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Inside the cell
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Inside the cell



types of cells

types of cells



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Inside the cell Inside the cell Presentation Transcript

  • Inside the Cell
    • Types of Cells
    • Structures and Functions
  • What is a cell?
    • Cells are the basic unit of living organisms.
    • Smallest unit that can carry out functions of living organisms.
    • Contain Organelles
      • “ Small organs”
  • Cells must be small
    • Surface area to volume ratio is crucial
    • SA must be large compared to the volume or cell will not survive
    • Can not take in or get rid of materials fast enough if there is not enough surface area
  • Types of Cells
    • Prokaryotes
    • Eukaryotes
    • Very simple
    • All are single celled organisms
    • Ex: Bacteria, and only bacteria
    • No Nucleus
    • No membrane-bound organelles
    • Complex
    • Single celled and multi-cellular organisms
    • Ex: Plant, animal, and fungi
    • Nucleus
    • Membrane bound organelles
  • Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
    • Prokaryotes have no nucleus or membrane bound organelles
    • Very primitive
    • Origin: 3.5 BYA
  • Prokaryotic Cell pili nucleoid ribosome flagella
  • What do ALL cells have in common?
    • Cell membrane (aka plasma membrane)
    • Cytoplasm
    • Genetic material (DNA or RNA)
    • Ribosomes (produce proteins)
    • Metabolism
  • Cell Membrane
    • A selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer that forms a barrier between the cell and its environment
    • Similar to a security fence
  • Cytoplasm
    • Liquid substance that all chemical reactions of life take place in
    • Has dissolved ions, macromolecules
    • Fills in around the organelles of the cell
  • Genetic Material
    • DNA is found as either:
      • organized chromosomes (eukaryotes)
        • Inside Nucleus
      • single, loosely packed chromosome (prokaryotes)
  • Ribosomes
    • Two-piece protein-based organelle that makes proteins in both major types of cell
    • Varies structurally in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Nucleus
    • Contains cell’s genetic material in form of chromosomes
    • Controls most of cell activities
    • Site of transcription (1st step in protein synthesis)
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Nucleolus
    • Smaller, dark body inside nucleus
    • Responsible for ribosome synthesis
    • Synthesis : to make or produce
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Golgi Body
    • Part of endomembrane system
    • Packages and exports cell chemicals such as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids
    • Works with ER and cell membrane to receive and deliver cell chemicals.
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: ER
    • ER =Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Smooth ER : no ribosomes, synthesizes lipids, detoxifies substances
    • Rough ER : studded with ribosomes, modifies and transports proteins inside cell
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Mitochondria
    • Converts glucose into ATP during cell respiration (makes energy for the cell)
    • Is thought to have been primitive prokaryote because:
      • Has own DNA
      • Does its own cell division
    • Highly folded inner membrane
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Chloroplast
    • Found in plant cells and some protists
    • Contains chlorophyll
    • Responsible for converting carbon dioxide and water into glucose during photosynthesis (makes energy)
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Lysosome
    • Vesicle that comes off of Golgi body containing digestive enzymes
    • Responsible for digestion of old, worn out cell parts and cells
    • Also digests nutrients
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Vacuole
    • Small ones in animal cells
    • Large ones found in plant cells, stores water to maintain pressure
    • Can accumulate wastes, pigments in plant cells
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Centriole
    • Found only in animal cells
    • Composed of microtubules in triplet arrangement
    • Organizes microtubules that attach to chromosomes during cell division
    • Provides structure in some cells
  • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Cilia/Flagella
    • Cilia : short hairlike projections used in cellular movement
    • Flagella : whiplike projection used in cellular movement
      • Structure in prokaryotes is slightly different