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  • 1. Instructor Guide Section One: DSAT Tec Diver DSAT Tec Diver Course Instructor Guide Tec 40 Tec 45 Tec 50 PADI ®
  • 2. Section One: DSAT Tec Diver Instructor GuideDSAT Tec Diver Course Instructor Guide© PADI, Inc. 2009Produced by Diving Science and Technology Corp. (DSAT)for PADIPortions of the Appendix of this section may be reproducted by PADI Membersfor use in PADI-sanctioned training, but not for resale or personal gain. No otherreproduction is allowed without the express written permission of the publisher.Published and distributed byPADI30151 TomasRancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688Printed in the U.S.A.Product No. 70605 (includes Binder) (09/09) Product#79610version 3.0 final to productionTec Diver Course Instructor Guide PADI ® ii padi.com
  • 3. Instructor Guide Section One: DSAT Tec DiverTable of ContentsOne: Introduction Overview and Course Goals.............................................................................. 1-2 Tec 40 .................................................................................................. 1-3 Tec 45 .................................................................................................. 1-3 Tec 50 .................................................................................................. 1-4 Tec Trimix 65 ...................................................................................... 1-4 Knowledge Development.................................................................... 1-5 Practical Applications ......................................................................... 1-5 Training Dives ..................................................................................... 1-5 Instructional Philosophies ................................................................................. 1-6 Dive Today and Discover Tec ............................................................. 1-8 About This Instructor Guide ............................................................................. 1-9Two: Tec Diver Course Standards Legal and Regulatory Consideration ................................................................. 2-1 Instructor Requirements .................................................................................... 2-1 Certified Assisant Requirements ....................................................................... 2-6 Course Prerequisites .......................................................................................... 2-6 Discover Tec Prerequisites .................................................................. 2-7 Tec 40 Prerequisites ............................................................................ 2-7 Tec 45 Prerequisites ............................................................................ 2-8 Tec 50 Prerequisites ............................................................................ 2-8 Equipment Requirements .................................................................................. 2-9 Tec 40 Equipment Requirements ........................................................ 2-9 Tec 45 and Tec 50 Equipment Requirements ................................... 2-11 Discover Tec Equipment Requirements............................................ 2-12 Material Requirements .................................................................................... 2-13 Instructor Materials ........................................................................... 2-13 Student Materials .............................................................................. 2-14 Paperwork and Administration ........................................................................ 2-15 Insurance Requirements .................................................................................. 2-15 Certification Procedures .................................................................................. 2-16 Course Sequence Requirements ...................................................................... 2-16 Dive Today Considerations ............................................................................. 2-18 Definition of Confined Water .......................................................................... 2-19 Definition of Limited Open Water .................................................................. 2-19 Definition of Open Water ................................................................................ 2-19 Assessing Open Water Dive Readiness ........................................................... 2-19 Cave Environment Training Option ................................................................ 2-20 PADI ®padi.com iii
