History cybernetics


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History cybernetics

  1. 1. The History and Development of Cybernetics The History and Development of Cybernetics 模控學的歷史與發展 原著 Catherine Becker and Marcella Slakosky 1982 中文翻譯 陳啟亮 Charles Chen (XXC)
  2. 2. The History and Development of Cybernetics 模控學的歷史與發展 Presented by The George Washington University in Cooperation with The American Society for Cybernetics
  3. 3. Many years ago . . . 很久以前…
  4. 4. The things a person had to understand to get through life were relatively uncomplicated. 人們一生要了解的事物,並不複雜…
  5. 5. Every object or process, which we shall refer to as a system, was relatively simple. 每個物體或程序 即,我們現在稱之為系統的事物 都相對地簡單
  6. 6. In fact, up until the last few hundred years, it was possible for some people to master a significant portion of man's existing knowledge. 事實上,才不過幾百年前 有人就可以憑一己之才智, 掌握所有的知識… Leonardo DaVinci / 達文西
  7. 7. Leonardo Da Vinci was a leader in the fields of painting . . . 李奧納多 達文西 是當時畫壇的領袖……
  8. 8. . . . sculpture . . . …優秀的雕塑家…
  9. 9. . . . anatomy . . . …解剖學家…
  10. 10. . . . architecture . . . …建築師…
  11. 11. . . . weapons engineering, and . . . …武器設計工程師…
  12. 12. . . . aeronautical engineering. This is his sketch for a 16th century flying machine . . . …航太科技工程師 這是他在16世紀設計的飛行機器草稿
  13. 13. . . . and for a parachute in case the machine broke down. 如果飛行失敗,降落傘的草稿…
  14. 14. Complexity | 複雜性 As time passed, the systems that humans were concerned with became . . . 隨著歷史發展,人類面臨的系統變得越來越…
  15. 15. . . . more and more complicated. 越來越複雜…
  16. 16. Transportation systems alone have become more complex . . . 運輸系統變得更加複雜…
  17. 17. . . . and more complex . . . …更加的複雜…
  18. 18. . . . and more complex . . . …更加更加的複雜…
  19. 19. . . . and more complex . . . …更加更加更加的複雜…
  20. 20. . . . as have energy systems. 以能源系統來說…
  21. 21. Some people have suggested that technology . . . 一些人發明了能源技術…
  22. 22. . . . is advancing so rapidly it . . . 能源技術不斷的進步…
  23. 23. . . . is outpacing our ability to control it. …進步到人類自己都無法控制的地步 Three Mile Island | 美國三哩島核能電廠
  24. 24. Clearly, it is no longer possible for one person to keep up with developments in all fields, let alone be a leader in many of them, as Leonardo Da Vinci was. 顯然,要求一個人要像當年的達文西一樣地, 掌握、運用且領導所有知識領域,已經是不可能的…
  25. 25. Specialization has become a necessity. How then, do we live and work effectively in a technically advanced society? 當「專業化」變成一種必需。 那麼,我們如何有效的在技術社會中過生活?
