women_matter_oct2007_english.pdf4. Deloitte.The Gender Dividend. http://www.deloitte.com/assets/DcomGreece/dttl_ps_genderdividend_130111.pdf5. Mckinsey and Company. Female Leadership a Competitive Edge for the Future. http://www.mckinsey.de/downloads/ publikation/women_matter/Women_Matter_2_brochure.pdf6. FOCUS: Women on Boards, Conversations with Male Directors http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/cgf.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/ Focus9/$FILE/Focus9_Women_on_Boards.pdf7. Mckinsey and Company. Women in leadership. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/equalsharing/Indira%20Hirway. pdf8. Vinnova. Innovation and Gender http://www.vinnova.se/upload/EPiStorePDF/vi-11-03.pdf9. VIDEO: CNBC The Gender Agenda :Putting Parity into Practice’ http://video.cnbc.com/gallery/?video=1407973482 Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 11
  12. 12. The dynamics and wars on how ‘beauty is defined’. These dynamic processes also show that businesses are findingRed Flags IN the need to build adequate knowledge on the changing attitudes of women towards themselves and of societyTHe BUsINess Case towards women. Gender and class biases shown in the negative stereotyping of domesticIn spite of this growing positive the competitive success of labour workers in an advertisement by ascenario there is a need to be intensive industries such as garment telecom company in India raised publiccautious. The challenge in developing industries and plantations in parts of outcry. The presence of a strongthe business case is on how to focus South Asia, where women agreed to association of workers, the Domesticon women to give a company a work for longer hours with lesser pay Workers Association in India, resulted inmarket edge - ‘gender dividend’ or in comparison to men. a legal case against the company for the‘diversity premium’, without reinforcing negative stereotyping of workers. Risingstereotypes and inequalities. These Example 2: Several advertising consumer awareness, associationsare the red flags in a business case. campaigns tend to portray and campaigns and codes of conductSome of them have been pointed out women through traditional gender are external regulations that have hadthrough the following questions and stereotypes. For example, in many businesses feeling the growing need toexamples. advertisements in India women were be accountable. shown doing household chores or as A. Is the case taking advantage being confined to the kitchen, while B. Are we looking at women’sof or mitigating gender biases and men were shown judging the quality empowerment or just focusing ondiscrimination for a market edge? of food cooked, cleanliness of the women? kitchen, clothes and home. SomeExample 1: A study by the Harvard advertisements used gender biased There is already a huge shift towardsBusiness School explores how humour to create that market edge on working with women in a positive way.multinational companies took selling products to men. To enhance However women’s empowermentadvantage of the gender divide that women’s empowerment, corporate also means changing existing genderexists in South Korea and started advertisements need to be modified to relations or hierarchies.hiring unemployed women who portray sensitive and cooperative mencomprised half the talent pool in who can be become role models. Example 1: A corporate philanthropicthe country. This resulted in the foundation proposes that women andcompanies having a competitive Experience demonstrates that girls are key drivers of powerful socialadvantage over the local employers advertisements working towards the and economic change. The foundationwho had avoided hiring women due to positive reinforcement of women’s suggests that investing in girls willdiscrimination.6 While those working identities and self esteem, have unlock their largely untapped economicwith less gender bias took advantage worked. This is evinced by the potential, since girls are more likely toof this situation, a red flag could be changing nature of advertisements for reinvest their income in the prosperityraised on whether the companies that women’s cosmetic products. In many of their families, leading to improvedwere hiring women were paying them cases companies selling fairness education and health outcomes for theirequal pay for equal work. cream products with strong gender children. While the focus on investing in or racial bias had to rethink the women is welcome, the business caseGender discrimination sometimes stereotypes that they have produced gives an instrumentalist view of genderprovides a competitive advantage through their advertising campaigns equality and undermines the point thatfor employers specifically because in India. Competitive alternatives such gender equality is an end in itself. Suchwomen agree to work for lower as ‘natural cosmetics’ enhancing the statements can also exacerbate existingwages. This has been the reason for natural skin colour have alternatively gender norms or women as mothers, begun to flood the market showing the care givers and people who act only in possibility of a new set of emerging the domestic sphere.6 http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6498.html12 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  13. 