  • 4. Section One: DSAT Tec Diver Instructor Guide Instructor Requirements .................................................................... 2-20 Certified Assistant Requirements...................................................... 2-20 Student Requirements ....................................................................... 2-20 Environment Requirements............................................................... 2-20 Equipment and Gas Requirements .................................................... 2-21 Supervision and Ratios .................................................................................... 2-21 Risk Mitigation, Professional Judgment and Responsibility .......................... 2-21 Definitions of Mastery..................................................................................... 2-22Three: Discover Tec Standards Program Sequence ............................................................................................. 3-1 Required Sequence.............................................................................. 3-1 Discover Tec Experience Dive Key Standards ................................................. 3-1 Knowledge Development .................................................................................. 3-2 Practical Applications ........................................................................................ 3-2 Discover Tec Experience Dive .......................................................................... 3-2Four: Tec 40 Standards and Course Content Program Sequence ............................................................................................. 4-1 Tec 40 Key Standards ......................................................................... 4-3 Tec 40 Knowledge Development ...................................................................... 4-4 Tec 40 Knowledge Development One ................................................ 4-5 Tec 40 Knowledge Development Two.............................................. 4-62 Tec 40 Knowledge Development Three ........................................... 4-96 Tec 40 Practical Application ......................................................................... 4-106 Tec 40 Practical Application One ................................................... 4-106 Tec 40 Practical Application Two ................................................... 4-107 Tec 40 Practical Application Three ................................................. 4-109 Tec 40 Training Dives ....................................................................................4-111 Tec 40 Training Dive One................................................................4-111 Tec 40 Training Dive Two .............................................................. 4-121 Tec 40 Training Dive Three ............................................................ 4-128 Tec 40 Training Dive Four .............................................................. 4-134 PADI ® iv padi.com
  • 5. Instructor Guide Section One: DSAT Tec DiverFive: Tec 45 Standards and Course Content Program Sequence ............................................................................................. 5-1 Tec 45 Key Standards ......................................................................... 5-3 Tec 45 Knowledge Development ...................................................................... 5-4 Tec 45 Knowledge Development One ................................................ 5-6 Tec 45 Knowledge Development Two.............................................. 5-62 Tec 45 Knowledge Development Three ........................................... 5-80 Tec 45 Practical Application ........................................................................... 5-92 Tec 45 Practical Application One ..................................................... 5-93 Tec 45 Practical Application Two ..................................................... 5-96 Tec 45 Practical Application Three ................................................... 5-98 Tec 45 Training Dives ................................................................................... 5-102 Tec 45 Training Dive One............................................................... 5-102 Tec 45 Training Dive Two ...............................................................5-111 Tec 45 Training Dive Three ............................................................ 5-118 Tec 45 Training Dive Four .............................................................. 5-125Six: Tec 50 Standards and Course Content Program Sequence ............................................................................................. 6-1 Tec 50 Key Standards ......................................................................... 6-3 Tec 50 Knowledge Development ...................................................................... 6-4 Tec 50 Knowledge Development One ................................................ 6-6 Tec 50 Knowledge Development Two.............................................. 6-19 Tec 50 Practical Application ........................................................................... 6-28 Tec 50 Practical Application One ..................................................... 6-29 Tec 50 Practical Application Two ..................................................... 6-34 Tec 50 Practical Application Three ................................................... 6-36 Tec 50 Training Dives ..................................................................................... 6-38 Tec 50 Training Dive One................................................................. 6-38 Tec 50 Training Dive Two ................................................................ 6-49 Tec 50 Training Dive Three .............................................................. 6-56 Tec 50 Training Dive Four ................................................................ 6-60 PADI ®padi.com v
