Information Behavior: Theories, Models & Studies (20091208)

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Information Behavior: Theories, Models & Studies (20091208)

  1. 1. Information I f i behavior research Studies, Models & Theories 陳啟亮 國立台灣師範大學 圖書資訊學研究所 Charles Chen (XXC) xxc.chen@gmail.com 2009/12/8 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by- sa/3.0/us/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode
  2. 2. Theorizing hierarchy Theori ing hierarch Dervin, 1997 Bates, 2005 Case, 2007 Ontology gy Perspectives Axiology Perspective & & Meta-theory Paradigm Pa methodology Epistemology aradigm Methodology Grand theory Theory Theory Middle theory Theory Grounded theory Model Model Studies Observations • Bates, M. J. (2005). An introduction to metatheories, theories, and models. In Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today. • Case, D O (2007) L ki f i f C D. O. (2007). Looking for information: A survey of research on i f ti f h information seeking, needs, and b h i E ti ki d d behavior: Emerald G ld Group P b Ltd Pub Ltd. • Dervin, B. (1997). Given a context by any other name: Methodological tools for taming the unruly beast. Information seeking in context, 13-38.
  3. 3. Ontology O t l the nature of reality 本體論 存在論 Axiology A i l the nature of value 價值論 Meta-theory (fra 後設理論 amewor appr Epistemology E i t l Paradig 研究範 how we know 認識論 rk, gm Methodology how we find out 方法論 範式 roach) Scientific th S i tifi theory 科學理論 Theory Principle 原則 理論 Proposition / hypothesis 命題/假說 Model 模型 Studies / Observations 研究/觀察
  4. 4. "不計科學名, 寧務研究實” "We Don't Have to Be a Science But We Have to Do Research” --賴鼎銘(1991) •Case (2006). Information Behavior. •Case (2007) Looking for information: A survey of research on (2007). information seeking, needs, and behavior •Pettigrew, K. E., Fidel, R., &Bruce, H. (2001). •Pettigrew K E Fidel R &Bruce H (2001) Conceptual frameworks in information behavior 研究 STUDIES
  5. 5. ARIST IB Review 的歷史 Re ie • 1966-1978 – 1966 (Menzel), 1967 (Herner & Herner), 1968 (Paisley), 1969 (Allen), 1970 (Lipetz), 1971 (Crane), 1972 (Lin & Garvey) (Crane) Garvey), – 1974 (Martyn), 1978 (Crawford) • 1986, 1986 1990 – 1986 (Dervin & Nilan), 1990 (Hewins) • 2001, 2002 – 2001 (Pettigrew, Fidel, and Bruce): IB conceptual models – 2001 (King & Tenopir): scholarly literature – 2001 (Wang): methods – 2001 (Cool): situation – 2002 (Solomon): context – 2002 (Case) Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior
  6. 6. Conceptual f C t l framework of studies k f t di Pettigrew, et al. (2001) Case (2002, 2006, 2007) • 認知取向 • by Occupation: occupations are the most common entry point Cognitive approaches – Scientists, Engineers, and Scholars • 社會取向 – Managers – Journalists, L J li t Lawyers, Oth Others * Social approaches • by Role • 多元取向 – – Citizen Consumer Multifaceted approaches – Patient – Student – Others: Hobbyists • By Demographic or Social Group – Age – Racial – Socioeconomic – Gender – Others • Case, D O (2006) Information Behavior. in Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST), 40 C D. O. (2006). I f ti B h i i A lR i fI f ti S i dT h l (ARIST) • Case, D. O. (2007). Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior: Emerald Group Pub Ltd. • Pettigrew, K. E., Fidel, R., &Bruce, H. (2001). Conceptual frameworks in information behavior. in Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST), 35, 43-78.