13. While this is a very clear genderC. Does the business case look at a specific strategy it is not clear oncomprehensive culture shifts? whether the company will incorporate the understanding of gender equalityExample 1: A large healthcare on all aspects of its work. The red flagscompany specialising in life saving raised in gender specific interventionsmedicines and vaccines has by companies actually question thecommitted to work on maternal motive towards cultural change, arehealth issues. This also has a close these interventions ‘tokenistic’ or arealignment with its core business they directed towards a long termstrategies. It has thus focused and embedded commitment whichon the Women’s Empowerment the company sees as beneficial for itsPrincipal which talks of promoting business as well.gender equality in the community byannouncing collaboration with partners A study conducted on Nordicto develop game-changing maternal companies, tracked corporate genderhealth technologies for widespread equality strategies and the directionsuse in resource-poor settings. This they took along a dynamic model.is important, given the problems of It made a distinction between thosematernal health in such settings. It companies that included gender equalalso indicates a long term commitment strategies based on short term goalsto the issue, and specifically focuses and those that found a close affirmationon three innovations that address of the same in its business case withspecific complications related to long term impacts.maternal mortality and family planning. Refer to the Dynamic Model used to track corporate gender equality strategies at Innovation and Gender, Vinnova content Process Outcomes Focused actions One-shot approach Limited results Selected actions Building-block approach Random results Mainstreamed actions Continuous approach Across-the-board results Initiators Factors (mothers and influences) Facilitators catalysts http://www.vinnova.se/upload/EPiStorePDF/vi-11-03.pdf Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 13
  14. 14. The study observed that different kinds of strategies give rise For a detailed guide on the positive business outcomes ofto different results. Those companies with focused actions gender diversity refer to The Business Case for Women:tended to see limited results or were characterised by short- Quantifying the Economic Value for Diversity by Council ofterm or one-shot approach. Companies looking for a wider Women Leaders,impact of their actions often had a medium-term outlook and http://www.cwwl.org/media/BusinessCaseforWomen.pdfbuilding-block approach for continued efforts towards specificgoals. A long-term perspective and a continuous approach Some directions from the WEPs that could be used whilefeatured in companies where the business case for gender building the business caseequality was constantly affirmed and actions were integrated 1. Establish company-wide goals and targets for genderat every step with overall strategic planning. The medium and equality and include progress as a factor in managers’long term approaches on many occasions led to across the performance reviewsboard results of shifting organisational and cultural changes 2. Ensure that all policies are gender sensitive – identifyingtowards innovation within, mainstreaming gender dimension factors that impact women and men differently – and thatin all policies and promotion of gender equality. While the corporate culture advances equality and inclusionDynamic model focused on using gender equality strategies to 3. Invest in workplace policies and programmes that openpromote innovation in companies, a similar model may be built avenues for advancement of women at all levels andto look at how companies make that overall change to gain across all business areas, and encourage women to enterthat edge through gender equality. non-traditional job fieldsKey Points to consider on the Business case for 4. Offer opportunities to promote the business case forWomen’s Empowerment and Gender Equality women’s empowerment and the positive impact of inclusion for men as well as women1. Avoid taking a competitive advantage due to pre-existing 5. Ask business partners and peers to respect the gender discrimination company’s commitment to advancing equality and2. While a lack of focus on women is a business problem, inclusion build in the case for women’s empowerment 6. Respect the dignity of women in all marketing and other3. Keep reaffirming the business case while building company materials strategies from gender specific commitments to overall 7. Lead by example: showcase company commitment to policy shifts which are women friendly gender equality and women’s empowerment4. Look at broadening the gender specific case to the overall 8. Make public the company policies and implementation business case for the company plan for promoting gender equality14 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  15. 