  • 6. Section One: DSAT Tec Diver Instructor GuideSeven: Appendix DSAT Tec Diver Course Key Dive Standards ................................................. A-3 DSAT TecRec Dive Planning Slate .................................................................. A-6 DSAT TecRec Dive Planning Checklist ........................................................... A-7 DSAT TecRec Equipment Checklist ................................................................ A-8 CNS Surface Interval Credit Table................................................................... A-9 Oxygen Exposure Limits .................................................................................. A-9 SAC Conversion Factors ................................................................................ A-10 Maximum Depths in Feet of Seawater........................................................... A-11 Maximum Depths in Metres of Seawater ...................................................... A-12 Equivalent Air Depth and Oxygen Management Table – Imperial................ A-13 Equivalent Air Depth and Oxygen Management Table – Metric .................. A-24 Hand Signals................................................................................................... A-36 Independent Study Assignments .................................................................... A-39 Other Delivery Content Hand Outs .............................................................. A-149 Liability Release and Express Assumption of Risk for Technical Diving... A-205 Liability Release and Express Assumption of Risk for Discover Tec DivingA-207 Application – Instructor................................................................................ A-209 Standard RSTC Medical Form ..................................................................... A-211 Tec Diver Statement of Understand and Learning Agreement .................... A-217 Tec 40 Answer Keys ..................................................................................... A-218 Tec 45 Answer Keys ..................................................................................... A-220 Tec 50 Answer Keys ..................................................................................... A-222 Exam Answer Sheets .................................................................................... A-224 PADI ® vi padi.com
  • 7. Instructor Guide Section One: DSAT Tec Diver DSAT Tec Diver Course Instructor Guide ONE: Introduction Overview, Course Goals and Instructional Philosophies The DSAT Tec Diver course is an entry-level technical open circuit diving course. It is part of the DSAT TecRec program (TecRec is the encompassing overall name for all DSAT technical div- ing courses). By definition technical diving (tec diving) takes divers beyond the limits of recreational diving. The general dive community definitions are: Recreational scuba diving is defined as no stop diving with air or enriched air nitrox to a maximum depth of 40 metres/130 feet, and during penetration dives, within the natural light zone and no more than a total linear distance of 40 metres/130 feet from the surface. Technical scuba diving is diving other than commercial or research div- ing that takes divers beyond recreational limits. It is further defined as and includes one or more of the following: diving beyond 40 metres/130 feet, required stage decompression, diving in an overhead environment beyond 40 linear metres/130 linear feet, accelerated decompression, the use of vari- able gas mixtures during a dive, and/or the use of scuba technologies that require discipline, thought, training and attitude beyond that required by recreational divers. PADI ®padi.com 1-1
  • 8. Section One: DSAT Tec Diver Instructor Guide Technical diving uses extensive methodologies, technologies and training to manage added risks associated with it. Typically, this means using complex or highly specialized equipment in situations where direct access to the surface is inaccessible due to a ceiling imposed by decompression or by a physical barrier such as found inside cave or wreck div- ing environments. Divers usually technical dive for the challenge and fun rather than as a profession, so it is a recreation (hence the name “TecRec” for DSAT programs). However, to avoid confusion regarding the limits and scopes, tec diving is not called “recreational diving.” The courses in the DSAT TecRec program directly address the more demanding and challenging nature of technical diving, which involves more hazards and inherent risks than recreational diving.Overview and Course Goals Originally introduced in 2000 as the Tec Deep Diver course, the Tec Diver course has estab- lished itself as the diving industry’s most demand- ing and credible entry-level, technical deep diving program. Based on coherent instructional system design, the use of simulation situations, team building and dive community standards, the Tec Deep Diver course in its original format consisted of two courses, the full Tec Deep Diver course (12 dives) and a subcourse (dives one through seven) called Apprentice Tec Diver, later renamed Tec Diver Level 1. Eventually, it was further subdivid- ed (dives one and two) to include Tec Basics. The current revision renames the overall course the Tec Diver course, with the Tec Deep Diver certification renamed Tec 50 (for its 50 metre/165 maximum depth) There are two new subcourses that resequence training. The intent is to create smaller, easier-to-schedule sections that expand the student’s qualifications and capabilities at each level. This approach, which is common in many diving and non diving training regimens, allows students to build their capa- bilities progressively while benefiting from their training in stages. However, the end point goals of the Tec Diver course (certification as a Tec 50 diver) remains unchanged: • To train the diver in the motor skills required for open circuit tec diving. • To assure the diver understands, acknowledges and accepts the hazards and risks involved with technical deep diving with open circuit scuba to 50 metres/165 feet, as well as the limits of training received at each stage in the course. • To provide the foundational skills for further training in technical diving. PADI ® 1-2 padi.com
