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Inside the cell

Inside the cell



types of cells

types of cells



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    Inside the cell Inside the cell Presentation Transcript

    • Inside the Cell
      • Types of Cells
      • Structures and Functions
    • What is a cell?
      • Cells are the basic unit of living organisms.
      • Smallest unit that can carry out functions of living organisms.
      • Contain Organelles
        • “ Small organs”
    • Cells must be small
      • Surface area to volume ratio is crucial
      • SA must be large compared to the volume or cell will not survive
      • Can not take in or get rid of materials fast enough if there is not enough surface area
    • Types of Cells
      • Prokaryotes
      • Eukaryotes
      • Very simple
      • All are single celled organisms
      • Ex: Bacteria, and only bacteria
      • No Nucleus
      • No membrane-bound organelles
      • Complex
      • Single celled and multi-cellular organisms
      • Ex: Plant, animal, and fungi
      • Nucleus
      • Membrane bound organelles
    • Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
      • Prokaryotes have no nucleus or membrane bound organelles
      • Very primitive
      • Origin: 3.5 BYA
    • Prokaryotic Cell pili nucleoid ribosome flagella
    • What do ALL cells have in common?
      • Cell membrane (aka plasma membrane)
      • Cytoplasm
      • Genetic material (DNA or RNA)
      • Ribosomes (produce proteins)
      • Metabolism
    • Cell Membrane
      • A selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer that forms a barrier between the cell and its environment
      • Similar to a security fence
    • Cytoplasm
      • Liquid substance that all chemical reactions of life take place in
      • Has dissolved ions, macromolecules
      • Fills in around the organelles of the cell
    • Genetic Material
      • DNA is found as either:
        • organized chromosomes (eukaryotes)
          • Inside Nucleus
        • single, loosely packed chromosome (prokaryotes)
    • Ribosomes
      • Two-piece protein-based organelle that makes proteins in both major types of cell
      • Varies structurally in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Nucleus
      • Contains cell’s genetic material in form of chromosomes
      • Controls most of cell activities
      • Site of transcription (1st step in protein synthesis)
    • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Nucleolus
      • Smaller, dark body inside nucleus
      • Responsible for ribosome synthesis
      • Synthesis : to make or produce
    • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Golgi Body
      • Part of endomembrane system
      • Packages and exports cell chemicals such as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids
      • Works with ER and cell membrane to receive and deliver cell chemicals.
    • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: ER
      • ER =Endoplasmic reticulum
      • Smooth ER : no ribosomes, synthesizes lipids, detoxifies substances
      • Rough ER : studded with ribosomes, modifies and transports proteins inside cell
    • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Mitochondria
      • Converts glucose into ATP during cell respiration (makes energy for the cell)
      • Is thought to have been primitive prokaryote because:
        • Has own DNA
        • Does its own cell division
      • Highly folded inner membrane
    • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Chloroplast
      • Found in plant cells and some protists
      • Contains chlorophyll
      • Responsible for converting carbon dioxide and water into glucose during photosynthesis (makes energy)
    • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Lysosome
      • Vesicle that comes off of Golgi body containing digestive enzymes
      • Responsible for digestion of old, worn out cell parts and cells
      • Also digests nutrients
    • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Vacuole
      • Small ones in animal cells
      • Large ones found in plant cells, stores water to maintain pressure
      • Can accumulate wastes, pigments in plant cells
    • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Centriole
      • Found only in animal cells
      • Composed of microtubules in triplet arrangement
      • Organizes microtubules that attach to chromosomes during cell division
      • Provides structure in some cells
    • Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Cilia/Flagella
      • Cilia : short hairlike projections used in cellular movement
      • Flagella : whiplike projection used in cellular movement
        • Structure in prokaryotes is slightly different