  26. 26. Is there a way that you, the modern man or woman, can sort through the complexity, formulate a set of principles underlying all systems and thereby enhance your ability to regulate the world in which you live? 是否有一種普遍性的原則或方法, 能了解、掌握或改善這個當代的複雜社會系統…
  27. 27. Cybernetics = Regulation of Systems 模控學 = 系統的調節 This question was of interest to a handful of people in the 1940s who were the pioneers in a field that has become known as Cybernetics, the science of the regulation of systems. 在1940年代,一群人對這個「系統調節科學」問題感到興趣, 他們成為後來被稱為「控制學」的先鋒者
  28. 28. Cybernetics is an interdisciplinary science that looks at any and all systems from molecules . . . 模控學是一個跨領域科學,他們研 究各種不同的系統,從分子…
  29. 29. . . . to galaxies, with special attention to machines, animals and societies. …到銀河, 而特別關注於機械、動物與社會
  30. 30. Cybernetics is derived from the Greek word for steersman or helmsman, who provides the control system for a boat or ship. 模控學一詞源自於希臘文的駕馭者 與掌舵者
  31. 31. This word was coined in 1948 and defined as a science by Norbert Wiener, who was born in 1894 and died in 1964. He became known as the Father of Cybernetics. 「模控學」這個詞是1948年由科學家Norbert Wiener所創, 他也被認為是模控學之父
  32. 32. Wiener was an applied mathematician, biologist, and electrical engineer. He worked during World War II on the radar-guided anti-aircraft gun. Wiener是一位應用數學家、生物學家、與電子工程師。 他在二次世界大戰期間,研發雷達引導的防空高射砲。
  33. 33. He connected a special radar to the gun so that it was aimed automatically at the enemy aircraft. After the gun was fired, the radar quickly determined the changing location of the plane and re-aimed the gun until the plane was shot down. 他將雷達與高射砲結合在 一起,讓高射砲能自動瞄 準敵軍飛機。開火之後, 雷達能快速的確定飛機下 一步的位置並重新瞄準, 一直到擊中飛機為止。
  34. 34. The system imitated human functions and performed them more effectively. 這個系統模擬人類的功能,而且做得更有效率。
  35. 35. Feedback | 回饋 The anti-aircraft gun demonstrates the cybernetic principle of feedback. Feedback is information about the results of a process which is used to change the process. The radar provided information about the changes in location of the enemy airplane and this information was used to correct the aiming of the gun. 防空高射砲展現了控制學的回饋原則。回饋是一種關於過程的結果,並用來改變 過程本身的資訊。 高射砲的例子中,雷達提供敵機位置變動的資訊,而這項資訊被用在修正高射砲 下一步瞄準的位置。
  36. 36. A more familiar example of the use of feedback to regulate a system is the common thermostat for heating a room. 回饋控制系統,一個更令人熟悉的例子,是恆溫器
  37. 37. Room Temperature Rises to 700 將室溫升高到攝氏210 If the heating system is adjusted, as is common, to allow a maximum of 2 degrees variation, when the thermostat is set at 68 degrees the temperature will rise to 70 degrees . . .
  38. 38. 將室溫升高到攝氏210 加熱器關閉 . . . before a temperature sensor in the thermostat triggers the furnace to turn off.
  39. 39. 將室溫升高到攝氏210 加熱器關閉 The furnace will remain off until the temperature of the room has fallen to 66 degrees . . . 室溫降到攝氏190
  40. 40. 將室溫升高到攝氏210 . . . then the sensor in the thermostat triggers the furnace to turn on again. 加熱器開啟 加熱器關閉 室溫降到攝氏190
  41. 41. Self Regulating System 自我調節系統 The sensor provides a feedback loop of information that allows the system to detect a difference from the desired temperature of 68 degrees and to make a change to correct the error. As with the anti-aircraft gun and the airplane, this system – consisting of the thermostat, the heater and the room – is said to regulate itself through feedback and is a self-regulating system. 感應器提供回饋循環資訊,使系統測知目前室溫與設定溫度不同,並得以採取調 整溫度的行動。就像防空高射砲的例子一樣,這個系統:包含了溫度計、加熱器 、與房間,是一個能透過回饋機制調節的自我調節系統。