  • 9. Instructor Guide Section One: DSAT Tec Diver The student diver may complete the subcourses independently, in sequence and according to the Course Standards. Alternatively, the student may enroll in a complete, continuous Tec Diver course that covers everything up through the Tec 50. Because each subcourse qualifies the diver to take on increasing levels of decompression diving and the student may not be able to return immediately for further training, a certification is required at each level as the student completes it. The following summarizes the subdivisions of the Tec Diver course (see the Course Standards section and the individual course sections for full details): Tec 40 The Tec 40 course introduces divers to limited decompres- sion diving within accepted recreational depth limits. Although the student who clearly intends to continue through Tec 50 is encouraged to complete Tec 40 in complete tec div- ing gear, the limits of the Tec 40 qualification allow more flexi- bility. Therefore, to accommodate divers interested in very limited tec diving, the Tec 40 equipment requirements are only a bit beyond those of the standard recreational kit. A Tec 40 diver is qualified to • Use decompression software and dive computers to plan and make decompression dives with not more than 10 minutes of total decompression and not deeper than 40 metres/130 feet. • Use a single cylinder of decompression gas with up to 50 percent oxygen (EANx50) to add conservatism to the required decompression. The Tec 40 course consists of knowledge development, three practical application sessions, one confined or limited open water dive, two open water no stop dives (simulated decom- pression) and one open water decompression dive. Tec 45 The Tec 45 course provides a transitional qualification while continuing to develop as a technical diver. The equipment requirements are the same as for the Tec Deep Diver Course. This diver is qualified to make limited technical decompression dives using the equipment and the procedures used at the Tec Deep Diver level. However, qualifications are narrow, reflecting comparatively limited training and experience. The expectation is that a Tec 45 diver plans to continue on to Tec 50. A Tec 45 diver is qualified to: • Make single and repetitive dives to a maximum depth of 45 metres/145 feet. • Use a single decompression gas of EANx, or oxygen, to accelerate or add conservatism to the decompression. In addition to the Tec 40 course requirements, the Tec 45 course consists of knowledge devel- opment, three practical application sessions, one confined or limited open water dive, two open water no stop dives (simulated decompression) and one open water decompression dive. PADI ®padi.com 1-3
  • 10. Section One: DSAT Tec Diver Instructor Guide Tec 50 The Tec 50 course is the complete, entry-level skill set for extensive open cir- cuit deep decompression tec diving (formerly Tec Deep Diver). The diver is qual- ified to make technical decompression dives within the limits of training and equipment. A Tec 50 is qualified to • Use air, EANx and oxygen for multiple stop decompression dives as deep as 50 metres/165 feet using standard open circuit, multiple cylinder (back- mount and/or sidemount) tec diving equipment. • Use two decompression gases (EANx and/or oxygen) to accelerate or add conservatism to the decompression. In addition to the Tec 45 course requirements, the Tec 50 course consists of knowledge development, two practical application sessions, two open water no stop dives (simulated decompression) and two open water decompression dives. Tec Trimix 65 The Tec Trimix 65 course is a new, intermedi- ate level trimix course that is an option for Tec Trimix Instructors. Tec Trimix 65 extends Tec 50 and bridges to the full Tec Trimix Diver certifica- tion. The Tec Trimix 65 diver is qualified to make technical decompression dives within the limits of training and equipment. A Tec Trimix 65 diver is qualified to • Use air, EANx, oxygen and trimix with 18% or more oxygen for multiple stop decompression dives as deep as 65 metres/210 feet using standard open cir- cuit, multiple cylinder (backmount and/or sidemount) tec diving equipment. • Use two decompression gases (EANx and/or oxygen) to accelerate or add con- servatism to the decompression. In addition to the Tec 50 course require- ments, the Tec Trimix 65 course consists of additional knowledge develop- ment, practical application and an open water no stop dive (simulated tri- mix decompression). The final open water decompression trimix dive may be combined with the final dive of the Tec 50 course. For standards and information about conducting this course, see the Tec Trimix 65 option in the Tec Trimix 65 addendum to the DSAT Tec Trimix Diver Course Instructor Guide. See the addendum for instructor qualifications and other course requirements. PADI ® 1-4 padi.com