15. done by women is a reality even inWHY EMPOWER WOMEN? the comparatively more advanced economies of Western Europe. Besides, women also carry the double burden of unpaid work at home whichW omen’s empowerment and Russia, India and China) countries remains unrecognised in national gender equality is closely and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), economies. Women by virtue of their linked with the reduction of female talent is underleveraged in child bearing roles lose out on a wholepoverty and achievement of global emerging markets, suggesting - “…the host of opportunities in the workplacetargets in meeting the Millennium inducements to languish or leave reflect which are often modeled around ‘genderDevelopment Goals (MDGs). For India both entrenched cultural perspectives stereotypes’. Over 57% of womento achieve a virtuous growth path, and modern complexities.’’8 Among respondents in the survey conductedtackling poverty and reaching the other issues, unfair discrimination by Mckinsey shared that women foundMDGs is crucial. Gender inequality is at the work place and care giving the double burden of work and domestica major obstruction in meeting these responsibilities of women are some of responsibilities the biggest barrier .11goals. Businesses too, are recognising the reasons why women are pulled back Assessing gender gaps in labour forcethat their non-financial performance from the workforce. If they do manage to participation of women has shown thatis interlinked to their financial stay in work once they have married the gaps are minimal in the twenties andperformance, and in turn have realised and have children, most stay in the widest gap is found in the 30-34 agethat managing their social impacts mid-level jobs. The trend of placing group upto 50-54 age group.12present risks, but also importantly qualified young women to lower entry The Women’s Empowerment Principlesopportunities for business. It is in this positions in comparison to their male therefore ask for a rebalancing ofcontext that they are considering and counterparts with the same qualifications the situation. They call for deliberateacknowledging the impact of gender is very much a reality. policies to ensure that women are givenon their business as well. opportunities to enter into leadership Female employees tend to be positions, for training and educationThe demand for women’s concentrated in entry or middle level to improve their status in comparisonempowerment within the business positions, that is, the more senior the to men, have better work conditionscontext is increasing. Global market position, the lower the percentage of with ensured health, safety and wellexpansion and economic growth has women. Women occupy a very small being, and are free from discrimination.increased the number of women in minority of the senior professional It calls for institutions and companiesthe workforce. In India, women’s work managerial or leadership positions.9 to become better advocates ofparticipation has grown from 19.7% While the India Gap Review Report gender equality within their sphere ofin 1981, 25.7% in 2001 to 32.2% in has shown 0% of women on company influence, in their supply chains and in2004-05.7 Informally, women are also boards or as CEOs, a 2010 study by communities. The interesting part is thatacknowledged as representing the Mckinsey puts this at 5% in India10. the WEPs are not restricted to womenmajor bulk of the agricultural workforce There are other issues too, related alone but also include men in pushingin the food producing regions of the to forms of discrimination, problems for such changes in the workplace,world, however, they are often the of sexual harassment, and in some marketplace and community.lowest paid and work under the worst extreme cases even violence at theconditions. workplace. Despite legislative measures requiring men and women to have theToday a much larger number same pay for the same work in manyof young women have a higher countries, unequal pay for equal workeducation status in comparison to 7 Ministry of Women and Child, Handbook of Statistical Indicators for Women in India, Government ofthe previous generation, and in turn India, 2007have been entering the workforce 8 Sylvia Ann Hewlett and Ripa Rashid, The Battle for Female Talent in Emerging Markets http://www. persiangendernetwork.org/upload/HBR_Battle_4_Female_Talent_in_Emerging_Markets.pdfin larger numbers than ever before. 9 India’s Country Profile in Corporate Gender Gap Report, 2010, P 56 and 57. Zahidi. S and Ibarra. H.A study conducted by the Harvard World Economic Forum. “The Corporate Gender Gap Report 2010.” http://www3.weforum.org/docs/Business Review on the ‘Battle WEF_GenderGap_CorporateReport_2010.pdffor Female Talent in the Emerging 10 Mckinsey and Company. “Women at the Top of Corporations: Making it Happen.” http://www. mckinsey.com/locations/swiss/news_publications/pdf/women_matter_2010_4.pdf.Markets’ observes that in spite of 11 Ibid.the presence of many qualified and 12 Department of Economic and Social Affairs(DESA), The World’s Women 2010: Trends and Statistics,ambitious women in the BRIC (Brazil, United Nations, New York, 2010 http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/Worldswomen/ WW_full%20report_color.pdf Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 15