  42. 42. The human body is one of the richest sources of examples of feedback that leads to the regulation of a system. For example, when your stomach is empty, information is passed to your brain. 人體是一個透過回饋以調節系統的豐 富案例來源。 例如,當胃部空空的時候,資訊就會 傳遞到腦中。
  43. 43. When you have taken corrective action, by eating, your brain is similarly notified that your stomach is satisfied. 當你採取一些修正的行動,如自我餵食,你的腦子就會被告知說,胃部的需求已 經被滿足了。
  44. 44. In a few hours, the process starts all over again. This feedback loop continues throughout our lives. 在幾個小時之後,同樣的程序又會循環一次。這種回饋迴圈會持續我們一輩子。 肚子空空 時間 飽腹 吃東西
  45. 45. The human body is such a marvel of self-regulation that early cyberneticians studied its processes and used it as a model to design machines that were self- regulating. One famous machine called the homeostat was constructed in the 1940s by a British scientist, Ross Ashby. 由於人體是一個神奇的自我調節系 統,因此早期的控制學家用來作為 自我調節機器研究的模型。 例如,1940年代,由英國科學家 Ross Ashby 製作的 homeostat。
  46. 46. Just as the human body maintains a 98.6 degree temperature the homeostat could maintain the same electrical current, despite changes from the outside. 就像人體體溫恆定一樣, homeostat 也能不受外界的影響 維持一樣的電流。
  47. 47. Homeostasis | 自體恆定 The homeostat, the human being, and the thermostat all are said to maintain homeostasis or equilibrium, through feedback loops of various kinds. It does not matter how the information is carried – just that the regulator is informed of some change which calls for some kind of adaptive behavior. Homeostat、人體、溫度計,都被認為是能透過各種回饋迴圈以維持自體恆定或 均衡。 這種自體恆定系統不在乎實際上如何傳遞資訊,只要能夠系統能被告知應該引發 調適行為的變化條件。
  48. 48. Another scientist, Grey Walter, also pursued the concept of imitating the self-regulating features of man and animals. Grey Walter 也模擬了動物與人身上的 自我調節系統
  49. 49. His favorite project was building mechanical 'tortoises' that would, like this live tortoise, move about freely and have certain attributes of an independent life. 他最喜歡的計畫是「機器龜」, 機器龜它就像活的龜一樣,能夠自由走動,而且具備了獨立生命的某些特徵。
  50. 50. Walter is pictured here with his wife Vivian, their son Timothy, and Elsie the tortoise. Elsie has much in common with Timothy. Just as Timothy seeks out food, which is stored in his body in the form of fat, Elsie seeks out light which she 'feeds' on and transforms into electrical energy which charges an accumulator inside her. Then she's ready for a nap, just like Timothy after a meal, in an area of soft light. 相片中的是Walter、妻子Vivian、兒子 Timothy、與機器龜Elsie。Elsie很像 Timothy,只是Timothy尋找食物,以脂肪 的形式儲存在體內,而Elsie尋找光,並以電 能儲存在體內電池。像Timothy飯後需要午 睡一樣,Elsie充完電以後也需要在柔和的光 線下休息一下。
  51. 51. Although Elsie's behavior imitates that of a human, her anatomy is very different. This is what Elsie looks like underneath her shell. 雖然Elsie的行為模擬人類,但是她的構造 完全不同。這是她拿掉龜殼的樣子。
  52. 52. She looks a lot more like the inside of a transistor radio than . . . 她看起來更像是收音機
  53. 53. . . . the inside of a human body. But as a cybernetician, Walter was not interested in imitating the physical form of a human being, but in simulating a human's functions. 而不像是一個人。 但是,就一個控制學家來說, Walter 不在意模擬人類的外型, 而是要模擬人類的功能。
  54. 54. Cybernetics does not ask . . . 控制學不會問… “What Is This Thing?” “這是什麼?” …but… …而會問… “What Does it Do?” “這做了什麼?”
