or CRT is an approach to teaching andlearning that builds on the: • Cultural Knowledge; • Prior Experiences; • Frames of Reference; and • Performance of style of ethically diverse students to make learning encounters more relevant and effective for them.
Is also referred to as:Culturally Relevant Culturally Congruent; and Culturally Compatibleapproach to working with students ofdiverse backgrounds
Encouragesstudents to valuetheir own personalcultural identitiesand histories aswell as those ofothers.
CulturallyresponsiveteachersIdentify, Value andUtilize theseinformationnetworks tosupport studentsacademic and
The scope of thisapproach is:Far-reaching; Encouraging collaboration across content areas; and Disciplines as well as beyond the school building integrating students to gain a more
Students areencouraged toassumeresponsibility fortheir own learningand view educationas a process bysophisticated andactive participants in
CRT requires atransformation in theapproach to teaching andlearning from one thatrequires students to shedof their identities to onethat affirms them – andresults in all of theparticipants in theclassroom
Centering on students’experiences and histories oftheir culturalcommunities, transformingcurriculum content andpedagogical practices to beclosely aligned withstudents’ identities.Represents departure from
Culturally Responsive Teaching isnot solely for ethic and/or linguisticminorityStudents can and do benefit fromculturally responsive teaching aswell.
• It requires that teachers acknowledge and value the role of race/ ethnicity;• Encourages teachers to consider other sites from which youth draw to inform their: • Identities • Diversity
ifferent ndividuals aluing ach other egardless of. kin ntellect alents or ears
A culturally responsive teacher works to become familiar with intercultural knowledge influencesand uses it to engage and work collaboratively with students.
an article of faith a philosophy, or a philosophical view It is a statement of belief of a productof someone else’s research.
Is the learning techniquethat is utilized by teachers to achieve a theory.
Refers to various sets of teaching devices andprocedural strategies to achieve the theory.
Politics define the goals, content, learning experiences and evaluation strategies. The following are influenced by politics: › Curricular materials › Hiring of personnel › Funding education › Entry into educational institution and exam systems
Curriculum should be anchored on the society’s expectation, aims and objectives. The teaching of curriculum should be considered as well as the society’s acceptance. Gender sensitivity and other organization.
Education is financed by government to improve the country’s economy through its quality graduates. skills, learning content and experiences in the classroom through its curriculum design and implementation should gear towards economic growth and government.
market forces dictate what should be included in the national curriculum. Employers have basic requirements. It is imperative that educational institutions find themselves working to meet this basic requirement academically and professionally. Textbooks, charts, equipment, chemicals and science experiments must supply the need.
Technology must be up to date having significant impact on education and society. In this digital world and era, students must have a good facility of skills and knowledge in computer.
Consideration for the environment and its preservations › Such as: Natural resources; Land; Sea; and Ozone layer are necessities that influence curriculum design to ensure the survival of future generation.
Children are primary recipients in learning, therefore, it influence the: › Curriculum content and delivery methods; › Scheduling; and › Time tabling.
1. Establish or obtain general goals of education2. Reduce the general goals to specific instructional objectives that cover different domains and levels3. Assess prior student knowledge and abilities
4. Break learning into small sequential steps5. Identify teacher behavior6. Identify Student behavior7. Write a description of the lesson8. Evaluate to see if the intended outcomes have been achieved.
6 Theories:1. Language Acquisition Theory2. Davids Crystal’s theory on language acquisition3. Functional Theory4. Behaviorism Theory of Language5. Interactionist Theory6. The Structural View/Theory
Language Acquisition Theory Proponents: Chomsky, Crystal, Piaget and Aitchison Noam Chomsky Believes that children are born with an inherited ability to learn any human language. claims that certain linguistic structures with children must be imprinted on their minds. posited that every child has a “Language acquisition device” or LAD which encodes the major principles and grammatical structures into the child’s brain.
[Noam Chomsky] claims that every language its extremely complex. Since language structure is already imprinted he said that learners have to learn new vocabulary and apply syntactic structures to form sentence and fluency <FL> Should be attained at age 5 or 6 posited that all languages contains: noun, verb, consonants, vowels, and they are “ Hard Wired” to acquire grammar. claimed that children do not learn the language through imitation alone.
Davids Crystal’s Theory on Language Acquisition Professor Crystal is best known for his 2 encyclopedias • The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language •The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language 5 stages of Language Acquisition: STAGE 1: HELOPRHASTIC - Built on the 3 operational purposes: 1. To get something they want 2. To get someone’s attention 3. To draw attention to something
STAGE 2: QUESTIONING- Children build concepts on what and where questions;- They begin to classify things, persons, and places;- Concepts on opposition are clear example: Big and Small hot and cold
STAGE 3: - characterized by more1. Complexities in grammar use2. Children use information to make/ express their wants/ needs3. They can start meaning construction/ negation/ negotiation example: Yes means yes No means no junk food is bad, why?
STAGE 4:1. Characterized by increasingly complex sentence structure.2. Children can now use abstract meaning, pragmatic comprehension and situational analysis.3. Rich in explanation.
STAGE 5:1. They can give information2. Ask and answer questions3. Suggest/ offer/ state/ express opinions
Functional Theory Proponents: Halliday1. Language is seen as to have experiential meaning example: Kiss Hug Wine2. It is participative where language events is highly interpersonal.3. Language is seen as having contextual, logical, and functional meaning, therefore, it could be imaginative and explorative.
Behaviorism Theory of Language Proponent: B. F. Skinner1. Language acquisition, according to behaviorists, depends on: Human role models; Imitation; Rewards; and practice.2. The focus is on reading and writing.3. It is rule governed.4. Error is treated with caution.
Interactionist Theory Proponent: Yygotsky1. Language development is both biological and social.2. It is influenced by the desire of children to communicate with others.3. This theory claims that children are born with a powerful brain that matures slowly, which predisposes many to acquire new understandings as they socialize, interact with others.
The Structural View/Theory1. The structural view of language is regarded as a system of structurally related elements for the transmission of meaning. Those Elements are: Phonological units (morphological) Grammatical Units Grammatical Operations lexical items2. Areas of research drawn are: Linguistic Analysis Textual Discourse Analysis
Methods on the structural view:1. Audio-lingual method;2. Total physical response; and3. The silent way.