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Pathological effects of smoking
 

Pathological effects of smoking

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    Pathological effects of smoking Pathological effects of smoking Presentation Transcript

    • In the name of Allah the most Beneficent, the most Merciful
    • PRESENTED BY: HADIA ARSHAD
    •  Once regarded as socially acceptable, smoking is now counted among those habits which are hazardous to life.  The worst part of smoking is that, it not only causes harm to the smoker's health but, also to the surrounding people through passive smoking, which means to inhale cigarette smoke present in the environment and it is equally harmful. Due to this reason, smoking is highly condemned.
    • There are more than 4,000 identified chemicals found in cigarette smoke, which have various carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. The three most health damaging chemicals in tobacco smoke are nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide.
    • Cardiovascular Respiratory Gastrointestinal Urogenital Nervous Others
    • Atherosclerosis Coronary thrombosis High blood pressure Heart attack Stroke
    •  Blood Pressure: Tobacco consists of carbon monoxide and nicotine which contributes greatly to heart attack. Carbon monoxide reacts with hemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin. It cannot be broken up easily and reduces their blood carrying capacity. The heart has to pump faster and harder to maintain a normal blood flow, thus increasing the blood pressure.  Heart Attack: Carbon dioxide and nicotine increases the rate at which the fatty material is deposited in the arteries, which constrict them. Narrowed arteries supply insufficient blood to heart muscles leading to angina pains. If these fatty deposits completely block an important artery such as a coronary artery, it can lead to heart attack.
    • Stroke: People who smoke cigarettes are also at a grave risk of stroke. The carbon monoxide that lives in cigarette smoke has been associated with hardening of arteries, which can lead to stroke caused by blood clots in the brain. Nicotine in cigarettes also causes the arteries in the legs and arms to tighten, which increases a risk of blood clots and damaged arteries surrounding the heart.
    • Asthma Bronchitis Lung cancer Pneumonia Tuberculosis Emphysema Cold and flu
    •  Bronchitis Tar accumulates in the lungs during smoking and paralyzes the cilia. Due to paralysis, cilia cannot remove dust particles, allowing dust and germs to enter the lungs. Hence, the smoker coughs persistently. This type of cough is called a smoker's cough. The air passages may become inflamed and the person suffers from bronchitis. A person suffering from bronchitis becomes easily breathless and may not be able to walk properly or sleep. Chronic bronchitis can be fatal.  Emphysema When the air-sacs in the lungs are broken down by the harmful chemicals in the tobacco smoke, the surface area for the exchange of gases in and out of the body is reduced. More air has to be moved in and out of the lungs. This increases the rate of breathing making breathing more painful. Emphysema prevents its sufferer from being active
    •  Lung cancer It is very common among cigarette smokers. Tar contains many carcinogenic chemicals like benzopyrene which cause cancer. If the out growth or tumor obstructs the air passages, it can result in death.
    • Peptic ulcer Gallstones Stomach cancer Heart burn
    •  Peptic ulcer Nicotine in cigarette causes excess production of acid by the parietal cells, causing erosion of stomach wall leading to ulcers.
    • Headaches Stroke Anxiety Depression Cognition
    •  Brain goes to the un-conscious level at the time of intoxication and it kills essential tissues of the brain. It can also cause blood clotting in brain.  Smokers have significantly higher rates of clinical anxiety compared to non-smokers.  Nicotine and other tobacco additives have a direct negative impact on dopamine and serotonin.  Smoking cigarettes can also have a serious negative impact on cognitive abilities, because nicotine directly effects neurotransmitter associated with learning.
    • WARNING
    • Impotence Cancer of cervix Cancer of prostate Cancer of kidney
    •  Infertility Smoking can causes impotence. Male smokers may produce less sperm and their sperm may have more abnormalities than that of non- smokers. Women who smoke cigarettes have earlier menopause.
    • Cancers Pregnancy Oral cavity Skin
    • Lungs Larynx Oral cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Pancreas Kidney Cervix Prostate
    • Cancers The most common side effect of smoking cigarettes is cancer. While tobacco increases a person's risk of developing various types of cancers, the most common is lung cancer. Cigarette smoke also significantly increases a person's risk of developing cancer of the mouth, lips, throat or voice box. Cigarette smokers are also at an increased risk of developing cancer in the stomach, kidney, esophagus, pancreas, cervix and bladder.
    •  Smoking increases the risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. Children born to smoking mothers have lower birth weights than the average, and they suffer a higher risk of asthma and chronic ear infections, less efficient lung function, and more frequent respiratory infections.  Women who take birth control pills and smoke, especially those over 35 years old, have increased risk of heart attack or stroke.
    • Halitosis Yellow teeth Plaque Calculus Gingivitis Periodontitis Oral cancer
    •  Yellow teeth are one of the most notorious effects of long- term smoking, but the dental damage doesn't stop there. People who smoke tend to develop gum disease, persistent bad breath, and other oral hygiene problems. Smokers are twice as likely to lose teeth as nonsmokers.
    •  Passive smokers Those who live with heavy smokers, are likely to suffer from sore eyes, smoker's cough, headaches and lung cancer caused by inhaling side-stream tobacco smoke. Smokers and those around smokers have twice or thrice greater chance of suffering peptic ulcers. They also have more risk of hip, vertebral, and wrist fractures, as the nicotine of cigarettes causes the bones of the body to become brittle. One of the greatest hazards of smoking is that it decreases the body's immunity; hence, passive smokers tend to get colds, respiratory tract infections, and other diseases much more quickly.
    • Wrinkles Scarring Poor skin tone Age spots Psoriasis Stained figures
    •  Muscle weakness  Muscle tremors  Gradual loss of eye sight  Cataracts  Hair loss  Reduced athletic ability
    • Keeping fit is also a lot harder if you smoke. Those who smoke:  are more easily exhausted  suffer shortness of breath  have reduced endurance  are slower to react  have poorer visual judgment