Crt & language theories
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  • 1. or CRT is an approach to teaching andlearning that builds on the: • Cultural Knowledge; • Prior Experiences; • Frames of Reference; and • Performance of style of ethically diverse students to make learning encounters more relevant and effective for them.
  • 2. Is also referred to as:Culturally Relevant Culturally Congruent; and Culturally Compatibleapproach to working with students ofdiverse backgrounds
  • 3. Encouragesstudents to valuetheir own personalcultural identitiesand histories aswell as those ofothers.
  • 4. CulturallyresponsiveteachersIdentify, Value andUtilize theseinformationnetworks tosupport studentsacademic and
  • 5. The scope of thisapproach is:Far-reaching; Encouraging collaboration across content areas; and Disciplines as well as beyond the school building integrating students to gain a more
  • 6. Students areencouraged toassumeresponsibility fortheir own learningand view educationas a process bysophisticated andactive participants in
  • 7. CRT requires atransformation in theapproach to teaching andlearning from one thatrequires students to shedof their identities to onethat affirms them – andresults in all of theparticipants in theclassroom
  • 8. Centering on students’experiences and histories oftheir culturalcommunities, transformingcurriculum content andpedagogical practices to beclosely aligned withstudents’ identities.Represents departure from
  • 9. Culturally Responsive Teaching isnot solely for ethic and/or linguisticminorityStudents can and do benefit fromculturally responsive teaching aswell.
  • 10. A Closer Look at the “C” in CRT
  • 11. • It requires that teachers acknowledge and value the role of race/ ethnicity;• Encourages teachers to consider other sites from which youth draw to inform their: • Identities • Diversity
  • 12. ifferent ndividuals aluing ach other egardless of. kin ntellect alents or ears
  • 13. A culturally responsive teacher works to become familiar with intercultural knowledge influencesand uses it to engage and work collaboratively with students.
  • 14. an article of faith  a philosophy, or  a philosophical view It is a statement of belief of a productof someone else’s research.
  • 15. Is the learning techniquethat is utilized by teachers to achieve a theory.
  • 16. Refers to various sets of teaching devices andprocedural strategies to achieve the theory.
  • 17.  Politics define the goals, content, learning experiences and evaluation strategies. The following are influenced by politics: › Curricular materials › Hiring of personnel › Funding education › Entry into educational institution and exam systems
  • 18.  Curriculum should be anchored on the society’s expectation, aims and objectives. The teaching of curriculum should be considered as well as the society’s acceptance. Gender sensitivity and other organization.
  • 19.  Education is financed by government to improve the country’s economy through its quality graduates. skills, learning content and experiences in the classroom through its curriculum design and implementation should gear towards economic growth and government.
  • 20.  market forces dictate what should be included in the national curriculum. Employers have basic requirements. It is imperative that educational institutions find themselves working to meet this basic requirement academically and professionally. Textbooks, charts, equipment, chemicals and science experiments must supply the need.
  • 21.  Technology must be up to date having significant impact on education and society. In this digital world and era, students must have a good facility of skills and knowledge in computer.
  • 22.  Consideration for the environment and its preservations › Such as:  Natural resources;  Land;  Sea; and  Ozone layer are necessities that influence curriculum design to ensure the survival of future generation.
  • 23.  Children are primary recipients in learning, therefore, it influence the: › Curriculum content and delivery methods; › Scheduling; and › Time tabling.
  • 24. 1. Establish or obtain general goals of education2. Reduce the general goals to specific instructional objectives that cover different domains and levels3. Assess prior student knowledge and abilities
  • 25. 4. Break learning into small sequential steps5. Identify teacher behavior6. Identify Student behavior7. Write a description of the lesson8. Evaluate to see if the intended outcomes have been achieved.
  • 26. LANGUAGETHEORIES
  • 27. 6 Theories:1. Language Acquisition Theory2. Davids Crystal’s theory on language acquisition3. Functional Theory4. Behaviorism Theory of Language5. Interactionist Theory6. The Structural View/Theory
  • 28. Language Acquisition Theory Proponents: Chomsky, Crystal, Piaget and Aitchison Noam Chomsky  Believes that children are born with an inherited ability to learn any human language.  claims that certain linguistic structures with children must be imprinted on their minds.  posited that every child has a “Language acquisition device” or LAD which encodes the major principles and grammatical structures into the child’s brain.
  • 29. [Noam Chomsky]  claims that every language its extremely complex.  Since language structure is already imprinted he said that learners have to learn new vocabulary and apply syntactic structures to form sentence and fluency <FL> Should be attained at age 5 or 6  posited that all languages contains: noun, verb, consonants, vowels, and they are “ Hard Wired” to acquire grammar.  claimed that children do not learn the language through imitation alone.
  • 30. Davids Crystal’s Theory on Language Acquisition Professor Crystal is best known for his 2 encyclopedias • The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language •The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language 5 stages of Language Acquisition: STAGE 1: HELOPRHASTIC - Built on the 3 operational purposes: 1. To get something they want 2. To get someone’s attention 3. To draw attention to something
  • 31. STAGE 2: QUESTIONING- Children build concepts on what and where questions;- They begin to classify things, persons, and places;- Concepts on opposition are clear example:  Big and Small  hot and cold
  • 32. STAGE 3: - characterized by more1. Complexities in grammar use2. Children use information to make/ express their wants/ needs3. They can start meaning construction/ negation/ negotiation example:  Yes means yes  No means no  junk food is bad, why?
  • 33. STAGE 4:1. Characterized by increasingly complex sentence structure.2. Children can now use abstract meaning, pragmatic comprehension and situational analysis.3. Rich in explanation.
  • 34. STAGE 5:1. They can give information2. Ask and answer questions3. Suggest/ offer/ state/ express opinions
  • 35. Functional Theory Proponents: Halliday1. Language is seen as to have experiential meaning example:  Kiss  Hug  Wine2. It is participative where language events is highly interpersonal.3. Language is seen as having contextual, logical, and functional meaning, therefore, it could be imaginative and explorative.
  • 36. Behaviorism Theory of Language Proponent: B. F. Skinner1. Language acquisition, according to behaviorists, depends on:  Human role models;  Imitation;  Rewards; and  practice.2. The focus is on reading and writing.3. It is rule governed.4. Error is treated with caution.
  • 37. Interactionist Theory Proponent: Yygotsky1. Language development is both biological and social.2. It is influenced by the desire of children to communicate with others.3. This theory claims that children are born with a powerful brain that matures slowly, which predisposes many to acquire new understandings as they socialize, interact with others.
  • 38. The Structural View/Theory1. The structural view of language is regarded as a system of structurally related elements for the transmission of meaning.  Those Elements are:  Phonological units (morphological)  Grammatical Units  Grammatical Operations  lexical items2. Areas of research drawn are:  Linguistic Analysis  Textual Discourse Analysis
  • 39. Methods on the structural view:1. Audio-lingual method;2. Total physical response; and3. The silent way.