  16. 16. What are the working questions that I could start with for Making a discussion on gender?Individual Inner Spaces Outer Faces Initiative Tool Kit prepared by CARE contains simple tools and exercises for preliminary discussions on gender, sexuality and gender and culture: http://www.care.org/careswork/whatwedo/health/downloads/ isofi_toolkit.pdf Gender Aware How is Women’s Empowerment connected to Business Decisions and Human Rights? Kathryn Dovey, Putting Gender on the Business Human Rights Agenda. http://www.realizingrights.org/pdf/Gender_and_Business_ and_HR_Scoping_Paper_Draft_for_circulation_June_2009. pdf What are some of the decisions we take related to WEPsBeing gender aware starts with the language we use, the on a daily basis at the workplace? Try this Quiz.interactions we have, and the choices we make. Given the fact Much more work is required to build a compass for individualthat gender stereotypes are entrenched deeply in our cultures, decisions that we take which have a direct impact on gender.we may not be conscious of acting out gender biases that The following questions taken from a sample managementhave been handed down to us through generations, through tool gives an idea of what elements these could combine.13numerous cultural codes and social attitudes. 1. We should focus on Gender Equality because:You could start by asking yourself, ‘‘Do I follow gendered a. Employing women has become imperative forroles?’ Many of us without realising it perform roles and lucrative business operations and employmentresponsibilities that are ideally expected or socially prescribed b. Women’s differential and traditional skills add aor imposed and may not be something we want to do. In the competitive advantage to the company’s operationssame way, we also begin to build perceptions on others based c. We need to dispel norms in society which haveon these expectations. Instead of discussing whether we are brought about inequality and barriers for womenright or wrong, let’s suspend judgement and explore how our and companies may also run into legal risks ofbehaviours and beliefs reinforce or challenge existing gender discriminationnorms in our society. We need to dispel norms in society which have broughtDecision making is an integral part of life for all of us. about inequality and barriers for women in society as aSometimes our decisions get mired in the gender stereotypes whole and companies may also run into legal risks regardingwe construct. These are also moments when we become discrimination. Though it is true that women are bringing inthe most gender aware as we interrogate a complex mesh a competitive edge to business and are also a major sectionof roles we play in our lives. Being gender aware raises of the consumer segment, gender equality essentially aimsquestions which require us to challenge conventional norms. at removing those barriers and norms which create unequalFor example, as an employer we might decide not to employ impacts on men and women due to their gendered roles ora woman of reproductive age assuming that she will need to due to gender biases.take maternity leave. This may or may not be the case, buteven so, and her taking time to have children might positively 2. Gender Equal policies would promote:affect the business (or not); but even so, the decision making a. Equal numbers of men and womenwas informed by a gender stereotype. b. Equal opportunities for men and women c. Introduction of child care and maternity benefitsIn today’s business context, we increasingly need to have the d. Shift in organisational practices that are womenability to occupy shared spaces, and be aware of diversity. friendlyStruggles of being gender aware come in handy here. We alsosee more women and men breaking the boundaries of genderor defying stereotypes in their own ways. Are we able to dealwith such changes? 13 Rapid Learning Institute. “The Manager’s Guide to Preventing Discrimination Lawsuits” www.rapidlearninginstitute.com16 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  17. 