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# Vectors And Scalars And Kinematics

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vectors and scalars

vectors and scalars

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### Transcript

• 1. Vectors and Scalars Topic 1.3 1.3.1 – Distinguish between vector and scalar quantities, and give examples of each. 1.3.2 – Determine the sum or difference of two vectors by a graphical method. 1.3.3 – Resolve vectors into perpendicular components along chosen axis.
• 2. Vectors and Scalars
• All quantities are either vectors or scalars
• What are vectors?
• Vectors are quantifiers that have magnitude and
• a direction
• What are scalars?
• Scalars are quantifiers that have only magnitude.
• 3. Vectors and scalars
• Examples of vectors:
• Displacement
• Velocity
• Force
• Momentum
• Examples of scalars:
• Length
• Time
• Speed
• We represent vectors by drawing arrows.
• To add vectors, you have to arrange the arrows so that the point of one touches the tail of the other. The resultant vector is a line joining the free tail to the free point.
• 5. Vectors and Scalars
• Remember:
• 6. Vectors in one dimention
• This means that motion will be restricted to one dimention.
• Example: A car can only go in two directions: forwards and backwards
• To distinguish between directions, we give them different signs (forward + and backwards -)
• 7. Subtracting vectors
• A negative vector is the opposite direction of a positive vector, therefore:
• A – B = A + (-B)
• 8. Vector Components
• 9. Kinematics Topic 2.1 2.1.1– Define displacement, velocity, speed and acceleration. 2.1.2 – Explain the difference between instantaneous and average values of speed, velocity and acceleration. 2.1.3 – Outline the conditions under which the equations for uniformly accelerated motion may be applied.
• 10. Distance x Displacement
• 11. Distance x Displacement
• Displacement is the distance moved in a particular direction
• Distance is how far you have travelled from one place to the other.
• Example: In the end of a race, Felipe Massa’s displacement = 0
• 12. Velocity x Speed
• Both measure how fast a body is moving. The unit used for both is m.s -1
• Velocity is a vector quantity and speed is a scalar quantity.
• 13. Average velocity x Instantaneous velocity
• Average velocity is the difference between the distance between the beginning and the end of a journey divided by the time taken, for example.
• Instantaneous velocity is the exact velocity at a given second.
• 14. Always relative
• When we measure velocity, we need to have a reference.
• Example: What is your velocity now?
• Related to the ground = 0 m/s
• Related to the sun = 29.78 km/s
• Related to the centre of the galaxy = 250 km/s
• 15. Acceleration
• Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity.
• Acceleration is measured in m.s -2
• Acceleration is a vector quantity.
• Change in Velocity = final velocity – initial velocity (v – u);
• Where v = final velocity and u = initial velocity