Introspective techniques

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Introspective techniques

  1. 1. INTROSPECTIVE TECHNIQUES By Xuban Gallego and Amets Arrizabalaga
  2. 2. INTROSPECTION: Introspection is the process of observing and reflecting on one´s thoughts, feelings, motives, reasoning process and states determine our behaviour. Nunan (1992)
  3. 3. VERBAL REPORTS AND DIARY NOTES
  4. 4. VERBAL REPORTS Information currently available in short-term memory. There are kinds of verbal reports, differentiated by when the data is collected. •A think aloud •Retrospective report
  5. 5. HOW TO COLLECT DATA? • MAIN PROCEDURES TO CONDUCT VERBAL REPORTS • SOME PROCEDURES TO ORGANIZING AND INTERPRETING DATA
  6. 6. MAIN PROCEDURES TO CONDUCT VERBAL REPORTS - GIVE SIMPLE DIRECTIONS - BE AS UNOBTRUSIVE AS POSSIBLE - ASK IN PARTICULAR POINTS - RECORD THE SESSION:
  7. 7. ORGANIZING AND INTERPRETING DATA 1. First, transcribe your data. 2. Review existing studies on language learning 3. Divide your data of what respondents said into thought units 4. Sort each thought unit into one of the categories 5. Have a second reader also code the data 6. Look for patterns in your categorization
  8. 8. DIARY STUDIES
  9. 9. WHAT ARE DIARY STUDIES? 1. Bailey and ochsner (1983) 2. Bailey (1991)
  10. 10. WHY USE DIARY STUDIES APPLIED IN LINGUISTICS REASEARCH? 1.- Can provide information 2.- Allow researchers to see factors identified by teachers and learners 3.- Vehicle of data triangulation 4.- “Low-tech”, portable and trainable
  11. 11. COLLECTING DIARY STUDY DATA 1.- Affective and instructional factors that affect L2 learning and teaching 2.-personal language learning or teaching history, details, feelings... 3.-look for patterns and significant events. 4.-Final report
  12. 12. ORGANIZING AND INTERPRETING DATA 1.- The content or what is said 2.-The context or where it is set. 3.-The form or how it is said
  13. 13. ORGANIZING AND INTERPRETING DATA According to Pavlenko (2007) It is important in looking at narrative data to “consider not only what was said or written but also what was omitted and why” (p.274)
  14. 14. ORGANIZING AND INTERPRETING DATA The context of the diary entries, on a macro and micro level (Pavlenko, 2007).
  15. 15. ORGANIZING AND INTERPRETING DATA Form: structure, formal lexical items, target language, first language
  16. 16. PRESENTING THE FINDINGS Many learners and teachers do keep a diary, but they frequently feel that this data is not appropriate for a serious study.
  17. 17. BIBLIOGRAPHY -Sandra Lee McKay, Introspective Techniques -What is introspection? http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-introspection.htm -Diary study guide: http://www.webcredible.co.uk/user-friendly-resources/ webusability/diary-study-guide.shtml

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