17. Gender Equal policies would involve a whole architecture 7. True or false: You can’t demote an employee solelyinvolving shifts in organisational policies and practice that are because of his/ her care giving responsibilities, but youwomen friendly. While introducing equal opportunity policies, can postpone a promotion until you see if he or she ischild care and maternity benefit services are important and up to the job.specific measures, but to do away with inequalities, practicesneed to change so, results and benefits are realised. False. The pregnancy must not affect her chances of being employed by you.3. True or false: To be on the safe side, you should treat pregnant employees with more sensitivity and tact What are the kind of questions I could ask on the gender than you do for other workers. situation in my own company context? An ILO Manual for Gender Audit Facilitators chalks out aEmployees should not be discriminated against because they methodology of assessing the situation of gender withinare pregnant. However, keeping in mind the health and safety different organizational contextsof pregnant employees is necessary and not discrimination. International Labour Office. “A Manual For Gender AuditThese measures include making exceptions on particular Facilitators.”tasks a pregnant woman should not undertake because they http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---may pose a health risk; and providing areas to enable women dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_093425.pdfto breastfeed at work. Is my company ready for a certification on gender4. Which of the following is NOT one of the four common equality? pitfalls in dealing with pregnant employees and job Do a self assessment on gender equality certification under applicants? http://www.genderequalityproject.com/ a. The appearance of bias Develop a WEP matrix for self assessment http://www. b. Commenting on the fact that an employee is pregnant humanrights-matrix.net/ c. Changing a pregnant employee’s job duties without her consent Are there others talking about practical implementation? d. Denying a pregnant employee or applicant an GenderLink Best Practice Guidelines for Creating a Culture opportunity based on her pregnancy of Gender Equality in the Private Sector http://www.workinfo. com/free/Downloads/genderlink.htmCommenting on the fact that an employee is pregnant. It’sokay to acknowledge that an employee is pregnant, as long The Gender Equality Principles initiative is a groundbreakingas you don’t take any actions that would affect their pay or initiative that helps companies with practical solutions http://opportunities due to the pregnacy itself. www.genderprinciples.org/5. True or false: When interviewing a pregnant job applicant, you should avoid discussing her pregnancy unless she brings it upTrue. The pregnancy must not affect her chances of beingemployed by you.6. The performance of an employee with new or increased family responsibilities: a. Probably will decline b. Probably will stay the same c. Probably will improve d. Can’t and shouldn’t be predicted ahead of timeCan’t and shouldn’t be predicted ahead of time. Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 17
  18. 18. The Reality for Women in India Changes in Gender Gap-BRIC Countries1. The Global Gender Gap Report 2010 reveals that 0.72 India: 0.07 0.68 a. Is in the bottom half of the global rankings and holds 0.66 Brazil Gender Gap Index the 114th position out of 134 economies in 0.64 Russia terms of the Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI) (2009). 0.62 India b. Is in the four highest-ranking countries for gender 0.6 China 0.58 inequality 0.56 c. Is in 120th position 0.54 d. Is in the top 25 countries 0.52 2006 2007 2008 2010 YearIndia is in the bottom half of the global rankings and holds the112th position out of 134 economies in terms of the Global Changes in Gender Gap-South AisaGender Gap Index (GGGI2010). The four highest-rankingcountries –Iceland, Norway, Finland, Sweden –have closed a 0.8 0.7 Bangladesh Gender Gap Indexlittle over 80% of their gender gaps, while the lowest ranking 0.6 Indiacountry –Yemen –has closed only around 46% of its gender 0.5 Nepalgap. However, no country has as yet been able to close the 0.4 Sri Lankagender gap entirely. 0.3 Pakistan 0.2 0.1 India was placed in the bottom half of the global 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 rankings holding the 114th position out of 134 Year economies in terms of the Global Gender Gap Index 3. The biggest challenge for women and girls in (GGGI) (2009). India is: India’s performance in the health and survival sub e. Political Empowerment of women index was particularly low where it ranked the lowest f. Economic Empowerment of women among all the economies at 134th position. g. Health and Survival of women h. Education of women However India is among the top 25 countries in terms of the political empowerment sub index, particularly Health and Survival. Though on the whole India is in the because of the progressive laws related to women’s bottom half of ranked countries in terms of gender gap, participation in Panchayats. India is in the lowest position in terms of health and survival of women and girls. Global Gender Gap Report 2010 4. The 0-6 age group sex ratio in India in 2011:2. Gender Gap trends in South Asia and BRIc i. Has shown a marked improvement since (Brazil, Russia, India, and china) show that: Independence a. Gender inequalities are improving over the years in j. 927 girls to 1000 boys these countries k. 914 girls to 1000 boys b. India is lagging behind l. None of the aboveThe South Asian countries continue to be ranked among The sex ratio at 0-6 age groups recorded in the 2011the bottom half in global assessments. A plotting of the GGI census results saw a drop from 927 to 914 since 2001. This(Gender Gap Index) shows that we are discussing gender is the lowest since India’s Independence in 1947, showinginequality in a context where the gap is closing and increasingly an abnormal trend in birth patterns or acute discriminationso, though India is lagging behind. The following graphs show against girl children at birth.the comparative trends in South Asia and BRIC countries.18 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  19. 