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Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
Inside the cell
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Inside the cell


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types of cells …

types of cells

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  • 1. Inside the Cell
    • Types of Cells
    • Structures and Functions
  • 2. What is a cell?
    • Cells are the basic unit of living organisms.
    • Smallest unit that can carry out functions of living organisms.
    • Contain Organelles
      • “ Small organs”
  • 3. Cells must be small
    • Surface area to volume ratio is crucial
    • SA must be large compared to the volume or cell will not survive
    • Can not take in or get rid of materials fast enough if there is not enough surface area
  • 4. Types of Cells
    • Prokaryotes
    • Eukaryotes
    • Very simple
    • All are single celled organisms
    • Ex: Bacteria, and only bacteria
    • No Nucleus
    • No membrane-bound organelles
    • Complex
    • Single celled and multi-cellular organisms
    • Ex: Plant, animal, and fungi
    • Nucleus
    • Membrane bound organelles
  • 5. Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
    • Prokaryotes have no nucleus or membrane bound organelles
    • Very primitive
    • Origin: 3.5 BYA
  • 6. Prokaryotic Cell pili nucleoid ribosome flagella
  • 7.  
  • 8. What do ALL cells have in common?
    • Cell membrane (aka plasma membrane)
    • Cytoplasm
    • Genetic material (DNA or RNA)
    • Ribosomes (produce proteins)
    • Metabolism
  • 9. Cell Membrane
    • A selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer that forms a barrier between the cell and its environment
    • Similar to a security fence
  • 10. Cytoplasm
    • Liquid substance that all chemical reactions of life take place in
    • Has dissolved ions, macromolecules
    • Fills in around the organelles of the cell
  • 11. Genetic Material
    • DNA is found as either:
      • organized chromosomes (eukaryotes)
        • Inside Nucleus
      • single, loosely packed chromosome (prokaryotes)
  • 12. Ribosomes
    • Two-piece protein-based organelle that makes proteins in both major types of cell
    • Varies structurally in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  • 13. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Nucleus
    • Contains cell’s genetic material in form of chromosomes
    • Controls most of cell activities
    • Site of transcription (1st step in protein synthesis)
  • 14. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Nucleolus
    • Smaller, dark body inside nucleus
    • Responsible for ribosome synthesis
    • Synthesis : to make or produce
  • 15. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Golgi Body
    • Part of endomembrane system
    • Packages and exports cell chemicals such as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids
    • Works with ER and cell membrane to receive and deliver cell chemicals.
  • 16. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: ER
    • ER =Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Smooth ER : no ribosomes, synthesizes lipids, detoxifies substances
    • Rough ER : studded with ribosomes, modifies and transports proteins inside cell
  • 17.  
  • 18. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Mitochondria
    • Converts glucose into ATP during cell respiration (makes energy for the cell)
    • Is thought to have been primitive prokaryote because:
      • Has own DNA
      • Does its own cell division
    • Highly folded inner membrane
  • 19. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Chloroplast
    • Found in plant cells and some protists
    • Contains chlorophyll
    • Responsible for converting carbon dioxide and water into glucose during photosynthesis (makes energy)
  • 20. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Lysosome
    • Vesicle that comes off of Golgi body containing digestive enzymes
    • Responsible for digestion of old, worn out cell parts and cells
    • Also digests nutrients
  • 21. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Vacuole
    • Small ones in animal cells
    • Large ones found in plant cells, stores water to maintain pressure
    • Can accumulate wastes, pigments in plant cells
  • 22. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Centriole
    • Found only in animal cells
    • Composed of microtubules in triplet arrangement
    • Organizes microtubules that attach to chromosomes during cell division
    • Provides structure in some cells
  • 23. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Cilia/Flagella
    • Cilia : short hairlike projections used in cellular movement
    • Flagella : whiplike projection used in cellular movement
      • Structure in prokaryotes is slightly different