  7. 7. Cognitive Cogniti e approaches • History – 1968: Taylor (1968) 的模型是關於「使用者不完整的世界圖像」, 即對資訊的需求、意義與價值乃立基於個人的認知觀點。 即對資訊的需求 意義與價值乃立基於個人的認知觀點。 – 1986: Dervin & Nilan (1986) 鼓吹並揚棄系統取向 • 何謂認知 – Belkin: 人類(或資訊處理機制)在接受/感知或生產時,如何運作(或 互動)知識、信念、等等 • Scope (Pettigrew, et.al., 2001) (Pettigrew et al – 關於個人如何應用他自我世界的觀點或模型,處理資訊的需求、 搜尋、給出、與使用的研究 – Include: 此觀點關注於認知與情感的資訊行為動機, – Exclude: • 與情境無關的。即,此觀點不討論資訊行為的情境 與情境無關的 即 此觀點不討論資訊行為的情境 • 與社會認知(social cognitive)研究不同
  8. 8. Ellis’s (1989) information seeking model
  9. 9. Social approaches • History –從從1990年代初期慢慢興起,並變得越來越重要 年代初期慢慢興起 並變得越來越重要 – Chatman (80s ) 開始研究貧窮勞工階級的資訊 (80s-) 行為 • 何謂社會取向 – 資訊的意義與價值,與其社會脈絡相關 資訊的意義與價值 與其社會脈絡相關 – 偏向以自然探究, 人類學或社會學的方法進行 研究
  10. 10. Chatman's 資訊貧困 Chatman s Information poverty • 資訊尋求程序中的自我保護行為 Key concepts: self-protective behaviors invoked during the information seeking p y p p g g process – 守密(隱蔽自我) secrecy – 欺瞞(自我扮演) deception – 風險評估 risk taking risk-taking – 情境相關性 situational relevance
  11. 11. 6 項命題 propositions propositions: – 缺乏資訊覺察使他們遠離能幫助他們的資訊 The information poor perceive themselves to be devoid of the sources that might help them – 資訊貧困與社會階級有關 Information poverty is partially associated with class distinction – 對社會規範的自我保護行為導致資訊貧困 Information poverty is determined by self-protective behaviors, which are used in response to social norms. – 守密與欺瞞是因對他人的不信任感,而有的自我保護機制 Both secrecy and deception are self protecting mechanisms due to a sense of mistrust regarding the interest or ability self-protecting of others to provide useful information. – 因為權衡利害,通常不會冒險揭露自我感覺 A decision to risk exposure about our true feeling is often not taken due to a perception that negative consequences outweigh benefits – 貧困者選擇性地接受新知識,此選擇取決於新資訊與日常生 活的相關性 New knowledge will be selectively introduced into the information world of poor people. A condition that influences this process is the relevance of that information in response to everyday problems and concerns.
  12. 12. Multifaceted M ltifaceted approaches • 由於了解到人類資訊行為的複雜性,越來 越多研究者認為需要以多元觀點進行研究, 而非只考慮認知的與社會的一種觀點 – Rosenbaum ** – Johnson * – Bystrom & Jarvelm * –SSonnenwald ** ld – Leckie et al. * – Cognitive Work Analysis, CWA **
  13. 13. "這類模型很少能發展到與特定理論命題建立關聯:只能說是處在一個前 理論的階段,而所描繪的關係或者能有助於往後的探索或檢驗” "rarely do such models advance to the stage of specifying relationships among theoretical propositions: rather they are at a pre-theoretical stage, but may suggest relationships that might be fruitful to explore or test. -- Wilson (1999: 250) ( ) Case, D. (2007). Looking for information. 模型 MODELS