19. 5. The corporate Gender Gap Report 2010, shows that global trends in maximum female employment is in: a. Agriculture b. Mining c. Financial Services and Insurance 60 55 = 2 Percentage of Female Employment 48 42 Financial Services and Insurance Percentage of Female Employees Professional Services 22 22 Travel and Tourism 18 Media and Entertainment Mining Agriculture Industry Type Percentage of Female Employment across Industry Type Engineering and Construction Globally (Sample Size=100 Biggest Employers)Financial services and insurance. The Distribution of Women Workers 2004-05Corporate Gender Gap Report 2010comprehensively focused on the currentrepresentation of female employees, insome of the largest companies in theworld’s biggest economies. Agricultural Sector(106.89)6. The majority of women in the workforce in India are engaged in: Non-Agricultural a. Agriculture Sector(40 million) b. Manufacturing c. Services NSS 61st Round Survey on Employment and UnemploymentThe majority of women in the workforce in India are engaged All of the above. A large number of women have shiftedin agriculture. For Asia as a whole, 48.2 per cent of women from family workers into income earners but this has mainlyworked in the agricultural sector in 2009, compared to 38.9 been in casual, home-based work in India. Interestingly theper cent of men14. trend has been very different in Bangladesh which has seen relatively more women assuming the role of factory workers.7. Broad trends suggest that majority of the workforce A large number of women specifically in the manufacturing in India is part of the sector in Asia indicate the inflow of a female workforce in a. Unorganised sector or are informal workers labour intensive manufacturing where global supply chains b. About 72% of women and 68.4% of men in the have preferred to hire women. Manufacturing is the second workforce are informal workers industry group after agriculture which has drawn a lot of c. Women are heavily concentrated in those sectors women, most of these are in labour intensive manufacturing which are more informal in terms of work conditions industries and usually as casual, temporary, contract workers d. All of the above and home-based workers. Studies have found that women as 14 I Asian Development Bank and Indian Labour Organisation. ““Rebalancing for Gender Equality, Women’s Labour Markets in South Asia.” http://www.adb.org/ documents/reports/women-labor-markets/women-labor-markets.pdf Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 19
  20. 20. 20 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  21. 21. a ‘buffer workforce’ for global supply chains to accommodatejust-in-time ordering, fluctuations in orders and prices, and stiffcompetition among suppliers, while a smaller core of regular,permanent workers (male or more highly educated women)ensure quality and stability.’15Studies on employment status in the labour market in Asiareflecting working conditions and the arrangements forwork show less than a third of male and female workers areengaged in regular wage and salaried employment in Asiawhich is a strong indication of weak labour market institutionsand a large informal economy. It also indicates that non-paid Source: E- Atlas on Gender, World Bank,work in a family establishment is very much a female domain http://www.app.collinsindicate.com/worldbankatlas-gender/enwhile men dominate the own-account (self employment withno employees) and employer statuses. Only one% of all a minimum of 40% reservation for women on the boards ofwomen workers in Asia were running their own business with public companies. This shows that legislative action may bepaid employees; the entrepreneurial capabilities of Asian useful on the issue.women are far from being tapped.16The private sector employs about 41.77 percent women 10. In high income countries in Europe, gender pay gap:while the public sector employs 58.23% are in public sector e. Does not existand 41.77% are in the private sector. Looking specifically at f. Exists but is usually only about 10%senior positions in government for instance shows that only g. Is more than 25%7.53 percent women are engaged as Central Governmentemployees.17,clearly showing that there is a drop in the The E Atlas prepared by the World Bank cites gender paypercentage of women as we move to better and more gaps in the private sector only in the European countries,permanent and secure jobs with higher demands on decision highlighting the need for greater reporting of information atmaking. the global level. The following map clearly establishes that a gender pay gap of more than 25 