  • 11. Instructor Guide Section One: DSAT Tec Diver The DSAT Tec Diver course follows the same performance-based instructional sys- tem methodologies that PADI Instructors learn to use and apply in the PADI Instructor Development Course (IDC). As with PADI courses, each Tec Diver sub- course has knowledge development, practical application and training dives. Knowledge Development Compared with recreational diving, technical diving requires student divers to master significantly more procedural knowledge and applied theory. Each level in the Tec Diver course develops this knowledge through independent study reading assignments, through knowledge briefings and reviews, and through use of the knowledge during practical applications, training dive briefings, planning, execu- tion and debriefings. Because technical diving has a high knowledge development load, most topics are sequenced to so they build from one training level to the next within the over- all Tec Diver course. For example, the Tec 40, Tec 45, Tec 50 and Tec Trimix 65 courses all have individual equipment discussions, each building upon the previ- ous. This greatly enhances learning because student divers study, apply and assimilate each topic in stages. Exercises, knowledge reviews and exams provide tools for developing and assessing mastery at each stage as well. Practical Applications Practical applications are sessions that address specific hands-on aspects of tec diving. Practical applications have obvious focus and purpose, such as equip- ment setup, dive planning and using decompression software, but they also have the underlying purpose of fostering and developing the team diving philosophy that is central to tec diving. You can introduce team con- cepts in the practical applications by holding the entire team accountable for individual performance, so that the team does not move on until everyone in the team demon- strates mastery of the performance requirements. This encourages team mates to help each other and establishes the mindset that what one person does or fails to do affects everyone in the team, just as it can when tec diving. It is also important to success on team projects. Training Dives Each subcourse in the Tec Diver course flow develops student skills and knowledge (through application) in sequenced dives. Each dive applies material from previous knowledge development and integrates previous practical PADI ®padi.com 1-5
  • 12. Section One: DSAT Tec Diver Instructor Guide applications. Each dive builds upon skills mastered in previous dives, and also applies and extends team diving concepts. Although sequenced and lev- el-loaded to meet the skill development abilities of most divers who meet course prerequisites, some individuals may need more time. You repeat dives, or portions of them, as necessary until meeting all mastery requirements. Section Two: Course Standards defines mastery for the Tec Diver course. Instructional Philosophies DSAT TecRec courses embrace instructional philosophies applied within state-of-the-art instructional systems. Some of these differ from those that apply to training recreational divers: • Technical diving is not for everyone. It should not be presented as a goal for all divers to aspire to. Rather, DSAT TecRec courses are for the small segment of divers looking for challenge and willing to accept the costs, risks, time commitment, training and physical fitness requirements necessary. In the face of these, it may be perfectly appropriate to remind those who may not be suited to TecRec that they can enjoy a lifetime of novel diving adventures without ever leaving recreational limits. • No instructor is required to accept a particular individual into a scuba course (provided the basis for not accepting someone does not violate local discrimination laws involving race, gender, etc.). In deciding wheth- er it’s appropriate to accept someone into a technical diving course, or to have someone continue in a course, the following points are worth con- sidering: 1. What comfort level does the individual demonstrate underwater? Technical diving imposes task loading and higher potential risk, partic- ularly in deep diving when gas supply and decompression may create significant time pressure. The consequences of a problem have a high- er probability of being more substantial than within the recreational envelope. A candidate for technical diving needs to be able to control emotions and put aside anxiety in the face of problems and task load- ing. An individual who demonstrates undue stress during exercises, a tendency to over react, or inappropriate emotional reactions may not be ready for the psychological and/or physical stresses of technical diving. The clues might include an inability to perform simple tasks that they handled easily under “relaxed” circumstances; unnecessarily hasty or forceful responses to simple problems; irritability or anger in the face of minor obstacles, etc. 2. What skill level does the individual demonstrate? Recreational diving principles, procedures and motor skills are foundational to tec diving and need to be second nature. An individual who’s still mastering the fine points of recreational diving is not ready for the higher skill and knowledge demands of technical diving. 3. What is the individual’s physical fitness? Compared to recreational diving, the physical demand of technical diving can be much higher, PADI ® 1-6 padi.com