  55. 55. Grey Walter did not attempt to simulate the physical form of a human, as does a sculptor, but to simulate human functions. Grey Walter 並不想要模擬人類的外型, 而是要模擬人類的功能
  56. 56. In other words, he viewed humans . . . 換言之,他將人類看作是… as Processes 一種程序 …not as… …而不是… Not as Objects, 不是一種物體
  57. 57. For centuries, people have designed machines to help with human tasks and not just tasks requiring muscle power. 幾世紀以來,人們設計出幫助人類做 事的機械,不只是要求肌肉的動力
  58. 58. Automata, such as the little moving figures of people or animals that emerge from cuckoo clocks and music boxes, were popular in the 1700's and machines capable of thinking were a subject for speculation long before the electronic computer was invented. 自動機,如自動人形或是音樂盒報 時鳥等等,以及能夠思考的機器的 想法,都盛行於18世紀
  59. 59. Macy Foundation Meetings 梅西會議 1946 - 1953 From 1946 to 1953 there was a series of meetings to discuss feedback loops and circular causality in self-regulating systems. The meetings, sponsored by the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, were interdisciplinary, attended by engineers, mathematicians, neurophysiologists, and others. 1946到1953年之間,有一系列討論自我調適系統中的回饋迴圈與循環因果關係。 這些跨學科的會議由Josiah Macy基金會所贊助,參加的有工程師、數學家、神經生 理家,等等。
  60. 60. The chairman of these meetings, Warren McCulloch, wrote that these scientists had great difficulty understanding each other, because each had his or her own professional language. 會議的主席 Warren McCulloch,回憶說當時這些科學家彼此間有很大的溝通障 礙,因為各自都有各自的專業語言
  61. 61. There were heated arguments that were so exciting that Margaret Mead, who was in attendance, once did not even notice that she had broken a tooth until after the meeting. 這些障礙隨著論證過程加溫, 激烈到使得與會的人類學家 Margaret Mead 到會議結束後,才發現把自己把牙 齒咬斷掉一顆
  62. 62. The later meetings went somewhat more calmly as the members developed a common set of experiences. 後來的會議就比較平靜了,因為成員們彼此發展了一些共同的經驗
  63. 63. These meetings, along with the 1948 publication of Norbert Wiener's book titled 'Cybernetics,' served to lay the groundwork for the development of cybernetics as we know it today. 這些會議,隨著 1984 Norbert Wiener發表了模控學這一本書, 成為後來模控學的基礎
  64. 64. Here is a photograph taken in the 1950s of the four prominent early cyberneticians that you have already met. From left to right they are: Ross Ashby of homeostat fame; Warren McCulloch, organizer of the Macy Foundation meetings; Grey Walter, creator of Elsie, the tortoise; and Norbert Wiener, who suggested that the field be called ‘Cybernetics.' 這張1950年代的照片,裡面有四位早期模控學的主要人物,由左至右: Ashby (homeostat),McCulloch (主席),Walter (龜),Wiener (之父)
  65. 65. Neurophysiology | 神經生理學 + Mathematics | 數學 + Philosophy | 哲學 Warren McCulloch was a key figure in enlarging the scope of cybernetics. Although a psychiatrist by training, McCulloch combined his knowledge of neurophysiology, mathematics, and philosophy to better understand a very complex system . . . McCulloch 是拓展模控學範疇的主要人物。雖然他的背景是精神醫學,但他的知 識結合了神經生理學,數學,與哲學。這是為了要了解一種非常複雜的系統…
  66. 66. . . . the human nervous system. 為了瞭解非常複雜的系統……人類神經系統
  67. 67. He believed that the functioning of the nervous system could be described in the precise language of mathematics. 他相信神經系統的功能可以用精確的數學語言來描述
  68. 68. For example, he developed an equation which explained the fact that when a cold object such as an ice cube touches the skin for a brief instant, paradoxically it gives the sensation of heat rather than cold. 例如,他發展了一個數學式來解釋,為甚麼我們皮膚一碰到冰塊時,短暫地會有 被燙到的錯覺
  69. 69. Neurophysiology + Mathematics + Philosophy McCulloch used not only mathematics and neurophysiology to understand the nervous system but also philosophy – a rare combination. Scientists and philosophers are often considered miles apart in their interests – scientists study real, concrete, . . . 除了數學,McCulloch 也研究了哲學。科學家往往與哲學家兩不相干… 科學家研 究的是實際的,具體的…
  70. 70. . . . physical things, like plants, . . . 物質方面的東西,如植物…
  71. 71. animals, . . . 動物…
  72. 72. and minerals, while philosophers, . . . 礦物,而哲學家….