  14. 14. 3 Criterions 1. 該模型能就相關變數描繪並闡明行為序列, 而非僅僅指出事件的順序 The model attempts to depict and explain a sequence of behavior by referring to relevant variables, rather than merely indicates a sequence of events. 2. 該模型需涵蓋資訊需求與來源 The model indicates something about information needs and sources. (Ellis & Kuhlthau) 3. 為通用的行為模型,而非特定職業或身份 General models
  15. 15. 7 models • Wilson, 1981 • Krikelas, 1983 K ik l • Leckie et al., 1996 , • Bystrom & Jarvelin, 1995 • Savolainen, 1995 • Johnson, 1997 • Wilson 1996 Wilson,
  16. 16. Wilson, 1981
  17. 17. Krikelas, 1983
  18. 18. Leckie et al., 1996
  19. 19. Bystrom & Jarvelin, 1995
  20. 20. Savolainen, 1995
  21. 21. Johnson, 1997
  22. 22. Wilson, 1996
  23. 23. 理論 THEORY
  24. 24. Theory Theor • Theories are explanations (Case, 2007) • Theories are statements that try to explain relationships among various phenomena (Baker, 1999; Mullins & Mullins 1973) • A well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world (WordNet) • A theory, in the general sense of the word, is an analytic structure designed to explain a set of observations (wikipedia)
  25. 25. • 最小努力原則(語言學) Zipf s Zipf's Principle of lease effort • 使用與滿足(大眾傳播) Uses & gratification • 意義建構 Sense-making • 建構主義 (語言、心理、社會) Constructionism • 遊戲與娛樂理論(大眾傳播, 心理學) ( , ) Stephenson's Play theory & Entertainment theory
  26. 26. Other theories
  27. 27. Cont’d
  28. 28. Taylor's Ta lor's IUE (1991) • 以使用者為中心,處理其社會脈絡中的資訊 It focuses on the study of information in its social contexts and explicitly places th user at th center of f th t d f i f ti i it i l t t d li itl l the t the t f its conceptual framework • IUE 的四元素 People 人口統計,已決定的社會特性:經濟上的社會定位、 人 產業社會學的政治與文化結構 Problems 由結構對使用者的認知 資訊需求所起的決定性作用 P bl 由結構對使用者的認知、資訊需求所起的決定性作用 問題 Resolution 對問題類型列出可行性解決方案的前提 方案前提 Settings 環境的物質與場所的社會脈絡 場所特徵
  29. 29. Rosenbaum Rosenba m (1996) • 系統導向的資訊行為研究過於受限於既有系統框架 • 但使用者導向的資訊行為研究又過於流於個人主義,缺乏對社 但使用者導向的資訊行為研究又過於流於個人主義 缺乏對社 會結構面向的解釋力 • 以Taylor的IUE為基礎,並參考Giddens的結構化理論,以建立 以Taylor的IUE為基礎 並參考Giddens的結構化理論 以建立 一整合的資訊行為研究的理論性框架 Taylor IUE Rosembaum IUE Giddens people l role l actor t problem problematic situation (structure of problem) setting resource structure resolution resolution (tool, 便利工具)
  30. 30. Sonnen ald 資訊視域 (1999) Sonnenwald: • 要素:人類的資訊行為由個人(individuals)、社會網路(social network)、情境 (situation)與脈絡(context)所形成,但也影響這些因素。 • 資訊行為:處於一特定情境與脈絡的個體或系統,能感知(perceive)、反映( 資訊行為 處於 特定情境與脈絡的個體或系統 能感知 映 reflect)、或評估(evaluate)週遭的變化。資訊行為是在反映與評估間建 構而起的;特別是關於反映或評估知識的缺乏。並由 對知識缺乏的感 ; 知作為起點,開始一資訊(搜尋)行為的序列。 • 資訊視域:當個人決定要進行搜尋行為時,他會在他的資訊視域(information horizon)中尋找資訊。 • 協同合作:人類資訊搜尋行為,理論上,可以視為一種個體與其資訊資源間 的協同合作。 • 解決方案效益:因為資訊視域是由各種資訊資源所組成,各自擁有部分的知 識,因此可以將資訊視域概念化為密集空間(densely populated spaces) 在密集解決方案空間中 假定有許多解決方案 而資訊搜尋 spaces)。在密集解決方案空間中,假定有許多解決方案,而資訊搜尋 問題由決定其中最有效率的路徑展開。
  31. 31. Cognitive Work Analysis (1990) C iti W k A l i

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