  • 13. Instructor Guide Section One: DSAT Tec Diver especially before and after the dive, and during the dive in current or any other situation requiring above normal exertion while swimming. This means more load on the legs and cardiovascular system. There’s substan- tially more equipment, translating to higher effort necessary to move the mass and increased drag. Technical dive duration frequently requires heavy exposure protection; laden with tec gear and a full exposure suit in a hot climate predive can risk overheating and significant cardiovascular stress. For all these reasons, DSAT TecRec courses require a physician’s approval prior to Training Dive Two in the Tec 40 course and before all other subcourses in the Tec Diver course. 4.What is the individual’s attitude? Compared to recreational diving, tec diving demands greater self discipline in dive planning and preparation. It calls for adhering to plans and following procedures closely, repeatedly and strictly, refusing to shave safety margins for convenience. In the face of a missing or broken piece of equipment, poor conditions or simply not feeling well, it may mean being willing to abort or cancel a dive despite peer pressure, inconvenience, and expense. Some individuals have the physical and intellectual capacity to tec dive, but lack the self discipline to apply what they know they should do consistently. The greater the potential risk, the more important it is to apply proven instructional methodologies, educational and cognitive psychology and system teaching principles in course design. Following this axiom, DSAT TecRec courses depart significantly in several ways from tec diving courses that are not founded on performance-based, instructional system design theory. DSAT TecRec programs emphasize training in the way you actually dive. In accordance with instructional system design philosophy, all courses under the TecRec umbrella exclude discussions, topics and drills that lack either a founda- tional, developmental role or any real application in tec diving. Including these may actually interfere with learning. Technical diving has extensive equipment requirements (hence the name “technical”). Beyond the Tec 40 level, DSAT TecRec courses approach their sub- ject matter with the assumption that students own, or will soon own, the required gear, and that they’re prepared for the substantial investment involved. This, of course, does not eliminate rental options, though students should become familiar with the gear prior to tec diving with it, which each of the Tec Diver courses helps accommodate. PADI ®padi.com 1-7
  • 14. Section One: DSAT Tec Diver Instructor GuideDive Today and Discover Tec The DSAT Tec 40 course embraces the Dive Today and Discover philos- ophies, allowing you to let student divers begin their training in the water, and making it possible for those merely curious about technical diving to try the equipment and some of the procedures. The Dive Today option allows you to have students complete the first dive of the Tec 40 course prior to beginning knowledge development. This allows divers to enroll in and participate in the course with little notice. The first training dive in the Tec 40 course may also be used as a Discover Tec experience. Discover Tec allows divers curious about tec div- ing to try out a full technical rig in controlled conditions. Because of the emphasis on trying tec diving, the use of a full, standardized technical setup as required for Tec 45 and beyond is recommended. Discover Tec may be credited (at your discretion) toward the Tec 40 course if the par- ticipant meets all performance requirements for the dive. However, per- forming the skills is not required for the experience. See Standards in the Tec 40 Section for standards specific to the Discover Tec experience, and sequencing and instructional considerations for Dive Today. PADI ® 1-8 padi.com
  • 15. Instructor Guide Section One: DSAT Tec DiverAbout This Instructor Guide For convenience, the Tec Diver Course Instructor Guide consists of seven tabbed sections: One: Introduction to the Tec Diver Course This tab provides brief overview of the Tec Diver course, each subcourse, instructional philosophies and how each subcourse is segmented. Two: Course Standards This tab covers standards that apply to all the subcourses. Look here for instructor and assistant qualifications, student prerequisites, overall con- fined water, limited open water and open water standards, and equipment requirements. The section also discusses paperwork requirements, materi- als requirements, insurance requirements, certification requirements and sequencing requirements. It also discusses the definition of mastery with respect to DSAT TecRec courses. Each of these tabs covers the individual subcourses. Under each tab, you’ll find sections for an Introduction, Standards specific to that course, Knowledge Development (requirements and presentation/content outline), Practical Applications and Training Dives. Three: Discover Tec Four: Tec 40 Five: Tec 45 Six: Tec 50 Seven: Appendix The Appendix includes tables used through all course levels, as well as answer keys to the exams. It also has course knowledge reviews and their keys, as well as various required and optional forms and lists. PADI ®padi.com 1-9
  • 16. Section One: DSAT Tec Diver Instructor Guide PADI ® 1-10 padi.com

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