  73. 73. . . . study abstract things like ideas, thoughts, and concepts. 哲學家研究抽象的事物,如觀念、思想 、概念等
  74. 74. Epistemology = Study of Knowledge 認識論 = 知識的研究 McCulloch could see that there is a connection between the science of neurophysiology and a branch of philosophy called epistemology, which is the study of knowledge. McCulloch 明瞭,神經生理學與認識論哲學的關聯, 在於兩者都是一種「知識」的研究
  75. 75. While knowledge is usually considered invisible and abstract, McCulloch realized that knowledge is formed in a physical organ of the body, the brain. 然而,知識往往被認為抽象不可見的, McCulloch 認為知識是由一種身體內的物質組織,大腦,所形成的
  76. 76. Physical Abstract 物質 抽象 Brain Mind Knowledge 腦 心智 知識 The mind is, in fact, the meeting place between the brain and an idea, between the physical and the abstract, between science and philosophy. 事實上,心智是大腦與觀念、物質與抽象、科學與哲學 相遇的地方
  77. 77. Physical Philosophical Experimental Epistemology McCulloch founded a new field of study based on this intersection of the physical and the philosophical. This field of study he called 'experimental epistemology,' the study of knowledge through neurophysiology. The goal was to explain how the activity of a nerve network results in what we experience as feelings and ideas.
  78. 78. Cybernetics = Regulation of Systems 模控學 = 系統的協調 Why is McCulloch's work so important to cyberneticians? Remember, cybernetics is the science of the regulation of systems. 為何McCulloch的工作對模控學是重要的? 首先,模控學是研究系統協調的科學
  79. 79. The human brain is perhaps the most remarkable regulator of all, regulating the human body as well as many other systems in its environment. A theory of how the brain operates is a theory of how all of human knowledge is generated. 而協調人類身體各個部份的大腦,也許是 最偉大的協調器。關於大腦如何運作的理 論,也就是關於人類知識如何產生的理論 。
  80. 80. Whereas an anti-aircraft gun and a thermostat are devices constructed by people to regulate certain systems, the mind is a system that constructs itself and regulates itself. We shall say more about this phenomenon in a few minutes. 防空砲與恆溫器都是人所設計,用以協調特定系統的製品,而心智是能自我建構 與自我協調的系統。
  81. 81. Other Concepts in Cybernetics 模控學的其他概念 Now that we have touched on some of the key people, their interests, and their contributions, we shall look at a few additional concepts in cybernetics. 我們已經觸及一些關鍵人物、他們的研究興趣,以及他們的貢獻。我們應當再多 了解一些模控學的概念
  82. 82. Law of Requisite Variety 必要變異度法則 One important concept is the law of requisite variety. This law states that as a system becomes more complex, the controller of that system must also become more complex, because there are more functions to regulate. In other words, the more complex the system that is being regulated, the more complex the regulator of the system must be. 必要變異度法則:當系統變得越複雜,系統的控制者為了協調更多的功能,也就 必須變得更複雜(變異度增加)。換言之,被協調的系統越複雜,則系統協調者就 需要更複雜。
  83. 83. Let's return to our example of a thermostat. 讓我們回到恆溫器的例子
  84. 84. If a house has only a furnace, the thermostat can be quite simple – since it controls only the furnace. 如果屋子裡面只有一個加溫器,則 恆溫器只要控制那一個加溫器就好
  85. 85. However, if the house has both a furnace and an air conditioner, the thermostat must be more complex – it will have more switches, knobs, or buttons – since it must control two processes – both heating and cooling. 然而,如果屋內同時有兩部加溫器 與一部冷氣機,則恆溫器需要協調 的就變得複雜多了。恆溫器需要有 更多的切換鈕、旋鈕、按鈕等等, 因為它需要控制兩種程序:加溫與 降溫
  86. 86. The same principle applies to living organisms. Human beings have the most complex nervous system and brain of any of the animals. This allows them to engage in many different activities and to have complex bodies. 同樣的原則也能應用在生物組織上。人 類擁有動物中最複雜的神經系統與腦。 這讓人類可以控制複雜的身體,進行各 種不同的活動。
  87. 87. In contrast, some animals such as the starfish, . . . 相對地,一些動物,如海星…