percent in the private sector8. The corporate Gender Gap Report 2010 showed that exists even in high income countries such as Europe. maximum percentage of female employees were found in: E-Atlas on Gender, World Bank, http://www.app. a. India collinsindicate.com/worldbankatlas-gender/en b. United States of America c. Finland 12. The India Gap Review Report, surveying 100 of the biggest employers in India showed that:United States. India has the lowest percentage of female a. None of the companies surveyed had a female CEOemployees (23%), followed by Japan (24%), Turkey (26%) b. Had 60 percent female employeesand Austria (29%). The United States (52%), Spain (48%), c. Were tracking wage differentialsCanada (46%) and Finland (44%) display the highestpercentage of total female employees from the sample. None of the above. Only 10% of the companies thatAcross the entire sample, 2% of companies still do not responded (59% responded) had 50% or more femalemeasure this information. employees and a majority (40%) had female employees under 10%. None of the companies surveyed had female CEOs.9. The corporate Gender Gap Report 2010 establishes Only 4% of the companies monitored or tracked wage gaps that: or differentials between male and female employees. General a. Female employees tend to be concentrated in entry or norms and cultural practices, lack of work-life balance policies middle level positions and lack of flexible work solutions were identified as the most b. In senior positions problematic barriers for women to rise to senior leadership c. In leadership positions and entry positions positions in the company.Female employees tend to be concentrated in entry or middle 15 Ibid.level positions, that is, the more senior the position, the lower 16 Ibidthe percentage of women. A major exception to this trend 17 Ministry of Women and Child, Handbook of Statistical Indicators for Women inis Norway, due to a government regulation that mandated India, Government of India, 2007 Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 21
  22. 22. Integrating theWomen Empowerment Principlesinto Business Practices Internal Spaces Companies usually report the translation of gender equal policies through gender specific policies adopted by them which include maternity leave and benefits, child care facilities for working mothers, grievance and complaint systems in case of harassment at the workplace etc. The WEPs propagate a set of holistic processes and cultural shifts that need to be initiated while adopting the same. The following are some examples of how work may be initiated around the WEPs. A. Ensuring visible cEO commitment: For organisations to take the first step in internalisation a visible commitment needs to be made by the leadership in organisations. Some visible actions by high level corporate leaders on gender equality: 1. Signing the CEO Statement on Women Empowerment Principles 2. Ensuring inclusion and discussion of the principles in different internal and external platforms especially at the corporate leadership level 3. Presence in Learning Networks and Forums on the issue22 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  23. 23. B. Diagnosing the Problem: Statistics show that females are I have been a leader in this Company outpacing males at almost every level for the last twenty years, however we during their education. Yet, women drop are unable to find leaders who keenly off the career path in their early 30s in apply and take forward strategies startling numbers. The result is that only which incorporate Gender Equality. about 15-18% of leadership roles are We have to train the new leaders held by women. Why are large numbers every time they come on board. Some of women not being able to make it to perceptions the top of the leadership pyramid? are deeply rooted in the gender Company A has very few culture of Company Y faced a serious women employees. It also discrimination law suit from its organisations, association of workers filed by has no women in leadership positions. Since the Company to initiate middle and senior management comprises predominantly men change; the women workers who found in the first place, is there really a discrimination in promotion. need to talk about gender? first step is to What systems do you think were understand missing in the Company? these perceptions and what they We have a lot of women leaders in Introducing quotas in leadership indicate. our Company. In fact the majority in may not help as this can become the top rung of management includes tokenistic. Genuine attempts need women. The middle management to be made on nurturing women’s however is mostly made up of men leadership. Furthermore women and lower management of women in leadership need to spend more and young men. I’m not sure if gender time with young women workers parity alone ensures a gender equal socially mentoring them and environment. sharing their stories of how they overcame the obstacles. Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 23
  24. 24. 24 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care?