  88. 88. sea cucumber, . . . 海參…
  89. 89. . . . and sea anemone have no centralized brain, but only a simple nerve network, which is all that is required to regulate the simpler bodies and functions of these sea animals. In summary, the more complex the animal, the more complex the brain needs to be. … 海葵等,這些動物都沒有中央大腦,只有簡單的神經網絡,只需要控制簡單的 身體與功能。簡言之,越複雜的動物,就需要越複雜的大腦。
  90. 90. The law of requisite variety not only applies to controlling machines and human bodies, but to social systems as well. For example, in order to control crime, it is not necessary or feasible to have one policeman for each citizen, because not all activities of citizens need regulation . . . 必要變異度法則並不只能應用在對機器與人體的控制上,也能應用在社會系統上 。例如,為了控制犯罪,警察與公民的數量並不需要一樣多,因為不是所有的公 民活動都需要協調…
  91. 91. . . . just illegal ones. Therefore, one or two police for every thousand people generally provides the necessary capability for regulating illegal activities. …需要協調的只有違法的那些人。因此,每一千人只需要一到兩位警察,就能對 違法活動提供足夠的協調能力。
  92. 92. In this case a match between the variety in the regulator and the variety in the system being regulated is achieved not by increasing the complexity of the regulator, but by reducing the variety in the system being regulated. That is, rather than hiring many policemen, we simply decide to regulate fewer aspects of human behavior. 這個案例中,需要協調的不是配對協調 者與系統變異度,而是減小系統的變異 度。即,與其僱用更多警察,只要決定 協調部份的人類行為就夠了。 (有規律的行為不是系統變異項)
  93. 93. Self Organizing Systems 自我組織系統 The self-organizing system is another cybernetic concept, which we all see demonstrated daily. A self-organizing system is a system that becomes more organized as it goes toward equilibrium. Ross Ashby observed that every system whose internal processes or interaction rules do not change is a self- organizing system. 自我組織系統是另一種日常可見的模控學概念。自我組織系統勢能自行達成均衡 的系統。Ross Ashby 認為,系統的內在程序或互動規則不會變動者,就是一種 自我組織系統。
  94. 94. For example, a disorganized group of people who are waiting . . . 例如,一開始等候公車的人散亂四處
  95. 95. . . . to take a bus will fall into a line, because of their past experience that lines are a practical, fair way to obtain service. These people constitute a self- organizing system. 但公車一到,人們就會自動的排成一列上車,這是因為乘客的過往經驗告訴他們 ,這樣是最公平且有效的方式。這些人構成了一個自我組織系統。
  96. 96. Even a mixture of salad oil and vinegar is a self-organizing system. As a result of being shaken as shown here, the mixture changes to a homogeneous liquid – temporarily. 甚至一瓶混合油醋醬,也是一個自我組 織系統。當我們搖晃它的時候,裡面所 有的東西都會混合成為一同質性的液體
  97. 97. As the salad dressing is allowed to go to equilibrium, the mixture changes its structure and the oil and vinegar separate automatically. We could say that the mixture organizes itself. 當靜置一會兒之後,混合的液體開 始根據不同的比重,自動分離成為 不同的層次結構,我們也能說這些 液體能自我組織。
  98. 98. The idea of self-organization leads to a general design rule. In order to change any object, put the object in an environment where the interaction between the object and the environment changes the object in the direction you want it to go. Let's consider three examples . . . 自我組織的觀念產生一個普遍的設計原 理。當我們想要改變某種物體,我們可 以將這個物體放在環境之中,利用物體 與環境的互動改變物體本身。讓我們看 看三個例子…
  99. 99. First, in order to make iron from iron ore we put the iron ore in an environment called a blast furnace. In the furnace, coke is burned to produce heat. In the chemical and thermodynamic environment of the blast furnace, iron oxides become pure iron. 第一個,為了從鐵礦中提煉出鐵,需 要透過「高爐」。在高爐內,煤塊燃 燒並產生高溫,透過高溫中的化學反 應,讓氧化鐵還原成為純鐵
  100. 100. As a second example consider the process of educating a child. The child is placed in a school. 第二個例子,是孩童的教育過程。
  101. 101. As a result of interacting with teachers and other students in the school, the child learns to read and write. 孩童在學校中,與老師和同學們互動的結果,孩童學得讀寫的能力
  102. 102. A third example is the regulation of business by government. To regulate their affairs the people of the United States adopted a Constitution that established three branches of government. By passing laws, Congress creates an environment of tax incentives and legal penalties which are enforced by the Executive Branch. 第三個例子,政府對商業活動的協 調。為了協調人們在國內的事務, 政府成立不同的部門,透過民意機 構通過法律,使政府具有稅收激勵 與執行懲罰的強制力。
  103. 103. These incentives and penalties, which are adjudicated by the courts, encourage businessmen to modify their behavior in the desired direction. 這些透過法院執行的激勵與懲罰,鼓勵商人往(政府/民意)期望的方向行動 。
  104. 104. Each case – the iron smelting furnace . . . 每一個例子:從煉鐵的高爐…
  105. 105. the school with its teachers and students . . . 有老師與學生的學校…
  106. 106. . . . and government regulation of business can be thought of as a self-organizing system. Each system organizes itself as it goes toward its stable equilibrial state. And in each case the known interaction rules of the system have been used to produce a desired result. 協調商業活動的政府,都能被視為 一種自我組織的系統。每一個自我 組織系統都朝向一個穩定的均衡狀 態。每一個案例中,系統內的互動 都是被用在產生期望的結果。
  107. 107. The recent work on cellular automata, fractal geometry, and complexity can be thought of as an extension of the work on self-organizing systems in the early 1960s. 近來細胞自動機的研究工作、碎形幾何與複雜系統的研究,都可以看作是60年代 自我組織系統研究的延續。
  108. 108. So far we have talked mainly about how cybernetics can help us to build machines and to understand simple regulatory processes. But cybernetics also can be helpful in understanding how knowledge itself is generated. 目前為止,我們主要談到模控學如何協助我們建立機器,與了解單純協調程序。 但模控學也能幫助我們了解知識如何組織。
  109. 109. This understanding can provide us with a firmer foundation for regulating larger systems, such as business corporations, nations, . . . 這種了解能提供我們對協調大型系統更 堅實的基礎
  110. 110. and even the whole world. 甚至整個世界
  111. 111. Role of the Observer 觀察者的角色
  112. 112. In the late 1960's cyberneticians such as Heinz Von Foerster of the United States, . . . 60年代後期的模控學家,如美國的 Heins Von Foerster …
  113. 113. . . . Humberto Maturana of Chile, . . . 智利的 Humberto Maturana…
  114. 114. . . . Gordon Pask and, . . .
  115. 115. . . . Stafford Beer of Great Britain . . .
  116. 116. Second Order Cybernetics 次階模控學 . . . began extending the application of cybernetics principles to understanding the role of the observer. This emphasis was called 'second-order cybernetics.‘ … 開始將模控學原則延伸應用到對觀察者的理解上。這種強調被稱為次階模控學
  117. 117. Whereas, first-order cybernetics dealt with controlled systems, second-order cybernetics deals with autonomous systems. 初階模控學處理被控制的系統,次階模 控學處理自律系統
  118. 118. Applying cybernetic principles to social systems calls attention to the role of the observer of a system who, . . . 應用模控學原則於社會系統上,引 發了對系統觀察者的關注…
  119. 119. . . . while attempting to study and understand a social system, is not able to separate himself from the system or prevent himself from having an effect on it. 在研究與了解社會系統時,研究者無法將自己與被研究的系統分離開來,而不受 到任何影響
  120. 120. In the classical view, a scientist working in a laboratory takes great pains to prevent his own actions from affecting the outcome of an experiment. However, as we move from mechanical systems, such as those the scientist works with in the laboratory, to social systems, it becomes impossible to ignore the role of the observer. 依古典觀點,科學家在實驗室努力避免自己的行動影響實驗結果。然而,當我們 從機械系統轉向社會系統,就無法避免觀察者角色的影響。
  121. 121. For example, a scientist such as Margaret Mead who studied people and their cultures, could not help but have some effect on the people she studied. 例如,像Margaret Mead這樣一位人類學家,她無法不對所研究的對象產生任何 影響。