  25. 25. c. Assess the stage of change needed in the company?In some companies the organic culture may have emerged to be more gender equal. Changesmay have been initiated or the company may be in the mid stage of its gender equalitystrategies. In both these cases less intense programmes are needed. Sometimes companiesmay be trying out certain gender specific strategies and may still be in the process of bringing inchange across levels. This may mean an inclusion of women’s leadership at the board level buta slow transition at other levels. Thus it is crucial to identify which stage of gender change theorganisation is at, and how deeply embedded the gender policies are.What are some of the Gender Audit Methodologies that can be used for this?A ILO Manual for Gender Audit Facilitators chalks out a methodology of assessing the situationof gender within different organisational contexts.International Labour Office. “A Manual For Gender Audit Facilitators.” 2007. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_093425.pdfcan I develop some diagnostic tools based on the WEPs?The WEPs may be used creatively to develop assessment and diagnostic tools to plot the stagesa company is in. An example is given below. WEP 1 and 2: Promotes leadership/ Treats all men and women Leadership focused/ Pro-Egalitarian fairly at work Market oriented • Company A • Company C • Company F • Company D • Company B Gender Non-Interventionist specific/Worker oriented WEP 3 & 4: Health and safety all men and women/ Promote Education training and professional development of all men Example of a matrix that may be used to assess stage of change and women workers Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 25
  26. 26. The matrix is an illustrated example of how the first four principles may be Identifying Barriersplotted to understand the gender climate in a company. Company A whichadopts all the four principles is moving towards a pro egalitarian climate in It is important to identify and build measurescomparison to Company E which is yet to bring in any changes on either of around each barrier. This is an example ofthe policies. Company C and F are bringing in leadership oriented changes achieving barriers to women’s leadership.while Company B is closer to bringing in worker oriented policies. The sub Mckinsey and Company identifies some ofcriteria of each of the principles could be developed for tracking,plotting and these as:assessing what directions companies need to take to move towards a pro-egalitarian direction. 1. The double burden syndrome where women are burdened with duties at homeD. Address Knowledge Gaps. and in the workplace Some problems reflect a lack of systems and a lack of putting systems 2. Lack of CEO commitment into practice. Often companies simply lack the knowledge and skills to 3. Lack of a proper promotion and hiring address gender issues. It is crucial to build in the case for relevance here. system The relevance could flow from: 4. Women’s own perception of themselvesa. National and international legal frameworks (discussion on worker and 5. Lack of role models and demonstrable anti-discrimination laws) examples building a case for change inb. Business imperatives (or the economic argument) attitudesc. Mapping of risks 6. Tendency of women to lower theird. Presence and participation in learning networks and forums and learning ambitions in comparison to men from peers 7. Many women drop out voluntarily frome. Measuring, tracking data and maintaining reporting standards the workforcef. Creating spaces for dialogueg. Locating the advantages: e.g. Companies have tried to locate the • Deal with Barriers with Diversity different values that women bring in to leadership and also assess the Measures: The report gives 13 diversity kind of issues or barriers that impact women measures that can be adopted byh. Assess and deal with barriers companies to ensure women’s leadership which entail flexible work options, skillHaving women in leadership positions is not enough and does not remove building, social mentoring, opportunitiesthe everyday discrimination that women face due to gender inequality. to women for networking to name a fewBesides, women leaders have not been able to always change gender and also places a business case fordynamics or hierarchies and instead been co-opted into the culture. The leadership.real reason behind gender equality is fundamentally related to upholding Source: Mckinsey and Company. “Women at‘masculine’ traits over ‘feminine’ traits as superior. As a result, leadership the Top of Corporations: Making it Happen.”styles, ways of working and organisational contexts are continuously built http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/swiss/news_around values of masculine superiority which need to be countered to ensure publications/pdf/women_matter_2010_4.pdfequal gender relations.What are the diverse perspectives on women’s leadership?Leadership Development Tools, Rutgers http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~cwgl/wgli/resources.html#LeadershipDevelopmentToolsRao Aruna and Kelleher David. Leadership For Social Transformation: Some Ideas and Questions on Institutions and FeministLeadership, Gender and Development, Vol. 8, No. 3, November 2000..Rao Aruna and Kelleher David. Unravelling Institutionalized Gender Inequality. Gender at Work Occasional Paper, 2008 www.genderatwork.org/learningMckinsey and Company. “Female Leadership a Competitive Edge for the Future” http://www.mckinsey.de/downloads/publikation/women_matter/Women_Matter_2_brochure.pdfBatliwala Srilatha. CREA. “Feminist leadership for Social Transformation, Clearing the Conceptual Cloud.” http://web.creaworld.org/files/f1.pdfWhat are some creative ways and policies to deal with work-life balance?Hewllette and Bucklace. Off Ramps and On Ramps, Keeping Talented Women on the Road to Success, Harvard BusinessSchool Press, 200726 | Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? Women’s Empowerment Principles – Why Business Should Care? | 26

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