  122. 122. Because she lived within the societies she studied, the inhabitants would naturally, on occasion, want to impress her, please her, or perhaps anger her. 因為她就生活在她所研究的社會之中 ,居民會自然地、不時地讓她留下印 象,取悅她,或激怒她。
  123. 123. Mead's presence in a culture altered that culture and, in turn, affected what she observed. Mead 在當地文化的在場改變了原本的現場文化,換言之,影響了他的觀察對象
  124. 124. This 'observer effect' made it impossible for Mead to know what the society was like when she wasn't there. 這種觀察者效應,使得Mead不可能了解她從沒有觀察過的社會
  125. 125. A conscientious news reporter will always be affected by his or her background and experience and hence will necessarily be subjective. Also, one reporter is unable to gather and comprehend all the information necessary to give a complete, accurate report on a complex event. 一個稱職的新聞播報者,總會被自身 背景與經驗所影響,因此必須帶有主 觀性。同樣地,一個播報者也不能收 集到所有完整資訊,針對一個複雜事 件做出完整、真實正確的報導。
  126. 126. For these reasons, it is wise to have several different people study a complex event or system. Only by listening to descriptions of several observers can a person form an impression of how much a description of an event is a function of the observer and how much the description is a function of the event itself. 因此,明智的作法是讓幾個人去研究一個 複雜事件或系統。只聽取幾個不同觀察者 的描述,一個人才能獲得對事件的印象, 並區分出哪些是觀察者的主觀,哪些是事 件本身
  127. 127. Whereas, in the early days, cybernetics was generally applied to systems seeking goals defined for them, 'second-order' cybernetics refers to systems that define their own goals. 在早期模控學研究應用在特定目的的 系統。而次階模控學的系統是自行定 義其目的
  128. 128. It focuses attention on how purposes are constructed. An interesting example of a system that grows from having purposes set for it to one that defines its own purposes is a human being. When children are very young, parents set goals for them. For example, parents normally desire that their children learn to walk, talk, and use good table manners. 次階模控學關注系統的目的如何被構成的 。一個有趣的例子就是人類。 當人類是小孩的時候,雙親會設定他們一 些目標;例如學會走、學會說、擁有好的 用餐禮儀等
  129. 129. However, as children grow older, they learn to set their own goals and pursue their own purposes, such as deciding on educational and career goals, . . . 然而,當小孩長大,他們學著設定自己的目標,例如決定教育與就業的目標…
  130. 130. . . . making plans to marry . . . 計畫婚姻…..
  131. 131. . . . and start a family. 建立一個家庭
  132. 132. To review what we have learned, cybernetics was first noted for the concept of feedback. 回顧我們學到的,模控學首先提到回饋的概念
  133. 133. The human body is a rich source of examples of how feedback allows systems to regulate themselves, causing scientists to be interested in studying . . . 人體有豐富的案例
  134. 134. . . . and simulating human and animal activities, from walking to thinking. 模擬人類與動物活動,從走路到思考
  135. 135. Cybernetics studies self- organizing properties and has moved . . . 模控學研究自我組織…
  136. 136. . . . from a concern primarily with machines . . . 從一開始的機械構造…
  137. 137. . . . to include large social systems. 到更大的社會系統
  138. 138. Although we shall never be able to return to the times of Leonardo Da Vinci and master all fields of existing knowledge, we can construct a set of principles that underlie the behavior of all systems. 雖然我們無法回到達文西的時光, 精通所有知識領域,我們仍然能夠 建立一些所有系統行為的普遍原則
  139. 139. Also, as cybernetics tells us, because the observer defines the systems he wants to control, complexity is observer-dependent. 同樣的,當模控學告訴我們,因為觀察者定義他想要控制的系統,則複雜性與觀 察者有關
  140. 140. Complexity, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. 複雜性,就像美一樣,人人眼中所見都不同
  141. 141. 模控學的歷史與發展 The History and Development of Cybernetics 解說: Paul Williams 製作: Enrico Bermudez Paul Williams 紀錄: Catherine Becker Marcella Slabosky Stuart Umpleby © 2006 The George Washington University: umpleby@gwu.edu